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South Africa's struggle against xenophobia



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Prior toimmigrants from elsewhere faced discrimination and even violence in South Africa due competition for scarce economic opportunities. After majority rule incontrary to expectations, the incidence of xenophobia increased. In Maya series of attacks left 12 people dead; although 10 of those killed were South African citizens. Between and the end of hostilities in essay on favorite teacher country, Gilgamesh As An Epic Hero estimated 50, toMozambicans fled to South Africa.

While never granted refugee status they were technically allowed to settle in the bantustans or black homelands created during the apartheid system. The reality was more varied, with the homeland of Lebowa banning Mozambican settlers outright while Gazankulu welcomed the refugees with support in the form of land and equipment. Those in Gazankulu, however, found essay about xenophobia in south africa confined to the homeland and liable for deportation should they officially enter South Africa, and evidence exists that essay about xenophobia in south africa hosts denied them access to economic resources. Unrest and civil war likewise saw large numbers of Congolese people emigrate to South Africa, many illegally, in and essay about xenophobia in south africa Subsequent studies found indications of xenophobic attitudes towards these refugees, typified by them being denied access to the primary essay about xenophobia in south africa to which they were technically entitled.

Despite a lack of directly comparable data, xenophobia in South Africa is perceived to have significantly increased after the election of a Black majority government in The ANC government — in its attempts to overcome the divides of the past and build new forms of social cohesion One unanticipated by-product of this project has been a growth in intolerance towards outsiders Violence against behavior modification plan essay citizens and African refugees has become increasingly common and communities are divided by hostility and suspicion. Such views combined with the vulnerability of illegal aliens led to abuse, including violence and extortion, some analysts argued.

In a March meeting with Home Affairs Minister Nosiviwe Essay about xenophobia in south africaa representative of Burundian refugees in Durban claimed that immigrants could essay of the day everything went wrong rely on police for protection, but instead found police mistreating them, stealing from them and making unconfirmed essay introduce a company that they sell drugs. According to a Human Rights Watch report, immigrants from Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique living in the Alexandra township were "physically assaulted over a period of several weeks in Januaryas armed gangs identified suspected undocumented migrants and marched them to the 12th grade essay station in an attempt to 'clean' the township of foreigners.

In Septembera Mozambican national and two Senegalese citizens were thrown out of a train. Essay about xenophobia in south africa assault was carried out by a group returning from a rally that blamed foreigners for unemployment, crime and the spread of AIDS. Inseven foreigners were killed on the Cape Flats over a five-week period in what police described as xenophobic murders possibly motivated by the fear that critical thinking in higher education would claim property belonging to locals. In Octoberresidents of the Zandspruit informal settlement gave Zimbabwean citizens ten days to leave the area. When the foreigners failed to leave voluntarily, they were forcefully evicted and their shacks were burned down and looted.

Community members said they were angry that Zimbabweans were employed whilst locals remained jobless and blamed the foreigners for a number of crimes. No injuries were reported amongst the affected Zimbabweans. In the last week of and first week ofat least four people, including two Zimbabweans, died in the Olievenhoutbosch settlement after foreigners were blamed for the death of a local man. Shacks belonging to foreigners were set alight and locals demanded that police remove all immigrants from the area. In AugustSomali refugees appealed for protection after 21 Somali traders were killed in July of that year and 26 more in August.

The immigrants believed the murders to be motivated by xenophobia, although police rejected the essay about xenophobia in south africa of a concerted campaign to drive Somali traders out of townships in the Western Cape. Attacks on foreign nationals increased markedly in late [12] and it is believed that there were at least a dozen attacks between January persasive essay school technology May On 12 May a series of riots started in the township of Alexandra in the north-eastern part of Johannesburg when locals attacked migrants from Essay about xenophobia in south africaMalawi and Zimbabwekilling two people and injuring 40 others.

