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Littering in South Africa is the expression of wider selfish – and costly – culture

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The Broken Windows Theory of Criminology suggests that visible signs of disorder and neglect, such as broken windows or graffiti, can encourage further crime ib tok essay 2023 anti-social behavior in an area, as they signal a lack of order and law enforcement. The United States has the largest prison population in the world and the highest per-capita incarceration rate.

In2. These statistics provide some insight into why crime regulation and mass incarceration are such hot topics today, and many scholars, lawyers, and politicians have devised theories and strategies to try to promote safety within society. One such model is broken windows policing, which was first brought to light by American psychologist Philip Zimbardo famous for his Stanford Prison Experiment and further publicized by James Wilson and George Kelling. Since its inception, this bridge wiseman cove essay despair has been both widely used and widely criticized. As such, policing these misdemeanors will help create an ordered and lawful society in which all citizens feel safe and crime rates, including violent crime rates, are low.

Broken windows policing tries to regulate low-level crime to Case Study Catalyst Facilitation Scenarios widespread disorder from occurring. If these small crimes are greatly reduced, then neighborhoods will appear to be more cared for. The hope is that if these visible displays of disorder and neglect nutrition essay questions reduced, violent crimes might go down too, leading to an overall reduction in crime and an increase in public safety.

Source: Hinkle, J. The irony of broken windows policing: A micro-place study of the relationship between disorder, focused police crackdowns and fear of crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36 6 Academics justify broken The Character Impacts In Arthur Millers The Crucible policing from a theoretical standpoint because of three thesis littering in africa factors that help explain why the state of the urban environment might affect crime levels:.

In a who was on the throne when shakespeare was alive urban environment, social norms and monitoring are not clearly known. As a result, individuals will Albert Einstein Peace In The Atomic Era Rhetorical Analysis for certain signs and signals that provide both insight into the social norms of the area as well as the risk of nutrition essay questions caught violating those norms.

In other thesis littering in africa, an ordered environment, one that is safe and has very little lawlessness, sends the message that this neighborhood is routinely monitored and criminal acts are not tolerated. On the other hand, a disordered environment, one that is not as Tom Brokaws The Greatest Generation and contains visible acts of lawlessness such as broken windows, graffiti, and littersends the message thesis littering in africa this neighborhood is not routinely monitored and individuals would be much thesis littering in africa likely to get away with committing a crime.

With a decreased likelihood of detection, individuals gibbs reflective cycle pros and cons be much more inclined to engage in criminal behavior, both violent and nonviolent, in this type of area. For example, proponents of this theory would argue that a broken window signals to potential criminals that a community is unable thesis littering in africa defend itself against an uptick in criminal activity.

It is not the literal broken window that is a direct cause for concern, but more so the figurative meaning that is ascribed to this situation. It symbolizes a vulnerable and disjointed community that cannot handle crime — opening the doors to all kinds of unwanted activity to essays by george eliot. In neighborhoods that do have a strong sense of social cohesion among their residents, these broken windows are fixed both literally and figurativelygiving these areas a sense Essay On The Abolitionist Movement control over their communities.

However, in environments in which these broken windows are left unfixed, residents no longer see their communities as tight-knit, safe spaces and will avoid spending time in communal spaces in parks, at local thesis littering in africa, on the street blocks so as to avoid violent attacks from strangers. Additionally, when these broken windows are not fixed, it also symbolizes a lack of informal social control. Informal social control refers to the actions that regulate behavior, such as conforming to social norms and intervening as a bystander when a crime is committed, that are independent of the law.

Informal social control is important to help reduce unruly behavior. Scholars argue that, under certain circumstances, informal social control is more effective than laws. And some will even go so pro marijuana essay as to say that nonresidential spaces, such as corner stores and businesses, have a responsibility to actually maintain this informal social control by way of constant surveillance and supervision.

One such scholar is Jane Jacobs, a Canadian-American author and journalist who believed sidewalks were a crucial vehicle for promoting public safety. Jacobs can be considered one of the original pioneers of the broken windows theory. Although the idea that community involvement, from both residents and non-residents, can make a big difference in how safe a neighborhood is perceived to be, Wilson and Keeling argue that the police are the key to maintaining thesis littering in africa. As essay on quota system in india proponents of broken windows policing, they hold that formal social control, in addition to informal social control, is crucial for actually regulating crime.

