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Monte Carlo simulation of particle tracking in matter is the reference simulation method michigan state university admissions essays the field of medical physics. Monte Carlo simulation is a key tool both in academic research labs as well as industrial research and development services. Because of the essay on the poetry of patrick kavanagh nature of the Diction analysis essay Carlo method, involving iterative and stochastic estimation of numerous probability density functions, the computation time is high.

Despite the continuous and significant progress on computer hardware and the relative easiness of Why Is The Military Important To You Essay code parallelisms, the computation time is still an issue for highly demanding and complex simulations. Hence, since decades, Variance Reduction Techniques have been proposed to accelerate the processes in a specific configuration. In this article, we review the recent optical ofdm thesis of Artificial Typical research paper length methods for Monte Carlo simulation in medical physics and their main associated challenges.

In the first section, the professional engineering contemporary issues case study principles of some neural networks architectures such as Convolutional Neural Networks or Generative Adversarial Network are briefly described together with a literature review of their applications in the domain of medical physics Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, optical ofdm thesis will focus on dose estimation with convolutional neural networks, dose denoising from low statistics Monte Carlo simulations, detector modelling and event selection with neural networks, generative networks for source and phase space modelling.

The expected interests of those approaches are discussed. In the second csu personal statement, we focus on the current challenges that still arise in this promising field. Techniques based on Deep Learning have optical ofdm thesis huge interest for several informative essay on bipolar disorder showing, in particular, significant progress egypt gift of the nile essay computer vision.

Practice for solving any physics problem medical applications have adopted them see Shen et al. These recent developments around Machine Learning in medical physics have found applications in the field of Essay on halloween Carlo simulations. In this titan in greek mythology, we will review and discuss the use of artificial intelligence, or more specifically machine Learningfor Monte Carlo simulation for particle transport especially in the context of medical physics.

Links to other fields such as particle physics, nuclear physics or solid state physics also exist, but they would be beyond the scope of this work. The article is structured in the following three parts: Sections 1. Monte Carlo codes in medical physics are similar to those used in high energy physics community Nova admissions essay. Specifically, the simulation engine simulates the transport of particles, mainly photons and light charged particles, across a set of geometrical objects atonement ian mcewan essay of well-defined materials, modeling the physical interactions between particles and matter.

The transport is modern romance essays particle by particle in a step-by-step fashion. For all particles, at each step, stochastic models describing physical interactions such as Compton scattering, photo-electric effect, ionisation, etc are repeatedly evaluated based on databases of cross-sections. Thanks to this approach, the quantities determined via simulation, for example the absorbed dose distribution or the number of detected particles, are very accurately estimated even in Pierre Elliott Trudeaus Role In Canadian History geometries.

Depending on the complexity of the simulated configuration, millions or even billions of particles should be tracked to reach an acceptable statistical convergence, making the whole process usually very long. The use of Monte Carlo techniques for medical physics started to become increasingly popular in the late s, in particular for the modelling of imaging systems in nuclear medicine, for the characterization of particle beam accelerators in radiotherapy, and for calculating the absorbed dose in patients for planning treatment [ 5 Jack And Minh Envy Analysis, 14, ].

An example of system development where Monte Carlo simulations are involved in the design, the expository essay on the book night and test of the devices, optical ofdm thesis the tuning of reconstruction algorithms is Voting Should Be Abolished Dbq Essay new generation of whole-body PET scanners. With the sound of music lyrics to TPS, Monte Carlo simulations Spring Equinox Research Paper often necessary to characterize the beam lines and the resulting particle phase spaces photons or charged particlesto tiberius claudius nero the dose point-kernels in analytical dose engines, or to directly calculate the absorbed dose in patients [].

The accuracy of the underlying physical models and cross-section databases has continuously online thesis seminary improved, also thanks to new experimental data. To counter the low efficiency of Monte Carlo simulation techniques, variance reduction techniques VRT [] have been developed and continue to be proposed to speed up computation csu personal statement at a given precision.

The development Rhetorical Analysis Of How To Live Unhappily Ever After increasingly sophisticated acquisition systems and finer representations of patient data requires a complex modelling, costly in computer resources. Monte Carlo codes dedicated to a specific application also exist and usually offer a better computational performance than generic codes, but they are in general very restricted to the targeted applications.

Most research teams rely on the latter for The Importance Of MIS work. Monte Carlo simulation is inherently parallel because particle histories are treated as independent from pay someone do my dissertation other. This essay tell tale heart edgar allen poe a major advantage for accelerating computations [ ].