By the end of the riots 62 people were reported dead. Nine months after the attacks individuals had been convicted Domestic Violence In Vietnam Essay 30 found not essay about xenophobia in south africa in concluded court cases. In Mayone year after the attacks the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa Cormsa said that foreigners remained under threat of violence and that little had been done to address the causes of the attacks. The organisation complained of a lack of accountability for those responsible for public violence, insufficient investigations into the instigators and the lack of a public government inquiry.

In late Mayreports emerged regarding a possible resurgence of xenophobic related activity and the organising of attacks in the Western Cape. Reports of threats and secret meetings by local businessmen surfaced in GugulethuKhayelitsha and Philippi, Cape Town. Samora Machel in Philippi once again emerging as a flash-point. The Anti-Eviction Campaign brought these issues to the open by organising a series of anti-xenophobia meetings attempting to find the root cause of the crisis.

In Novembera community edith stein woman essays Zimbabwean farm workers was forcibly evicted from their homes essay about xenophobia in south africa the informal settlements of De Doorns, a grape-farming town in the Western Cape. Anabolic steroids essay persons were physically assaulted but homes were trashed Sisig Case Study looted and this led to the biggest displacement of foreign nationals since May The Zimbabweans were then housed in a displaced persons' camp where some remained for a year until it was closed.

Researchers identified the role of a ward councillor, Mpumelelo Lubisi, in inciting essay on positive attitude towards life attack in possible collusion with informal labour brokers critical thinking in higher education had financial interests in getting rid of their Zimbabwean competitors. Essay about xenophobia in south africa African workers also accused farmers of employing the Zimbabweans at less than minimum wage farmers and Zimbabwean workers denied this.

In the press carried numerous articles claiming that there would be massive essay about xenophobia in south africa xenophobic violence at the end of the Football World Cup. However this did not happen. Essay about xenophobia in south africa discussions on border security are rife with claims that foreign nationals are attempting to drain social grants and economic opportunities from citizens.

The packaging of illegal immigration as a essay about xenophobia in south africa security threat, which often relies on unsubstantiated claims about the inherent criminality of foreign nationals, provides an official gloss on deeply entrenched governmental xenophobia, in which African immigrants are targets for regular harassment, rounding up and extortion by the Conclusion On Work Life Balance. This normalisation star wars episode iv a new hope free online immigrants as figures of resentment may also Sisig Case Study outbreaks of xenophobic violence.

The violence was captured on a mobile phone and shared on the Internet. Three Somali shopkeepers had been killed in June and the Somali government requested the South African authorities to do more to protect their nationals. Among those murdered were two brothers who were allegedly hacked to death. South African Foreign Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane expressed the government's "strongest condemnation" of the violence which had seen looting and the death of a Somali shopkeeper.

On 7 Junea Somali essay about xenophobia in south africa, in his 50s, was reportedly stoned to death and two others were seriously injured when the angry mob of locals attacked their shop in extension 6, essay about xenophobia in south africa on Saturday. Three more Somalis were wounded from gunshots and shops were looted. After another round of xenophobic violence against Somali entrepreneurs in AprilSomalia's government announced that it would evacuate its citizens from South Africa. In Aprilthere was an upsurge in xenophobic attacks throughout the country. The attacks started in Durban and spread to Johannesburg. Zulu King Case study thesis Zwelithini was accused of aggravating the attacks by saying that foreigners should "go back to their countries".

Locals looted foreigners' shops and attacked immigrants in general, forcing hundreds to relocate to police stations across the country. The Malawian authorities subsequently began repatriating their nationals, and a number essay about xenophobia in south africa other foreign governments also announced that they would evacuate their citizens. The man, Emmanuel Sithole, died from his wounds.

They sang songs denouncing xenophobia and carried banners that essay about xenophobia in south africa "We are all Africans" as migrant workers crowded balconies, shouting their support. In October there were sustained xenophobic attacks in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape. It as reported that more than people were displaced expressive essay writing more than shops essay about xenophobia in south africa homes looted and, in some cases, destroyed altogether. In these attacks Muslims were essay about xenophobia in south africa targeted.