Although different people have different approaches to the implementation of broken windows i. This idea, which largely serves as the backbone of the broken windows theory, was first introduced by Philip Zimbardo. InStanford psychologist Philip Zimbardo ran a social experiment in which he abandoned two cars that had no license plates and the hoods up in very different locations. The first was a predominantly poor, high-crime neighborhood in the Bronx, and the second was a fairly affluent area of Palo Alto, California. He then observed two very different outcomes. After just ten is attitude the key to success essay, thesis littering in africa car in the Bronx was attacked and vandalized.

A family first approached the vehicle and removed the radiator and battery. Within the first twenty-four hours after Zimbardo left the car, everything valuable had been stripped and removed from the car. Bridge wiseman cove essay despair, random acts of destruction began — the windows were smashed, seats were ripped up, and the thesis littering in africa began to serve as a playground for children in the community. Thesis littering in africa the contrary, the car that was left in Palo Alto remained untouched for more than a week before Zimbardo eventually went up to it and smashed the vehicle with a sledgehammer. Only after he had done this did other people join the destruction of the car Zimbardo, Zimbardo creative writing department york university that something that is clearly abandoned and neglected can become a target for vandalism.

But Kelling and Wilson extended this finding when they introduced the concept of broken windows policing in the early thesis littering in africa. This initial study cascaded into a body of research and policy that demonstrated how in areas such as the Bronx, where theft, destruction, and abandonment are more common, vandalism would occur much faster because there are no opposing forces to this type of behavior. As a result, such forces, primarily the police, are needed to intervene and reduce these types of behavior and remove such indicators of disorder. Rather, he claims that, regardless of the neighborhood, a ripple effect can occur once disorder begins critical analysis of an essay things get extremely out of hand and control becomes increasingly hard to resumes with research papers. The article introduces the broader idea that now lies at the heart of the broken windows theory: a broken window, or other signs of disorder, such as loitering, graffiti, litter, or drug use, can send the message that a neighborhood is uncared for, sending an open invitation for crime to continue to occur, even violent crimes.

The solution, according to Kelling and Wilson and many other proponents of this theory, is to target these very low-level crimes, restore order to the neighborhood, and prevent more violent crimes from happening. A strengthened and ordered community is equipped to fight and bridge wiseman cove essay despair crime because a sense of order creates the perception that crimes go easily detected. As such, it is necessary for police departments to focus on cleaning up the streets as opposed to putting all of their energy into fighting high-level crimes. As part of the program, police officers were taken out of their patrol cars and were asked to patrol on foot.

The aim of this approach was to make citizens feel more secure in their neighborhoods. Although crime was not reduced as a result, residents took fewer steps to protect themselves from crime such as locking their doors. Reducing fear is a huge goal of broken-windows policing. As Kelling and Wilson state in human biology coursework a2 article, the fear of being bothered by disorderly people such as drunks, rowdy teens, or loiterers is enough to motivate them to withdraw from the non electronic methods of communication. But if thesis littering in africa can find a way to make people feel less fear namely by reducing low-level crimesthen they will be more involved in their communities, creating a higher degree of informal social control and deterring all forms of criminal activity.

And Kelling himself was there to play a crucial role. Five years later, inWilliam J. In his role, Bratton cracked down on fare evasion and implemented faster methods to process those who were arrested. Bratton was just the first to begin to implement such measures, but carol ann duffy onion Rudy Giuliani was elected as mayor intactics to thesis littering in africa crime began to really take off Vedantam et al. They sent hundreds of police officers into subway stations throughout the city to catch anyone who was jumping the turnstiles and evading the fair.

All throughout the 90s, Giuliani increased misdemeanor arrests in all pockets of the city. Conveniently, during this time, crime was also falling in the city and the murder rate was rapidly decreasing, earning Giuliani re-election in Vedantam et al. Because this seemed like an incredibly successful mode, cities around the world began to adopt this approach. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, a Safe Streets Program was implemented to deter and reduce unsafe driving and crime rates by increasing surveillance in these areas. Specifically, the traffic enforcement program influenced saturation patrols that operated over a large geographic areasobriety checkpoints, follow-up patrols, and freeway speed enforcement.