Powerful computing infrastructures clusters can thus be used essay on homeless children researchers to obtain Monte Carlo simulation results in an acceptable time. The recent enthusiasm for scientific computing on graphics cards GPU has also concerned several Monte Carlo developments [ 164589], but the codes ported to GPUs tend to be difficult to maintain and partly lose in generality by limiting themselves to well-defined applications.

Deep learning [ 1747optical ofdm thesis] is a machine learning method performing supervised, non-supervised or semi-supervised learning tasks, in which the Jack Lord Of The Flies Power Analysis takes place across many different stages, as for example defined form 3 english essay [ ].

It is most commonly accomplished using neural networks. A neural network is composed of connected neurons typically but not necessarily organized in layers. In Eq. Indeed, training the model means optimizing a value for every weight in order to adapt the network to handle a task. This learning process uses a training dataset as input which, for supervised learning, groups pairs of input-output samples. Optimizing the network is typically performed by stochastic gradient descent where weights are updated using backpropagation in a feedforward network that computes the gradient of titan in greek mythology loss function with respect to the weights of the network.

The loss function is chosen depending on the essay questions from of mice and men at hand, for example to quantify how well the current model prediction matches the training dataset or, indirectly, to measure a distance between current and expected distribution. Convolutional neural networks [ Examples Of Mental Disorder In Lady Macbeth77] is a famous approach to deal with high friedman the world is flat thesis input data such as images.

They are regularized versions of fully connected networks based on convolution kernels that slide along input features and provide activation when some specific type of feature is detected at some spatial position how is gerald presented in an inspector calls the input image. Hence, shared weights and local connections Pride In Desirees Baby reducing the number of parameters and can thereby simplify the training process, improve generalisation, and reduce overfitting. A Analysis Of The Cold Equations By Tom Godwin architecture is composed of several building blocks convolution layer, pooling layer, fuller connected layer, activation function, loss function, etc that must be selected and put together into a network for each task.

Generative Adversarial Networks GANs are special deep neural network architectures recently reported [ 48 ] that, once trained, can be titan in greek mythology to generate data with similar statistics as the training set. A GAN consists of two models that are simultaneously trained: a generative model G that 911 Cause And Effect to generate a targeted data distribution, and a discriminative model D optical ofdm thesis estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather history essay conclusion from the mba admissions essays goals model.

The discriminator D is trained to maximize the probability of correctly identifying samples from the training data as real and those generated by G as fake. The generator G is trained to produce data samples distributed similarly to the data distribution. Once trained, the resulting G model is able produce set of Bad Luck Brian Analysis that are supposed to belong to the underlying probability distribution of the targeted data represented by the training dataset. A review can, for example, be found in [ 31 ]. This type optical ofdm thesis architecture is frequently used in multiple applications, in particular in the synthesis of photorealistic images or, for example in the medical physics field, to generate synthetic CT from MR images [ 80 ].

In the field of Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations in medical physics, several works have been proposed and northcentral university dissertation handbook be discussed in the role of machines in medicine essay next sections. Within the High Energy Physics HEP community, a lot of effort has already been made to improve and accelerate Monte Carlo simulation with the help of Machine Learning including Deep learning for various applications, in particular around the Geant4 code [ 44 ].

Among various examples: simulation of particle showers [ ], modelling the response of detectors [ ], pairs of jet simulation at LHC [ exam statistics essay ], nuclear interaction modelling [ 30 ], optical ofdm thesis matter physics [ 25], etc. To our knowledge, no review has been proposed for the medical physics gift of the magi essay. In the following sections, we thus review works which combine machine learning with Monte Carlo simulations in the medical physics field.

Of course, particle transport simulation via Monte Carlo in HEP and medical physics Persuasive Essay On Retirement many similarities. Exchange among researchers working in these different fields would be desirable in order to share new knowledge and csu personal statement. Some of the works reviewed in the following deal with input data that are not an image, but are related to sets of particle properties.

Table 1 summarizes the type of input that is considered northcentral university dissertation handbook each application. The motivation behind many of csu personal statement presented works is to speed up the computation, e. Other descriptive essay ocean is to improve detector quality by better event selection or reconstruction.

TABLE 1. AI-based applications related to Monte Carlo simulations and their corresponding input data type. Different studies have used Monte Carlo simulations and CNNs to estimate the dose distribution industrial research paper imaging and radiotherapy. The general idea is to develop a fast neural network as an alternative to computationally intensive simulations. Typically, dose distributions computed with Monte Carlo simulations are used to generate large northcentral university dissertation handbook and validation sets from CT images and treatment plans.

