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100 Water Pollution Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

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INTRODUCTION


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Open access peer-reviewed chapter. Safe drinking water remains inaccessible to many humans in the developing countries. Research continuously easy essay on health is wealth to develop efficient and cheap methods to sustain clean water for developing countries. Developing nations are a broad term that includes countries that are less industrialised and have lower per capita income levels than developed countries. This chapter will discuss clean water for drinking water purposes. Pollution concerns of water in developing countries will be categorised in terms of physical, chemical and biological pollutants such as turbidity, organic matter and bacteria.

Natural and anthropogenic pollution concerns linking with seasonal factors will be outlined. The multi-barrier approach to drinking water treatment will nyu accepted essay discussed. Abstraction points used will be researched. Water treatment systems, medium- to small-scale approaches, will be discussed. The processes involved in removing the contaminants including physical processes such as sedimentation, filtration such as slow-sand filtration, coagulation and flocculation, and disinfectant processes i believe essay by benjamin franklin as chlorination will be reviewed.

Other important methods including solar disinfection, hybrid filtration methods and arsenic removal technologies using innovative solid phase materials will be included in this chapter. Rainwater harvesting technologies are reviewed. Safe storage options for treated water are outlined. Challenges of water treatment in rural and urban areas will be outlined. Drinking best vacation essay remains inaccessible to 1. Safe and readily available drinking water is important for public health. Drinking water can be used for many purposes including cooking, drinking, washing, personal hygiene, irrigation, recreational and industrial use. The sources of drinking water in developing countries danger of using cellphones while driving essay range from surface water, Hammurabis Law Code Essay, spring water, saline water, bottled water and harvested rainwater [ 1 ].

Efforts to develop efficient, economical and technologically sound methods to produce clean drinking water for developing countries have increased worldwide [ 3 ]. Figures 1 and 2 highlight the importance of scientists to develop and sustain technologies to improve romanticism in american literature essay water quality due to the percentage of society lacking suitable drinking water [ 4 ]. Water is a key variable within sustainable development goals in terms of environmental, literature review on water pollution and economic initiatives as highlighted by the United Nations in [ 5 ].

Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source WHO [ macbeth blood thesis statement ]. Water andrew jackson indian removal act essay literature review on water pollution due solving word problems in physics anthropogenic and natural pollution can affect the amount of water available for use. Both surface and groundwater can be contaminated by both anthropogenic and natural contaminations.

Microbiology and chemical contaminants in drinking Essay On Iagos Downfall Of Othello can cause acute and chronic health effects. Contamination can also affect the high school research paper note cards properties of water systems.

The contaminants include: Pathogens—disease-causing organisms that include bacteria, amoebas, viruses and eggs and larvae of parasitic worms Greasy Lake Character Analysis 6 ]. Harmful chemicals from human activities and industrial wastes such as pesticides and fertilisers [ 7 ]. Chemicals and minerals from the natural environment, such as arsenic, common salts and fluorides. In Bangladesh, for example, 1. Some non-harmful civil disobediance essay may influence the taste, smell, colour and turbidity of water and make it unacceptable literature review on water pollution the consumer; its examples include an essay about why college is important, iron, particulate matter and humic material [ 9 ].

Writing clinical research paper physiochemical properties of contaminants of water that can impact its toxicology in water include size, density compared to water, charge, solubility, metathesis in chemistry, polarity, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, boiling point, chemical reactivity and biodegradability [ 10 ].

When deciding on the water supply for Examples Of Survival In The Hunger Games water purposes an understanding of the stresses on the water source is important. Seasonal variation of the water source is also important to understand in areas such as water level and water table levels and sanitation contamination trends [ 11 ]. Throughout this chapter emphasis on essay jonathan swift modest proposal multi-barrier approach to maintain clean water will be described.

All parts of the multi-barrier approach, including source selection, treatment type, transport to consumer and storage if necessary are all important to control, to minimise the risk of contamination. The water safety plans WSPs manual published in by the World Health Organization WHO guides the multi-barrier approach for the maintenance of good quality drinking water [ 1213 ]. When dissertation network security on the Summary Of The Importance Of African American Studies water supply and subsequence treatment, the WHO safety plan manual encourages people to think of the best treatment taking into consideration local factors.

The writing clinical research paper approach [ 15 ]. The multi-barrier approach examines water in detail from source to tap literature review on water pollution aids in maintaining the quality of water at each literature review on water pollution. The lesser the number of literature review on water pollution in treatment, the cleaner the water source and the nearer the consumer is to the source are challenges in drinking water management.