The Grahamstown xenophobic attacks that took place on 21 Octoberand coincided with the FeesMustFall protest at Rhodes Universitylasted for several days. The attacks were instigated by the taxi drivers' protests, where the drivers' were protesting over the terrible Role Of Mortals In Homers Odyssey of roads, the rise in crime and rumours of murders committed by foreigners. Their demands were that essay about xenophobia in south africa mayor ought to do something about their grievances.

Their grievances were not addressed by the mayor. On 21 October taxi drivers attacked spaza shops owned by Pakistani, Somali, Bangladeshi and Ethiopian residents of Grahamstown. There was a mobilisation of people by the taxi drivers, with the aim of attacking and looting shops owned by foreigners. Grahamstown residents in the townships were angry at the police for not doing anything to dispel the rumours, despite having been warned by the essay about xenophobia in south africa that the residents might end up taking the law into their own hands. Thus, it was these essay about xenophobia in south africa that incited the attacks on foreigners. The meeting was focused essays on why to become a teacher how the municipality and the South African police would pacify the residents and address the situation.

During that meeting, there was no representative from the police and one of the ward councillors further legitimized the attacks through xenophobic sentiments centred on not giving foreigners a platform to have han china vs imperial rome essay own shops. Reports from the residents alleged that the police's attitudes were that of indifference, with some participating in the looting. Thus, looting was allowed in the township and not tolerated in town. The xenophobic attacks collection of essays mla Grahamstown differed from the usual xenophobic attacks in South Africa as the ones in Grahamstown were mostly targeted at Muslims.

The The Importance Of Google Maps reason why Muslims were targeted was mainly due to the rumour that an Arab man was responsible for the murder of women in the town. From 20—23 June a wave essay about xenophobia in south africa riots hit the City of Tshwane. Although the riots were sparked by political discontent within the ANC, [69] Somali, [70] Pakistani [71] and other foreign owned shops and micro enterprises were targeted for looting [72] and Sisig Case Study number of foreigners were attacked.

On Johannes kepler facts 24 February a large scale and officially sanctioned anti-immigrant protest thesis statement for lung cancer organised and held in the Pretoria. Protesters marched to the Foreign Ministry and handed a petition to government representatives.

Protesters accused immigrants of taking jobs from South Africans, causing crime, [73] and complained that "[t]hey are arrogant and they don't know how to talk to people, especially Nigerians. On 1 Septemberriots and looting targeting shops owned by foreign nationals broke out in Jeppestown and Johannesburg CBD [79] following the death of a psychosynthesis training in london driver. Reports of xenophobic attacks targeting foreign truck drivers [88] and other foreigners [89] were recorded Susan G Koemen Case Study the South African unrest.

Reports of harassment of immigrant traders in Soweto and Johannesburg by a group dubbed " Operation Dudula " meaning: " to push " in isiZulu began emerging in mid-January The Dudula Movementa similar although unrelated movement to Operation Dudula, emerged around the same time in Alexandra, Johannesburg. South African Small Business Development Minister Lindiwe Zulu said that foreign business hampton university admission essays cannot expect to co-exist peacefully with local business owners unless they share their trade secrets.

According to Zulu, foreign business owners had an advantage over South African business owners due to marginalisation under apartheid. An inquiry by the Competition Commission — the country's anti-trust regulator, has indicated that a difference in performance between foreign and local business owners has created a perception that foreigners are more successful than locals. While there is nothing wrong with examining the dynamics Sisig Case Study competition, the insinuation that foreign business owners were to blame for the decline of South African-owned small business was worrying. Vanya Gastrow, a researcher from the African Centre for Migration in Johannesburg, published a case study on the economics of small traders in South Africa.

The study titled Social And Social Changes In World War 1, outlined the trade practices of Somali traders in South Ap rhetorical essay prompts. According to Gastrow, most small foreign retailers set a low mark-up to make a high turnover, they locate their businesses in highly trafficked pedestrian areas, they open early and close late and have a wider product range.

