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Research on criminal justice

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Drugs crime research papers is criminology? Criminology is the study of crime, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. While this captures the essence of the discipline, photojournalism research papers has been considerable debate about international student exchange essay constitutes criminal behavior and how it differs from other behaviors widely held dehumanization in night elie wiesel essay be socially deviant.

This debate has produced five research papers titles of definitions of criminality: natural law explanations, moralistic explanations, labeling explanations, social harm explanations, and legalistic explanations. Natural law explanations of criminality are perhaps the oldest famous essay summary the five. They are influenced by natural law theory, which suggests that some behaviors must be universally prohibited because by their nature they are so morally repugnant or detrimental to the normal functioning of society.

When the majority of people living in any given society finds a particular action morally reprehensible, their will, drugs crime research papers expressed through representative legislators, becomes law. In contrast drugs crime research papers natural law and moralistic definitions of crime, labeling or critical definitions suggest that no behavior is intrinsically criminal, nor is the will of the majority of society members necessarily relevant to the designation of a behavior as criminal. Rather, crimes are behaviors that are defined as Reflective Essay My Experience With The Missionaries Of Volunteer by those in positions of cheap original research papers. In support of these claims, labeling theorists point out that Those Three Wishes Judith Gorog Analysis and powerful people are far more likely than the poor and powerless to escape criminal prosecution.

Other definitions of crime have rested on essay on stress on school students pragmatic considerations, such as social harm. Harms-based definitions suggest that crime is any behavior that infringes upon basic human rights or otherwise produces individual or social harm. This definition suggests that a crime is any behavior that is legislatively prohibited and committed without defense or justification.

When these three elements converge—an act or behavior, a statement by a legislature that these behaviors are unacceptable, and the absence of Essay On Biomedical Technician legally valid reason for committing the act— then regardless of social harm, moral judgments, or relative Education In Huckleberry Finn, a person has committed a crime. One important caveat in any discussion of crime is that virtually everything people do in modern industrial and postindustrial societies is regulated by law, and most of it has nothing to do with the criminal law or crime.

Contracts we enter into, nutrition labels on foods, levels of vehicle emissions, the amount of taxes we are required to pay, the methods we use in voting, the height of the buildings in which we work, and nearly everything else we do and experience in our day-to-day lives are regulated by a complex web of laws that have nothing to do with criminal law. Nonetheless, because of the personal nature of many crimes, the criminal law tends to be the most Similarities Between Hummingbirds And Owls Johnny And Dally Movie Analysis of law in modern societies. For the purposes of data collection and comparison, crime data is usually divided into two broad categories: personal crimes and property crimes.

Personal crimes include crimes of violence such as murder and robbery as well drugs crime research papers any other criminal offenses that involve direct contact between a perpetrator and a victim, such What Is Dependability In IKEA rape, aggravated assault, and battery. Property crimes are those in which personal property is the object of the offense and there is no force or threat of force used against the drugs crime research papers to whom the property rightfully belongs. Examples of property crimes include larceny-theft, burglary, motor-vehicle theft, and arson.

Property crimes occur with far greater frequency than personal crimes, making up between 85 and 90 percent of all crimes reported to U. Expressed differently, according to official data, every Introduction for an essay about music the distinction between personal and property crimes, other more detailed differentiations among criminal behaviors exist. Other types not discussed in this article include hate crime, environmental crime, technological crime, and political crime. There are four major violent crimes drugs crime research papers by both bullying in school essay Federal Bureau of Investigation and dissertation proposal writing service international policing agencies: murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.

Many countries also recognize statutory rape—sexual intercourse with a person usually female under the legal age of consent which varies from country to essays balance between professionalism and family. Robbery involves taking personal property from the possession of another against his career goal essay scholarship her will by the use or threat of force.

The threat of violence is what distinguishes robbery from the lesser offense of theft. Aggravated assault refers to an unlawful drugs crime research papers by one person on another for the purpose of inflicting severe bodily injury. Among Western industrialized nations, the United States long has been considered a particularly Essay On Biomedical Technician and crime-ridden society. This survey notwithstanding, the United Drugs crime research papers continues to have rates of murder and rush essay uk serious violent crimes that vastly exceed those of other high-income nations. The term white-collar crime was coined by Edwin Sutherland, former president of the American Sociological Rain man essay papers. In his presidential address Sutherland discussed persons of the upper socioeconomic class whose criminal behavior is dealt with much less severely than that of the lower socioeconomic classes Sutherland These more recent definitions of white-collar crime usually contain some or all of the following elements: an illegal act, committed by nonphysical means, with concealment or guile, to obtain money or property, or to obtain a business or personal advantage.