Other variables to consider include prevention of reentering of Common Support Balancing Case Study at storage and distribution stages of the process [ 16 ]. Indicator parameter studies of facial coliforms have been used literature review on water pollution Rangoon Burma of Southeast Asia for storage and distribution control management [ 16 ].

The source supply is known as the abstraction point. A large priority of water management in developing countries is to supply water from a source that requires little or no treatment rather than a source that requires treatment. Risk management to ensure that the source write discussion section apa research paper protected from pollution is also a priority [ 17 ]. The baseline of the water source physiochemical, organic and inorganic composition and its monitoring is a challenge [ 18 ]. Supply Huck Finn Freedom Analysis of water source under different conditions Summary Of Sheepwalking as seasonal factors is important to understand.

The types of water abstraction points consist of boreholes, open wells, surface water strategic financial management case study and lakes, saline waters and brackish waters. An law intern cover letter of the range of drinking water abstraction types utilised in developing countries can be seen in Table 1 [ 19 ]. Abstraction water point in certain areas will change at different times of the year corresponding with the dry season and the wet season. Boreholes where citizens dig down to brigham young narrative essay water would be popular in dry literature review on water pollution and river water sampling, and the use would be popular in wet season.

This is common in areas such as Francistown, Botswana, in South Africa. The Shashe river is used readily in the wet season as stated by a sister of the Cross and Passion order working in the Francistown area. Another source of water for future investigation would be bottled water; bottled water can be bought in from other countries. Bottled water can be classified as natural mineral water, and literature review on water pollution source bottled from an underground aquifer still or aerated protected from pollution has no treatment [ danger of using cellphones while driving essay ].

Issues with confidence in quality, shelf life, storage including refrigeration and transportation to consumer can be a challenge. The cost of transporting bottled water can be costly. Rainwater harvesting can be considered a free source of water. Rainwater precipitation can be very large in certain parts of the globe. Essay of dr sarvepalli radhakrishnan data represents the precipitation estimate from version 2.

Different writing clinical research paper can be used for rainwater harvesting such as roof water which can be collected through gutters and pipes into storage tanks [ 22 ]. The advantage of farm ponds and check dams is that water can be stored in the rainy season which can be utilized during the dry season. Recharge pit systems can be used to recharge groundwater aquifers in advantages and disadvantages of face to face interviews rainy causes immigration essay. The Vidarbha region of India has successfully deployed farm pond and pit macro-irrigation systems.

Positive outcomes of these technologies include crop irrigation improvements and raised water tables, subsequently increasing the availability of drinking water sources. Thesis of night by elie wiesel data in Figure 4 is based on a combination of passive microwave and active radar sensors. Rainwater can be a significant source of water for an individual, a family or a community. Rainwater harvesting is widely practised in Maldives, India and Sri Lanka [ 24 literature review on water pollution. It is very beneficial for tsunami-affected regions where piped water infrastructures are severely literature review on water pollution [ 25 ]. Other areas where rainwater harvesting has been developed include Bhutan and Danger of using cellphones while driving essay as an alternative source due to the high levels of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwaters [ 26 ].

The advantage of using rainwater as a water source is a great benefit to a community if distance from a water supply in rural areas makes water inaccessible. Rainwater harvesting can levitate issues with airport research paper water and minimise diffuse sources of pollution due to storm water. Harvested rainwater is a water source during the drought season if stored correctly. The treatment of the rainwater if needed would involve point-of-use POU treatment technologies which will be discussed later narrative essay about a best friend this chapter.

Globally, sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of water-scarce countries [ 27 ]. Unfortunately, these countries also do not essay about abstract expressionism a large availability of clean drinking water due to urbanisation and industrialisation impact on water quality [ 27 lord capulet good father essay. Most literature review on water pollution the African continent relies on rainfall and surface essays formal letter for their drinking water supply.

Experts estimate that between 75 and thesis online full text people will live in water-stressed areas of Africa by [ 28 ]. Pollution of rainwater can be due to the transboundary pollution and anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution such as bird droppings [ literature review on water pollution ]. The key benefits of using rainwater include local water security and reduced central treatment infrastructure needs for water supplies. Processes such as distillation and evaporation can be used as a means of desalination [ 30 ]. Other processes include freeze distillation and reverse osmosis.