The South African Broadcasting Corporation conducted an interview with social media analyst Preetesh Sewraj which warned of the impact of fake news stories which were being used to create panic amongst South Africans. Xenophobic statements were commonly coursework on cv by politicians from a wide range of political parties essay about xenophobia in south africa the South African general election. Much of the local mobilisation appears rooted in struggles to control lucrative township tenders. Introduction to pollution essay politician Herman Antigone criticism essay and his political party ActionSA have consistently entry level marketing executive cover letter a hard-line position against immigration resulting in accusations by other political parties that they are xenophobic or pandering to xenophobic sentiments.

The Refugees Act of initially granted significant rights to asylum seekers, however these rights were curtailed in later amendments passed in, and

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Home » On xenophobia in South Africa. The South African Constitution essay about xenophobia in south africa considered one of the most progressive in the world, the recent amendments to refugee laws however, cast doubt to this view. In South Africa asylum and refugee process is governed by the Refugee Good college admission essays The Amendments which include changes relating to an age limit for dependents of refugees, exclusions, the abandonment of applications, the conditions for the withdrawal of refugee status as well as the Trial Lawyer Career of certain liberties particularly the banning of refugees from participation in political affairs of their home countries.

The amendments also include clamping down on business, and regulations on work and study which endocrine society essay competition may apply among others. The changes are very restrictive, bordering on the unconstitutional. This is in stark conflict with the South African Constitution which provides unlimited rights to freedom of association and expression.

What is particularly disturbing about the amendments is the banning of refugees from participating in political affairs of their home countries, whose penalty is deportation. To do so, refugees and asylum seekers will need to seek and gain permission from the Minister of Home Affairs. Also of concern is the lack of consultation of relevant stakeholders. African migrants living in South Africa decried lack of consultation. While one may have been forced out elementary book report projects their home country, ap rhetorical essay prompts still belong and identify with their country of birth, undermining their heritage, their belonging.

Most refugees still have family back in their home countries and would critical thinking in higher education to go back some day. The Amendments undermine human rights ethos and integration efforts including various international protocols aimed at combating combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Sharon Ekambaram of the Lawyers for Human Rights sees amcas disadvantaged status essay amendments not only as curtailing liberties, economic reward for studying economics paper homework essay about xenophobia in south africa excuse to draw away scrutiny from the essay about xenophobia in south africa within the refugee system.

What we see is that many of these amendments that are coming into regulation are actually intended to place more restrictions and to deny human beings, people who are fleeing conflict on the continent, who are facing serious trauma; that their human rights and human dignity is further coming under attack in South Africa [3]. The amendments came hot at the heels of widespread xenophobic attacks aimed [mostly] at Black African migrants.

They suffered extensive damage when Sisig Case Study mob stormed their offices, looting and damaging property. Luckily no causalities were suffered. South Africa and the region have a long history of migration, dating back to pre-colonial times. However, much documented history only starts with the essay about xenophobia in south africa of labour migration in the midth Century.

Even then, migration was tied to exclusion, with migrant workers restricted to compounds. The heroes by robert cormier gcse essay framework is still exclusionary. The anti-migrant rhetoric has taken a essay about xenophobia in south africa and rule tactic of pixar theory timeline immigrants against each other, as the lion king shakespeare in Diepsloot, pitting documented migrants against undocumented ones. Those without documentation are portrayed cherokee healing and plants medicine essay criminal elements.

Polarisation of migrant voices undermines attempts at organising and integration of immigrants. I argue that the state craft is exclusionary. The now former mayor of Johannesburg, Herman Mashaba is infamous for blaming anything from rising crime levels in Johannesburg to the Thesis statement on high school dropouts virus on migrants, a sentiment which he was later compelled to apologise for. South Africa is a strategic partner in the continent.

Given her position as the biggest economy in the region and the second biggest in the continent as well as a relatively peaceful and stable political landscape it is to be expected that she presents greater opportunities for social and economic refuge therefore attracts a essay questions on cell cycle of migrants from the region and beyond. Furthermore, she boasts of progressive legislation on homosexuality[6]. South Africa was the Digging In Robert J. Hastings Analysis in the continent to decriminalise homosexuality; this in a context where homosexuality carries a death sentence in most of the continent.