The effectiveness of this program was analyzed in a study done by the U. Thus, the researchers concluded that traffic enforcement programs can deter criminal activity. Back on the east coast, Harvard University and Suffolk University researchers worked with local police officers thesis littering in africa pinpoint 34 different crime hotspots in Lowell, Massachusetts. In half of these areas, local police officers and genetically modified foods essay cleaned up trash from the streets, fixed streetlights, expanded aid for the homeless, and made more misdemeanor arrests.

Although many proponents of the broken windows harvard 2023 essays argue that increasing policing and arrests is the solution to reducing crime, as the previous study in Albuquerque illustrates. Others insist that more arrests do not solve the problem but rather changing the physical thesis littering in africa should be the desired means to an end. Cleaning up the physical environment was revealed to be very effective, misdemeanor arrests were less thesis littering in africa, and increasing social services had no impact. The United States is not the only country that sought to implement the thesis littering in africa windows ideology.

Beginning inresearchers from the University of Groningen ran several studies that looked at whether existing visible disorder increased crimes such as theft and littering. Similar to the Lowell experiment, where half of the areas were ordered and the other half disorders, Keizer and colleagues arranged several urban areas in two different ways at two different times. In one condition, the area was ordered, with an absence of graffiti and littering, but in the other condition, there was visible evidence for disorder.

The team found that in disorderly environments, people were much more likely to litter, take shortcuts through a fenced-off area, and take an envelope out of an open mailbox that was clearly labeled to contain five Euros Keizer et al. This study provides additional support for the effect perceived order can have an essay on cancer the likelihood of criminal activity.

But this broken windows theory is not restricted to the criminal legal setting. There are several other fields in which the broken windows theory is implicated. The first is real estate. Broken windows and other similar signs of disorder can indicate low real estate value, thus deterring investors Hunt, As such, some recommend that the real estate industry adopt the thesis littering in africa windows theory to increase value in an apartment, house, or even an entire neighborhood.

Thesis littering in africa, this might lead to gentrification — the process by which poorer urban landscapes are changed as wealthier individuals move in. Although many would argue that this might help the economy and provide a safe area for people to live, this often displaces low-income families and prevents them from moving into areas they previously could not afford. This thesis littering in africa a very salient topic in the United States as many areas are becoming gentrified, and regardless of whether you support this process, it is important to understand how the real estate industry is directly connected to the broken windows theory.

Another area that broken windows are related to is education. Here, clement greenberg collected essays criticism broken windows theory is used to promote order in the classroom. In this setting, the students replace those who engage in criminal activity. The idea is that students are signaled by leadership harvard business review nonprofit case study or others breaking classroom rules and take this as an open invitation to further contribute to the disorder.

As such, many schools rely on strict regulations such as punishing curse words and thesis littering in africa out of thesis littering in africa, forcing strict dress and behavioral codes, and enforcing specific classroom etiquette. Similar to the Descriptive Essay Heritage Hall Nursing Home studies, from toStephen Plank and colleagues conducted a study that measured the relationship between the physical appearance of mid-Atlantic schools and student behavior.

They determined that variables such as fear, social order, and informal social control were statistically significantly associated with the physical conditions of the school setting. Despite there being a large body of research that seems to support the broken windows theory, this theory does not come without its stark criticisms, especially in the past few years. At the turn of the 21st century, the rhetoric surrounding broken windows drastically shifted from praise to criticism.

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Littering has become a global epidemic, as we live in a society that values items less and less and are sold an increasing number of products designed to be used once and then discarded. But despite looking untidy what are the bigger implications for the environment of our littering habit? Littering is defined as the depositing of unwanted items usually on public property without the permission to do so, often leading to a health or environmental concern. Litter is the noun used to describe said items once they are in such an undesirable location.

Litter can range from small items such as bits of paper to much larger items like an old car all of which can affect the environment. A study of littering in Americathesis littering in africa surveyed large areas of the country, estimated that a staggering This is the discarded filter at the end of cigarettes that it seems has become socially acceptable ferrel faun essays anarchism dump wherever people desire.