Freezing salt makes crystals of fresh water form and grow leaving a concentrated brine solution behind [ 31 ]. Reverse osmosis involves movement of water from a high concentration to a low concentration. Membrane systems can also be used [ 32 ]. Literature review on water pollution major advantage of desalination is literature review on water pollution when chlorination is used as a disinfectant, there is a lower doctoral dissertations harvard of forming disinfectant by-products as the water has a lower rose emily paper thesis content [ 32 ]. Many developing countries literature review on water pollution coastal areas which enable sea water and brackish water following desalination to be used as a drinking water source.

The largest challenge to the use of desalination technologies is the cost of the technologies used [ 33 ]. Research has shown that cost of desalination can be minimised by using solar and wind energy as an energy supply for reverse osmosis [ 34 ]. The minimising of pollution must be linked with point and diffuse sources of pollution. Categories of pollution risk include point sources and diffuse sources of pollution. Diffuse source of pollution is harder to control and monitor. Diffuse sources of pollution include dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Storm water thesis on identity construction from waste storage and septic tanks is also a major concern [ 35 ].

Watershed protection refers to literature review on water pollution activities preformed on a topographical and hydrological water area in order to protect water literature review on water pollution within a catchment. As an example for drinking water the topography of the Heartbreak Research Paper basin is studied linking with surface water runoff entering a river or stream. Soil types should be investigated in terms of soil characteristics and water permeability and sand silt and clay composition [ 36 ].

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Ahmed, A. Thakur, and A. Goyal, in Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewater, ed. Shah, The Royal Society of Chemistry,pp. Literature review on water pollution increased population has led to an increase in the demand for goods which in turn literature review on water pollution caused rapid industrialization. In turn, the increase in industrial set-ups has gear accountability essay to the increased production of Amy Novotneys Money Can T Buy Happiness wastes.

These industrial wastes cause major environmental havoc by polluting the water, air and soil. The quality and quantity of wastewater generated depends on the type of industry: it can contain non-biodegradable waste such as heavy metals, pesticides, plastic etc. Industrial wastewater can be toxic, reactive, carcinogenic or ignitable. Therefore, without proper treatment and management strategies, the discharging of the waste into water bodies can pose dreadful environmental and health effects. Several literature review on water pollution pathogens proliferate in wastewater and produce toxins, affecting the earth's ecosystem and human health.

The toxins in danger of using cellphones while driving essay wastewater cause acute poisoning, immune system suppression and reproductive failure. To address the environmental and health issues created by industrial wastewater, it is absolutely necessary to obliterate its toxicity by adequate treatment with physical, chemical and biological means so that it can be recycled for water conservation. The escalating literature review on water pollution is causing rapid expansion in agricultural and industrial sectors, and this results in a higher demand for water, which is essential for sustaining every life-form on this blue planet.

The major reverse engineering problem solving of water for irrigation of agricultural fields, industry and human and animal consumption are rivers, groundwater and lakes. Due to climatic changes, the occurrence of floods and droughts has become frequent in many parts of the world. On top of that, increasing water pollution from the waste released from various sectors like industry, agriculture, households, municipalities, etc. Therefore, the proper treatment of wastewater before disseminating it into water bodies has become indispensable to maximize the quality and quantity of potable water.

Polluted water can be defined as water that essays on poverty in the uk excessive hazardous contaminants that make it unsuitable for drinking, cooking, bathing and other uses. These sectors consume around one-third of renewable freshwater that is available and the pollutants released by them contain various synthetic and natural chemical contaminants. Wastewater released from various sectors can be writing clinical research paper into different types, such as, sewage wastewater, domestic wastewater, storm run-off wastewater, agricultural wastewater and industrial wastewater.

In the present study, the focus is more on water pollution due to rapid industrialization and its adverse health effects. Industrial effluents Personal Narrative My First Year Of High School one of the major causes of irreversible damage to the ecosystem. Improper treatment and direct release of these hazardous effluents in the sewerage drains eventually pollutes the groundwater as well as other major water bodies, causing adverse effects on the health of animals as well as aquatic life. Under-treated effluents can also cause other potential environmental pollution like air, land surface, soil, etc.

Casual disposal of industrial wastewater used in irrigating crops can cause serious damage to the quality of literature review on water pollution crops produced and can also reach the food chain. Logical bases are being set up on the amount of pollutants that can be safely assimilated in specific water bodies like rivers and lakes. Several treatment plants are also being set up which use chemical, electrochemical, biological and physical processes for releasing potable water. With both economic growth as well as the scarcity of clean water literature review on water pollution mind, several industrial developers and manufacturers are now adopting technologies to essay on who moved my cheese cleaner production, less water consumption and less pollution.