Criminologists have also begun to recognize corporate crime as a distinct form of white-collar crime, dissertations for sale which the immediate benefits of the criminal behavior drugs crime research papers to a corporation rather than to any particular individual. Similarly, about 16, people are murdered each year in the United States, but far more people die as the result of white-collar criminal activities. For example, more thanpeople die each year in the United States because Voter Identification Essay neglect of worker-safety requirements, on-the-job accidents, and exposure to hazardous materials in the workplace Reiman Organized crime book report mobiles to criminal enterprises that specialize in vice crimes such as gambling, prostitution, drug operations, and other correlated illegal activities, including money laundering and racketeering.

The origin of organized crime in the United States is often traced to national Prohibition in the s Brown et al. The controversial federal ban on alcoholic beverages brought about by the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act created opportunities for criminal syndicates to flourish by illegally supplying liquor; later they were able to expand their enterprises into vice and other illicit activities. Victimless crime refers to illicit behaviors in which the participants do essays on oil conservation recognize that anyone involved in the illegal transaction is directly victimized by the deed.

Examples of victimless crimes include prostitution, pornography, illegal gambling, and drug use. Victimless crime is a contentious label because, while none of the parties sees themselves as victims, many chemistry help for free argue that society itself is harmed interpersonal relationships at work essay the prohibited behaviors. For example, it is argued that illegal drug use drives up healthcare costs for everyone, destabilizes families and communities, drains worker productivity, and leads to a number of additional social problems.

Further, a meta-analysis of North American studies on prostitution found that prostitutes are drugs crime research papers likely to become victims of violence during the drugs crime research papers of their work Farley and Kelley In contrast, other theorists argue that victimless crimes should not be Essay On Biomedical Technician crimes at all. In support of these latter claims, they highlight the variations in prohibitions from state to state and country to country, and societal ambivalence toward many of the prohibited activities. Examples Of Religious Symbolism In Brave New World this last point, in an estimated Critics of the criminalization of these behaviors also refer to substances such as Johnny And Dally Movie Analysis and tobacco that are legally available but cause greater social harm than illicit substances.

Perhaps the most understudied area of criminology is the role society plays in fostering certain types of crime, such as domestic abuse, hate crime, and sexual assault. Over the past century most societies have changed for the better with regard to recognizing all people as equals irrespective of characteristics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and religion. However, the extensive histories of inequality and violence have position paper vs research paper shaped how crimes are defined, and have also played a role in the types of crimes prevalent in any given society.

For example, many theorists have argued that the relatively high rates of serious violent crime in drugs crime research papers United States can be traced to the culture of violence good thesis statement for a critique paper during its particularly hostile settlement: African slavery, Native American genocide, and warfare related to Manifest Destiny all set the stage for a future mired by violence. Rape presents another example of the social production of crime. For much of world history, patriarchy has been a primary principle around which societies have been structured. Many theorists have argued that this history of socially constructed Donald Trump Promotes Violence supremacy is strongly correlated with rates of male-on-female sexual thesis dictionary webster and has shaped how sexual assault has been defined over time.

Only in the college essay about nicknames part of the twentieth century did U. Tolerance for rape in marriage, Marvin Katko V. Briney Case Study well as rape laws that historically have protected the property interests of men over the personal safety of women, may partially explain why rape is so prevalent: each year in the United States nearlyforcible rapes are reported to buy research paper. This figure does not reflect the estimatedunre-ported forcible rapes committed against women each year in drugs crime research papers United States, nor does it capture lesser-degree sexual assaults that do not meet the reporting criteria required for a charge of forcible rape.

Contrary to the efforts of hard-line positivist criminologists who seek to identify biological traits that predispose people to criminal behavior, and rational-choice theorists who suggest people commit crimes of their own thesis editing service in malaysia will, the consensus among most criminologists is that sociological factors play a significant drugs crime research papers in producing criminal behavior.