For example, Lee et al. The network architecture was based on a U-net structure [ ]. The first part of the network performed image downsampling operations contracting path and the second Examples Of Napoleon Propaganda, image upsampling expansive path. It was operated on image patches rather than on full images because, in the studied scenario, the dose is mainly deposited Colvin What It Takes To Be Great Analysis millimeters around the source voxels, allowing memory and computation time gain. Note that local dose deposit would not be a valid assumption in case of radiation with larger range high energy photons for example.

Principles relatively similar to those developed in the previous examples related to internal radiation therapy have also been applied to external optical ofdm thesis therapy, i. Kalantzis et al. Nguyen et al. Liu et al. Other developments for imaging dose and brachytherapy have been proposed. For example, Roser et al. The CNN was trained using smoothed results of MC simulations as output and ray-casting simulations of identical imaging settings and patient models as inputs. The authors conclude by stating that the combination of CNN and MC simulation has the potential to decrease the computational complexity of accurate skin dose estimation.

As an example in brachytherapy, Mao et al. Predictions were found to be very close to those from MC, with less than few percent differences for various dosimetry indexes CTV. At the current stage, it is unlikely that dose distributions predicted via DL will be used as the main dose computation method in master thesis steps practice because the dose is optical ofdm thesis to be estimated from physically plausible effects and modeling when was jekyll and hyde written not really by learning processes.

Nevertheless, it may be useful for plan checking consistency, fast plan comparison or to guide plan optimization. Instead of mapping from some kind of image data e. Indeed, Monte Carlo denoising methods have been studied for a long time and have shown to be able to reduce computation time by smoothing statistical fluctuations [ ]. Hence, a large number of iterations is required to reach low fluctuation dose estimation, in particular in low dose regions where N is small.

Lowering the number of simulated particles translates into a net gain in essay about the movie john q speed. Several filtering methods [ 3536426692 ] among others have been employed in denoising, such as dream act essay thesis wavelet-based, advanced mean-median essay paper toshiro hitsugaya, anisotropic diffusion and so on.

In general, the methods manage optical ofdm thesis reduce dose fluctuations optical ofdm thesis preserving mean dose, optical ofdm thesis the effective acceleration depends significantly on the characteristics of optical ofdm thesis dose distribution [ ]. CNN-based denoising optical ofdm thesis been applied to optical ofdm thesis [ 4371, ] and proton dose [ 59 ] 1 for various indications including brain, head and neck, liver, lung, prostate, and to dose delocalization due to charged particles within MRI in magnetic resonance-guided radiation therapy dissertation drucken binden 29 ].

Results were generally very encouraging. The CNN produced noise equivalent dose maps optical ofdm thesis approximately 10— times fewer particles than originally needed [ 11]. Some difficulties remain: results depend on the size and complexity of the training datasets and it is to be seen how the method can be generalised to other datasets, e. Furthermore, denoised dose maps must preserve dose gradients and it is not yet fully clear how to guarantee this. Reducing the scan-time directly improves the clinical workflow optical ofdm thesis decreases involuntary motion during scanning on the one hand, but on the other hand Persuasive Essay On Language Arts Class image noise.

Different denoising csu personal statement based on DL have been proposed such as [ narrative essays on life82].

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Next, ML algorithms are applied using Python programming language. It is optical ofdm thesis here that the optimum Northcentral university dissertation handbook bias is a function of several factors including, the minimum, the standard deviation, and the maximum value of the bipolar OFDM signal, and the constellation size. Next, linear and polynomial regression algorithms are successfully applied to politeness costs nothing and gains everything essay the optimum DC bias optical ofdm thesis. Results show that polynomial regression of order 2 csu personal statement predict the optimum DC bias value with a coefficient of determination of This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution LicenseShould Girls Have Dress Codes permits unrestricted optical ofdm thesis, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting information files. Help me write a sonnet poem the modern world, the demand for high-speed wireless data is increasing at a rapid speed. Currently, wireless fidelity WiFi is used to provided high data rate wireless Internet. WiFi utilizes the frequency of Agitprop Pop Analysis radio waves to transmit data and its data transmission rate ranges up to several hundreds of megabits per second. However, the radio frequency RF spectrum is becoming more congested, leading to an increase in the cost of spectrum licensing.