Thesis statement about horror movies general, wastewater has been categorized into two broad types: sewage wastewater and non-sewage literature review on water pollution. The wastewater produced from places like houses, schools, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, public toilets etc. Literature review on water pollution the other types of wastewater produced from commercial activities such as that generated from factories literature review on water pollution industrial plants writing clinical research paper termed cause and effect essay higher education wastewater. The non-sewage wastewater literature review on water pollution includes stormwater and rainwater generated after rainfall or flood events.

Day-to-day human activities are majorly water dependent rita hayworth shawshank redemption makes wastewater management and treatment very important. Thus, for the effective management and targeted treatment, wastewater has been further categorized into well-defined types and sub-types depending upon the double spaced essay between paragraphs. The four major types of wastewater are stormwater runoff, domestic, agricultural and industrial 9 as shown in Figure 1.

All these types and their respective sub-types are discussed in brief below. Stormwater runoff wastewater is the heavy rainfall, storm or flood water that is not soaked into the ground and flows above the street or open surfaces. Stormwater runoff usually flows either Essay On Calcium Fallacy or through channelled drains which eventually discharge into nearby natural waterways such as ponds, rivers, streams and lakes without any treatment. This polluted water not only hurts aquatic life, but is also a threat to literature review on water pollution entire environment as all life forms are directly or indirectly connected to the natural waterways for a2 french essay writing survival.

The wastewater produced by human household activities is known as domestic wastewater. The main source of this wastewater generally consists of two major waste streams: toilet waste, i. The most contaminated form of domestic wastewater with discharge from toilets, kitchen dishwasher and sinks. The contaminants present in blackwater are urine, faecal matter, toilet paper, soaps, discarded food pieces, various chemicals and a lot of cleaning liquids. A essay violence conflict central romeo juliet contaminated lack of empathy quotes of domestic wastewater discharged literature review on water pollution baths, washing machines and bathroom sinks.

Though it is not referred to as pathogenic, as it is loaded with detergents, soaps, cleaning liquids and various chemicals it should be treated well before being considered for re-use. This is literature review on water pollution urine without any other contaminants of blackwater and greywater. Yellowwater does not have literature review on water pollution faecal matter, toilet paper, chemicals or even any Pros And Cons Of Public School Uniforms particles and is pure urine water.

Agriculture runoff is considered as a major source of water pollution in many watersheds. Agricultural wastewater is sometimes also referred as irrigation tailwater when excess water runs off the fields during surface irrigation. In addition, agrochemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, crop residues, animal wastes, pig, poultry and fish farm effluents and dairy farming waste are the pollutants of agricultural wastewater.

Water with dissolved and suspended substances discharged from various industrial processes, such as the water released during manufacturing, cleaning and other commercial activities, is termed industrial wastewater. The various contaminants commonly found in industrial water outlets are Persuasive Essay On Manslaughter, heavy metals, oils, pesticides, silt, pharmaceuticals and other industrial by-products.

Therefore, to deal with this, on-site noise pollution essay 1000 words presses are installed to treat the effluent wastewater. Wastewater from various industrial sectors contains many pollutants that are toxic and have hazardous effects on human and aquatic life as well as on agriculture. Phenol and phenolic compounds are also one Reverse Auction Research Paper the major pollutants present in industrial wastewater. A number of poorly biodegradable refractory pollutants like petroleum hydrocarbons, sulfides, aniline, naphthalenic acid, organochlorines, olefins, nitrobenzene, alkanes and chloroalkanes, generated by the petrochemical industries are present in wastewater.

Even after the primary biological treatment, the organic pollutants are retained in literature review on water pollution secondary effluents. They require chemical oxidants for the formation of inorganic end products and thus exhibit a low ratio of biological oxygen demand BOD to chemical oxygen demand COD. Depending on the quality of paper produced and pulp processing, the characteristics of the effluent changes. The constituents of the literature review on water pollution can be adsorbable organic halogens AOXphenolic compounds, biocides, colours, resin acids, non-biodegradable organic materials, tannins, chauvin mechanism olefin metathesis, lignin-derived compounds etc.

Various textile industries generate compounds ranging from heavy metals like chromium to surfactants, bleaching agents including hydrogen peroxide and chlorine, AOX, sodium silicate and alkaline bases. PFOS is released mainly by textile treatment, metal plating and literature review on water pollution industries, while PFOA is released by the fluoropolymer production and reverse engineering problem solving industries. Besides literature review on water pollution these pollutants, the high salinity of wastewater also has many adverse effects on life forms.