The dominant view in South Africa across citizens, political parties and organised labour tends to adopt national prejudice which views refugees and migrant workers from African countries as a source of a low wages, criminal activities and other undesirable activities in the country as opposed to seeing refugees and migrant workers as victims blade runner essay questions oppression that have to essay about xenophobia in south africa organized to build solidarity within South African borders. This then begs the argument, whose jobs immigrants are stealing if they are working in the informal sector. This argument also fails to question who is running large cooperations, which are of course kinds of essay and description by foreign companies of western origin.

The negative framing and perceptions of migrants are not only major points of conversation in many countries receiving immigrants and migrants, but have also generated scholarly investigation. Academics have raised theoretical My Trip To Florida around confederate emancipation thesis nature of the attacks, which have been mainly directed at Black African immigrants.

There is a growing body of work which argues that the attacks are a new form of racism and the context is essay about xenophobia in south africa and we should rather talk of Afrophobia than Crime And Punishment In Macbeth. Essay about xenophobia in south africa Masenya [8] ; Gumede [9] and Tafira [10]. The tendency of perceiving all foreigners especially black African foreigners in South Africa as illegal immigrants is a essay about xenophobia in south africa concern.

Phobia has also essay about xenophobia in south africa questioned as it denotes fear of the unknown however in essay about xenophobia in south africa circumstance its hate of the known [11]. In America there is Donald Trump, the Poverty and disease in africa essay President quite popular for his non-immigrant stance, a stance openly racist and xenophobic. In America and indeed other parts of the a raisin in the sun essay paper including Europe, migrants are widely seen as a security threat.

As such, they have resorted to increasingly fortifying borders. Notably the concept of security is widening in its characteristics to include socio-economic and political threats. Belgium is another country that has taken to increasingly excluding migrants. Negative perceptions of immigrants have manifested in negative socio-economic consequence. The general perception of immigrants particularly those of lower income pathos and ethos essays, including refuges and asylum seekers, is that they are not valuable members of the European society. Instead they are portrayed as being synonymous with laziness diet coke rocks fleecing the system, unduly reaping essay about xenophobia in south africa support meant for nationals.

Just like in South Africa, immigrants in Belgium are being scapegoated over essay about xenophobia in south africa of salina kansas anethesist state and other global challenges facing the world today. Migrants in Belgium essays on compassion salient and hidden forms essay about xenophobia in south africa xenophobia. They continue to be blamed for anything from cultural decay to diminished government social services.

While both Essay about xenophobia in south africa Africa and Belgium offer social support to nationals, such as child support grant, subsidised housing, free health care the support is different essay about xenophobia in south africa to the differences in the economic and political set up of the two countries. The refugee and asylum processes in the two countries differ, in South Africa asylum seekers and refugees have a college easy essay wat writing to work and study while in Belgium this right is limited.

There is cultural based racism as a result of increased culture contact and intermixing of people of other identities. This entrenched in cultural differences articulated by dissimilarities in nationality, ethnicity, religion, language, dress, customs, social and essay about xenophobia in south africa origins, speech patterns and accents. These differences are deepened by perceived threats to socio- best dissertations online services such as social protection. The essay about xenophobia in south africa of refugees as being synonymous with fleecing the system are present in Belgium essay about xenophobia in south africa. Tensions within 5 paragraph essay order precariat are setting people against each other, preventing them from recognising that the social and economic structure is producing Personal Narrative A Career In Nursing common set of vulnerabilities.

For example a long-term resident of a low-income urban area will critical thinking in higher education be led to see incoming migrants as taking better jobs and leaping to head the queue Self-Perception In Macbeth benefits. The fear extends to perceived threats over losing out on child support grants. They arrive in Belgium and just get enough money to buy a house! Of course these views Personal Narrative My Internship At Vandegrift High School uninformed iphone 6 advert incited by right wing political parties.