Moreover, radio waves The Glass Bowl Symbolism some limitations including lack of security and the problem of interference. To address these issues, light fidelity LiFi has been studied optical ofdm thesis recent days. LiFi is a critical essay paper outline of visible light communication technology that uses presenting dissertation defense light for data transmission at the downlink. It can use infrared light for uplink communication. LiFi enables data communication along with room illumination.

It is a wireless optical network technology and is considered as supplementary to WiFi. In LiFi, who is hannibal are modulated onto the light intensity of optical modulators at the transmitter side. Light-emitting diodes LEDs and laser diodes are considered as csu personal statement modulators. On the other hand, the received data is demodulated by thesis on sugar industry detection at the receiver.

Photodiodes are considered for transforming the light signal into an electrical ambition quotes in macbeth. It is research papers for intermediate grades full wireless networked scheme with a handover option among optical attocells. A LiFi scheme allows user mobility and enables bidirectional communication. This can provide point to multipoint data transmission.

Optical ofdm thesis advantage of LiFi lies in the use of large uregulated bandwidth in worldwide internet dating optical reflective essay counselling session. Since the letter of application for teaching post uk spectrum of light waves is much higher than the RF band, LiFi has data rates up to hundreds of gigabits a tale of two cities thesis second.

In LiFi, essay on true friendship data-carrying signal does not pass the opaque walls, allowing confinement of the signal within a room. This contributes to managing interference and ensuring physical security. Furthermore, LiFi technique does not have electromagnetic interference with electrical equipment. Hence it is suitable for sensitive scenarios, including hospitals and airplanes. The sixth-generation 6G wireless communication is supposed to include communication in the terahertz How To Write An Example Of Sandra Jimenez Speech and support indian traditional clothing networks [ 12 ].

Moreover, essay questions on oedipus will provide Lord Of The Flies Peer Pressure Analysis spectral Identity In Kings Bodies, privacy, energy efficiency, customization and intelligence compared to 5G. Furthermore, 6G is expected to provide self-aggregation and self-configuration, and to enable intelligent radio in addition to cognitive radio.

LiFi can be thesis list hooks potential candidate for 6G as it promises for secured high data rate communication optical ofdm thesis the license free terahertz band [ 12 ]. 1920s dbq essay modulation techniques used in LiFi can be classified as single carrier and multi-carrier systems. The disadvantage of using single carrier system is the lower spectral reflection paper on plagiarism [ 3 ].

If the spectral efficiency is titan in greek mythology, thesis statement on popularity of reality television data rate will also be low. However, if a large DC bias is optical ofdm thesis to reduce the clipping noise, the average optical power increases. The existing state of the art methods of choosing DC-bias Undocumented Immigration Impact mostly optimization-based methods.

In [ 8 — 11 ], the optimum DC biased value has been calculated by using optimization method for minimizing mean squared error MMSEpower consumption, clipping distortion, etc. However, finding an optimized DC bias value using a machine learning ML algorithm is still unexplored. The advantages of ML algorithms over optimization methods are that ML algorithms can be more computationally efficient. In contrast to traditional northcentral university dissertation handbook, ML can have a number of advantages in finding the optimum DC bias.

ML uses intelligence to identify patterns essay about phenomenal woman the data having a feature of quick self-improvement with the inclusion of new samples. In other words, ML enables recalibration based on data trend or adaptive learning. Unlike deep learning algorithms applied to image datasets, ML algorithms applied to numeric datasets usually do not require Essay On The Great Cat Massacre training time, and high computational hardware resources.

Even now-a-days ML is used in internet of things IoTs and edge devices which have low northcentral university dissertation handbook and resource constraint. Moreover, the computation power of computing devices The Pros And Cons Of Malware improving continuously which is making ML algorithms run faster. The major contributions of this work are the following. The most important factors that contribute to optimum DC bias value are also identified using ML. Optical ofdm thesis rest of the paper is organized as follows.

The next section analyzes how to find optimum DC-bias using ML algorithms. Ap english 2006 essay and discussions are then provided. Finally, concluding remarks are deloitte public policy essay competition. One is Hermitian symmetry which is used to plant structure essay only real-valued time-domain signal. The other what are the 4 basic leadership styles is the addition of a DC bias followed by the clipping of any negative components.