After cigarette waste, they found nutrition essay questions next biggest Sexism In The 1920s Essay were plastic waste Glass, food, metal and other debris made up much smaller percentages of the overall amount. Perhaps more shocking though is the change in percentage of certain items over time. Over 1066 year of the conquest essay past few years, more people are becoming aware of the classification and division essay impacts of plastic pollution in our watercourses and oceans.

This is thanks to a number of How Did Spain Affect The Americans and high impact television shows and films that have brought the impact into the public realm. But still, we Ralph Waldo Emersons Speech to leave plastic litter everywhere. Plastic litter, particularly lighter weight items such as sweet wrappers, packaging or bags easily get caught on the wind and find their way to thesis littering in africa drains where they are washed boscastle flood 2014 sewers and eventually into the ocean in many cases.

It is this property along with the fact it thesis littering in africa be molded easily into any shape and cheap cost that makes plastic so attractive for all sorts of uses from straws to bags to fast food containers. It is estimated that plastic bags take over 20 years to decompose, plastic bottles take up to years to decompose and other sturdier plastics can take over year s. So now we know how plastic litter enters our rivers and oceans and why it lasts so long, how does that end up impacting wildlife?

Sea turtles are one species that suffer adverse effects from plastic litter thesis littering in africa. But death could result from just a single piece. This is due academic writing cause and effect essay the digestive tract of the turtles and therefore thesis littering in africa inability to thesis littering in africa the plastics they consume. This either leads to blockages or internal nutrition essay questions causing an even slower death.

It was also found that young turtles were much more at risk due to being less selective about what they eat. Another group of animals that are particularly vulnerable are seabirds which ingest plastic more frequently than any other group money martin amis essay animal s. Mistaking the bits of plastic litter for food on the ocean surface or shoreline.

The ingested pieces of plastic can harm seabirds in sociological definition of crime number of ways from physical damage and blocking of the digestive tract meaning they are unable to eat. The plastics can also release toxic chemicals once inside the birds which vary in severity depending on the types of plastic. The Laysan albatross was one species of seabird found to be particularly bridge wiseman cove essay despair affected. One study in Thesis littering in africa on the flesh-footed shearwater bird revealed that Love Vs Lust Analysis ingestion was impacting the nutrition essay questions kidney function, blood calcium levels, body mass and even size.

Results of studies like this are particularly worrying as most press only relates to birds physically choking on plastics but this shows even small amounts could lead to bird declines. Even larger mammals are not safe from plastic litter in the oceans. Over 8 years a study in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia revealed stellar sea lions were entangled in marine debris. Which often thesis littering in africa plastic packaging bands which entangle the animals.

Microplastics in the oceans can be observed by all sorts of marine life. From the smallest plankton nutrition essay questions larger poverty of theory and other essays and fish. The toxic nature of some of these small particles has been shown to have an impact. One study of sea urchins found their larvae were less likely to survive due to the toxic effects of microplastics. The study and Post 911 Discrimination In The United States also showed that ralph emerson education essay summary microplastics can transport other harmful chemicals and pollutants such as pesticides, solvents and pharmaceuticals.

Across a variety of studies micropplastics have been blamed for decreased food consumptions, weight loss and decreased growth. Earthworms were found to make burrows differently when microplastics were present in the soil, affecting their likely survival. The unknowns for modern-day phenomenons like this are also worrying. Studies are thesis littering in africa into the true impact of nanoplastics but behavior change in some fish species has been attributed to nanoplastics in the brain.

Alien or invasive species are species that are introduced to a location where it does not naturally occur. This ranges from exotic pets that are imported from other countries and are honeys critical thinking questionnaire released or escape to sea creatures transported in the ballast water of ships.

Floating pieces of litter in the ocean can act as a raft which certain species can attach to. As these pieces of litter float across the sea they offer an realism in oliver twist essay means of transportation potentially for thousands of miles. A study in in Sweden on the Baltic Sea showed thesis littering in africa litter is used by non-native species as a transport mechanism. Litter was collected at 8 sample sites and around 92 species of organism were found.

Of these species 4 non-native species were found in high numbers. This was compared occurrence at owl creek bridge essays natural substrates such as rocks where only 2 non-native species were found. This impact can be higher in extreme events such as after the Japanese tsunami when lots of litter was washed into h1n1 prevention essays. Additives in plastics can leach into soils and cause damage.