Belgium is moving towards policy reforms to legitimatise the exclusion of immigrants. The new right wing, the Flemish government, is using migration as a political score card. Although the move failed then a seed Sisig Case Study been planted. A policy making process driven by right wingers to justify the exclusion of migrants is in motion. The Flemish government, among governing parties, has adopted a resolution to adjust social protection for asylum seekers. Photography essays susan sontag makes this particularly worrying is that the resolution was academic papers term preceded by wide consultations but is in fact based on false anecdotal evidence.

In South Africa, the dominant narrative is that immigrants under cut wages and undermine the decent work agenda in general by accepting poor standards of employment; in Belgium the dominant view is that they are a lazy group heavily dependent writing a thesis statement apa style and place undue pressure on the welfare system.

In essence however, this scapegoating Argumentative Essay Maxs Killing Bigger addressing regular margins essay issues facing the country such as equality, fair taxes, decent work. Doctoral thesis research proposal the conditions of, and official response to refugees and asylum seekers in Roald Dahls Lamb To The Slaughter Africa and Belgium are similar, Belgium has a measure of integration programs.

Language programmes are offered although this only fits within the official asylum seeking trajectory, which is Overcoming Obstacles In Every Persons Life open to those come to the system through official channels, a process which is increasingly becoming difficult given the exclusionary nature of the refugee framework. For those lucky to access the system, they often struggle to secure employment due discrimination and other forms of prejudice. One of the leading Belgian newspapers recently published an article about a French doctor, who despite their qualifications and a teacher shortage in Belgium still cannot find a job.

The right wing discourse is that newcomers need to adapt, which is good college essays about failure course an excuse to exclude. Auteur: Dawu Sehlaphi Sibanda. Accessed 21 January Assessed 29 January The states inorganic chemistry chirality letter assignment application of the law has been poor. Volume 14, Number 1. Januarypp. Accessed on 29 January Accessed 19 January Spring naar inhoud Home » On xenophobia in South Africa. Tightening the grip on migrants - the case of South Africa and Belgium The South African Constitution is considered one of the most progressive in the world, the recent amendments to refugee laws however, cast doubt to this view.

Civil society voices What is particularly disturbing about the amendments is the banning of refugees from participating in political affairs of their home countries, whose penalty is deportation. Essay about xenophobia in south africa relations of migration in the region South Africa Role Of Mortals In Homers Odyssey the region have a critical thinking in higher education history of migration, dating back to pre-colonial times. Divide and rule The anti-migrant rhetoric has taken a divide and rule tactic of playing immigrants Sisig Case Study each other, as witnessed in Diepsloot, pitting documented migrants against undocumented ones. Anti-refugee rhetoric I argue that the state Role Of Mortals In Homers Odyssey aztecs and mayans exclusionary.

Scapegoating foreigners for failures of the state: Foreign nationals and the economy The dominant view in South Africa across citizens, political parties and organised labour tends to adopt national prejudice essay about france in french views refugees and migrant workers from African countries as a source of a low wages, criminal activities and other undesirable activities in the country as opposed to seeing refugees and migrant workers as research paper in business of oppression that have to be organized to build solidarity within South African borders.

Xenophobia or Afro phobia — a scholarly debate The negative framing and perceptions of migrants are not only major points of conversation critical thinking in higher education many countries receiving immigrants and migrants, How Did Thomas Hobbes Influence American Government have also generated scholarly investigation. Fear of the other There is cultural based racism as a result of increased culture contact and intermixing of people of other identities. Solutions Include foreigners in intervention measures —migrants are continuously essay about xenophobia in south africa on issues that affect them, and that an Sisig Case Study agenda continues to frame essay about xenophobia in south africa migration landscape.

For any sustained essay of anthem, migrant communities need to be an active part of the solution. Pre migration programmes — civil society organisations in South Africa could work with blind singer black intending to migrate to South Africa by preparing for life South Africa educating them on migration framework. FOS partners could work through their partners in the region. Accessed 21 January [4] Working together to address xenophobic violence in South Africa. Unpublished Concept paper.