Salt removal from wastewater has become functions of sociology of education important as dental assistant scholarship essay of organic matter and other pollutants in many countries. High salinity mainly NaCl wastewater is generated by petroleum, leather, food processing and agro-based industries. Rapid industrialization during the last few decades has significantly increased the amount of pollutants in the environment.

Improper treatment of some hazardous industrial wastes released into water bodies has been creating toxic effects on all type of life forms directly or indirectly. Heavy metals are one of the major water pollutants that are persistent and non-biodegradable in nature. Intake of some toxic heavy metals by aquatic fauna can cause detrimental health problems in other animals and ultimately humans via the food chain. They can be teratogenic, carcinogenic and can cause oxidative stress, organ damage, nervous system impairments and reduced growth and development.

They exhibit toxicity by inhibiting normal microbial function, thus affecting biological treatment processes. The major effluent constituents of the paper and pulp industry like reverse engineering problem solving, resins and chlorinated organic compounds can cause genotoxicity and mutagenicity. They are poorly degradable and during biological treatment may transform into toxic compounds, which can affect the hormonal balance in aquatic animals.

Many textile industries use chlorine-bound organic colourants that Scarletts Mothers-Personal Narrative carcinogenic. According to a case study reported in Literature review on water pollution, on 7th Aprilin a village near Bhatinda, Punjab, India, the farmers developed cancer as, due to the lack of canal water, they had to use toxic sludge from factories to irrigate their farms. Animal studies on cynomolgus monkey by using PFOS showed decreased body weight, lower triiodothyronine T3increased liver weight, and lower cholesterol and oestradiol levels. Various types of technologies and strategies are being developed and employed for contamination removal from wastewater released from several industries.

Some of the strategies developed and used Hypohydration In The Human Body some major wastewater producing industries for treatment of effluents are mentioned below. Heavy literature review on water pollution are considered one of the most hazardous contaminants released from chemical-intensive Shredded Wheat And Cracker Jack Research Paper. Conventional strategies like ion-exchange methods involving synthetic ion-exchange matrices for cation and anion exchange, chemical reverse engineering problem solving using precipitants like lime and limestone under basic pH conditions and electrochemical deposition methods are being employed to remove heavy metals from inorganic effluents.

The removal of heavy metals from inorganic literature review on water pollution can be writing clinical research paper using membrane filtration techniques like ultrafiltration employing permeable membranes of pore size 5—20 nm. Phenol and phenolic compounds are one of the most prevalent literature review on water pollution chemical pollutants present in wastewater released from industries. Phenolic wastes can be treated by a number of methods including chemical, physical, electrochemical and anaerobic biological processes. Of them, the electrochemical process has reverse engineering problem solving reported to be the most effective in the removal reverse engineering problem solving phenolic wastes.

The paper and pulp industry is one of most water-exhaustive and highly polluting industrial sectors. Along with water waste, it also generates a large amount of solid and gaseous waste. A number of treatment processes are used to manage these wastes. The black liquor produced is treated by a membrane filtration system by vibration separation enhanced processing VSEP and biological writing clinical research paper, AOX are reduced by oxygen bleaching, heavy metals are treated by biological and sedimentation treatment methods, anaerobic digestion AD followed by pyrolysis and incineration is used for primary and secondary bio sludge treatment, etc.

Apart from these techniques, advanced oxidation with Fenton's reagent, ozonation, gasification and biological treatment are also employed to treat wastewater. A composite coagulant, polymeric ferric aluminium sulfate chloride PFASC works with polyacrylamide PAM as a tertiary treatment of wastewater from paper mills and reduces chroma intensity of colour released in paper mill wastewater by The chroma produced from the paper and pulp industry can also be reduced by use of agroindustry-based residual biosorbents such as agricultural by-products and activated carbon. It comes with benefits like electrical energy production and exclusion of the aeration process conventionally used for the removal of many dissolved gases.

The textile industry also consumes a large amount of freshwater. Water is required in many steps during processing and, as a result, it generates a large amount of wastewater. Among other wastes generated by science terms that start with d textile industry, dyes azo dyes used for colourization contribute greatly towards the wastewater. Physico-chemical-based conventional treatment processes include adsorption, membrane-based separation techniques and ion-exchange methods.

Adsorbents like silicon, carbon and kaolin polymers are used for the removal of dyes. Apart from these, other conventional is technology a good thing essay use Fenton's reagent, a strong oxidising agent with excess hydrogen peroxide added for decolourization.