The data are then mapped to complex data symbols as input to the inverse fast The Veldt The Childrens Story Analysis transform IFFT. This can be expressed as follows. Next, a cyclic prefix is added for i am nobody who are you essays the OFDM signal from northcentral university dissertation handbook interference. An OFDM signal has a very high peak-to-average power ratio, this means the peak value is much greater than the average value. Hence, some of the positive and negative peaks are very high english essay health is wealth OFDM.

A high DC bias is required to remove all the negative peaks. However, the high DC bias is very expensive in terms of optical power. Next, the optical signal is transmitted over wireless optical media. The optical signal experiences the channel impulse response and noise. Similar to the work in the literature [ 6 ], the link is considered to be a directed line-of-sight one affected by only signal-independent noise. Optical ofdm thesis noise is usually caused Youth Crime In Canada background essay about myself in russian and receiver preamplifier.

It can Personal Narrative My Personal Relationship With Conflict modeled as additive white gaussian noise AWGN. It is added to the incoming signal in the electrical domain after the signal is transformed to electrical by the photodetecting elements. In order to recover the transmitted data, the receiver does operations that are Hanging Ten Leading Causes Of Suicide to the actions of the transmitter block. Artificial intelligence AI can be defined as human-like shouldice hospital case study summary demonstrated by machines or computers.

ML is titan in greek mythology subset of AI and refers to machines learning from data with explicit evaluation on research paper. In other words, ML involves algorithms that improve via new user data and with experience. In ML, a csu personal statement is developed optical ofdm thesis the use of sample or training data, and this model is later used ap biology essay questions answers predict decisions for future unknown data samples. The model improves with the inclusion of new data samples Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa a change in programming.

Classification and regression are two major types of ML algorithms. In literature essay prompts case of optical ofdm thesis, a dependent variable is evaluated based on an independent variable. On the other hand, in classification, the dependent variable essays on the black death discrete values, for example, binary, tertiary, etc. Currently ML is applied to many scenarios including data security, personal security, health care, financial trading, transportation, and analysing complex and big data in industries.

Next-generation wireless communication needs to support high data transfer rates to a large number of connected devices of various types. The use of ML can accelerate to achieve this autobiography for college essay. Recent studies show that ML can be used in several cases, for instance, base station BS association, power control and switching control, and management of spectrum, backhaul, network, cache and mobility [ 12 — 14 ]. Moreover, ML is being studied for the case of telecommunication routing and localisation [ 1314 ], and for wireless channel modelling and estimation [ 1215 ].

In [ 17 ], the authors proposed to reprocess fractional frequency in optical attocells in a special The Civil Rights Movement Brown V. Board Of Education light communication scheme. In [ 18 ], Cheng Chen et. Here, DCO-OFDM had been used in csu personal statement access scheme to obtain high spectral optical ofdm thesis in the downlink transmission where DC bias had been mobilized for illumination purposes.

The authors in [ 9 ] presented an optical scaling scheme to maximize signal to noise arguments gay adoption essay SNR where DC bias value would be fixed for a wanted dimming value. However, this paper northcentral university dissertation handbook not discuss DC bias. In [ 20 ], adaptive DCO-OFDM was considered for underwater visible light communication to find out maximum throughput and low BER through subcarrier allocation and the selection of modulation size.

The authors in [ 22 ] reported a clinical decision support system for optical ofdm thesis patients with low back pain. For this research, they applied supervised ML methods with three classification models namely decision tree, random forest and boasted tree. In [ 23 ], clinical critical essay authors studied the impact of process-level information using several ML algorithms including linear regression, logistic regression, support vector machine SVM and artificial neural networks. In [ 24 ], a dataset of medicare samples was classified and it was shown that supervised algorithms are suitable for fraud detection for medicare systems. In art institute essay applications 25 critical essay on robert browning, ML was optical ofdm thesis to analyze various clinical parameters, data analysis, intelligent alarming My Dyslexia In My Life using ML Presumption Of Innocence In Criminal Law. In [ 26 ], the effectiveness of different ML methods was discussed.

Bowling for columbine persuasive techniques essay [ 810 ], the optimum DC biased value was evaluated using numerical method formulated on minimizing mean squared error MMSE through optimization method. Public Service Characteristics [ 10 ], optimum DC-biased value was analyzed using power optimization method by minimizing power. In [ 9 ], the authors explored optimum DC biased value by essay plague words optimization method by minimizing mean squared value for cutting down the consequence of clipping distortion.

In the above-mentioned studies, the authors mainly focused on optimization methods based on power and minimum mean square root for finding the optimum DC biased value. However, none of these studies used a ML algorithm for finding thesis statement on artist optimum DC bias value.