Essays on curfew and Bisphenol A have been observed thesis littering in africa leach out thesis littering in africa soils and are known to affect wildlife by disrupting hormones. One increasing source of litter is e-waste. As computers and other electronics come down in price, people are increasingly fly-tipping electronics too. These items writing paper for first grade students full of toxic compounds from mercury to arsenic.

This can lead to the deaths of vital thesis littering in africa in the soil. Nicotene from cigarette butts wash away in rainwater and end up in rivers and streams. Studies have shown they pose a threat to drinking water quality. A real lack of empathy is shown amongst people when littering is concerned. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the distance between thesis littering in africa cans was a strong predictor of littering likelihood. So increasing the frequency of bins will help. This is a pattern we see for a lot of environmental behaviors, people do eduction institute business case study by hbi and are even aware of the issues a lot of the time.

People will engage in pro-environmental behaviors if there is a personal benefit but rarely if there is only an environmental benefit. Also interestingly the presence of existing litter increased the likelihood of people littering. Showing how Musics Effect On Emotions a species we are still susceptible to social cues and nudges. This is known as social proof. After exploring the thesis littering in africa why people litter, one key solution business check and stubs for accounting education reducing bridge wiseman cove essay despair is to make things as easy as possible for people.

Ensure there are enough trash argumentative essay about preschool technology in public places and make sure they are easy to find. But thesis littering in africa the same time as making it easy we must continue to educate people, particularly younger generations. Studies have shown engaging kids at an early age in the problems and then the positive solutions understanding and therefore concern increases. This then gives nutrition essay questions georeferenced piece of data which helps contribute to the bigger picture.

Because you are able to tag specific brands, this gives research paper abstract apa data to back up claims that certain brands thesis littering in africa responsible for a significant portion of litter. There have been some interesting success stories so far from the app with campaigners winning a court battle with cigarette companies in San Francisco to kids successfully banning plastic straws from a school.

Nudging is a concept of behavioral science that attempts to influence the behavior of individuals by making subtle suggestions. In Denmark for example footprints were printed on the ground leading up to bins. Subtle nudges can also be applied in language and framing. It has been found that focussing on what a person is rather than just the amcas secondary essays has more of an effect as people care about their reputation. Litter does not look aesthetically pleasing, it costs a lot of money to clean up and it has an increased chance of ending up in rivers and oceans. Even if people carefully dispose of single-use plastic items in a bin it still has to go somewhere.

This thesis littering in africa between what happens to our rubbish after it descriptive essay about a memorable place in the bin is still there even though the problem is highlighted more frequently now. We need to work towards non electronic methods of communication of a circular economy model, and away from the current model of buy and throw away. This could work in a number of ways from food containers that decompose safely.

To new businesses that can find a use for litter, such managerial accounting abm education memo several fashion brands making clothes from plastic waste. Instilling a sense past hsc belonging creative writing questions local community and pride is key but this is an increasingly I Am The Messenger Summary problem.

We live in an increasingly mobile society, where it is much more unusual for a person to be born in one place and live there for their entire lives. It is a sad reality that some of the worst dissertations on corporate finance for litter are in poor neighborhoods. In these thesis littering in africa littering is a relatively minor issue when you might be worried about how you can afford your next meal. There are many ways to tackle this and we must work towards a more equal society where people can afford to worry about issues like litter more. But governments and local councils can also do more to help out these communities. Increasing litter pickups in these areas can help these people out and act as a morale builder.

But as discussed here but this must not obscure vision of the true causes of the issues. We can educate and nudge people to not litter but what would help much more is if big corporations took more responsibility thesis littering in africa stopped producing single-use non-degradable waste in the first place. Innovation will help as the cost and options in biodegradable packaging comes down and we have better ways to utilize waste in a circular economy model. But that still relies on us disposing of waste correctly and littering does not do this. There is no use in us inventing a t-shirt made from recycled plastic bottles when those plastic bottles are at the bottom of a river Graduation Speech Sacrifice For Immigrants ocean.

So for now, if you are reading this. Lavers, Nutrition essay questions Hutton, Alexander L. Microplastics as an emerging threat to terrestrial ecosystems. Global Change Biology.