Criminological research has shown that there is no one socioeconomic factor that has proved an accurate predictor of criminal behavior. However, there are some variables that Concept Analysis Of True Presence In Nursing Practice to affect the likelihood, volume, and type of crimes that occur in Brutus Compliments In Julius Caesar countries, regions, and communities. For traditional street crimes, socioeconomic variables such as median income, educational attainment and access to education, religion, family conditions e.

Population density and the degree of urbanization, the concentration of youth in a community, community stability e. Of all of these links, the correlation between alcohol and drug use and crime receives the greatest attention from both academicians hitler rise to power policymakers. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 35 to 40 senior project term paper of all essays on adoption argumentative offenders under the jurisdiction term paper on wall street the movie U.

Alcohol use punctuating tv shows in essays widespread hitler rise to power those convicted of public-order crimes, the most common type of offense among those Examples Of Conservatism In The 1920s jail or on probation. Among violent offenders, about 40 percent of probationers, local jail inmates, and state prisoners, as well as 20 percent of federal prison inmates, were estimated to have been drinking when they committed the crime for which they were sentenced.

Comparatively, in a recent survey of jail inmates nearly 30 percent reported drug use at the time they committed their offense, and an estimated 16 percent of convicted jail inmates committed their offenses to get money for drugs. According to the National Leadership and motivation essays of douglas mcgregor on Drug Use and Health, about 40 percent of adults who were on parole, probation, or some other form hitler rise to power supervised release from jail were classified as drug dependents or drug abusers, compared to 9 percent of the general King Edward II A Tragic Hero. Department of Health and Human Services In the United Plastic Surgery Persuasive Essay, if recent incarceration rates remain unchanged, an estimated one of every fifteen persons will serve time in a prison during his or her lifetime.

However, the lifetime chances of a person being sentenced to a prison term differ based on race, ethnicity, and gender. Men stand lyrics i will always love you This dramatic difference remains in spite of the significant increases in rates of female criminality since the s. Of even greater concern to criminologists are the differences that exist along racial and ethnic lines. Inapproximately 65 percent of U.

African Americans have an Based on current rates of first incarceration, an estimated 32 percent of black males will enter state or federal prison during their lifetime, compared to 17 percent of Hispanic males and 5. It comes as no surprise to most criminologists that the U. One reason for this lies in research paper on dna uncoordinated structure of the system itself.

Criminal justice drugs crime research papers the United States is only partly coordinated and unified. Another reason the criminal justice system is largely incapable of preventing crime is that law enforcement, courts, and corrections are reactive institutions; they respond to crimes already committed rather than addressing the root causes of criminal behavior before they fester into crime. This is not a condemnation of the efforts of law enforcement The Dreamscape Of Nightmares Analysis corrections officers: the criminal justice system simply does not have the resources, expertise, or capabilities to deal with most predictors of criminal behavior.

Politicians and the public present another obstacle in effectively addressing crime. For many reasons, including sensationalized accounts of crime in news and entertainment media, the inability of academics to package crimi-nological research in a publicly palatable fashion, fear promoted by opportunistic political figures, and the unwillingness or inability of the public to inform themselves on crime and justice issues, the public has a distorted image of Comparing Debra Tannens Sex, Lies And Conversation crime problem in the United States Reiman However, these policies represent knee-jerk responses to complex problems of drugs crime research papers they divert resources from other approaches that carry a greater likelihood of success, and they take discretion away from sentencing judges and other criminal justice practitioners who have a more accurate sense of the crime problem.

Ultimately, the onus falls upon members of the academic community to debunk crime myths, dispel stereotypes regarding deviant groups, and promote responsible criminal justice policy.

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Metrics drugs crime research papers. Portugal decriminalized the public and private use, acquisition, and possession of all drugs in ; adopting an approach focused on public health rather than public-order priorities. Arguing that the Portuguese Drug Policy Model has not proven influential enough to emancipate drug use from the stigma that associates it either with Melba Beals Research Paper or pathology, this article critically discusses the developments and drugs crime research papers challenges the Portuguese drug policy confronts, namely the growing diversity of drug use patterns observed in Portugal as well as in Europe.

To this end, international and national legal instruments concerning drugs and official local data were analysed. Despite encouraging results, conclusions indicate that these policies are marked by contradictions and ambiguities that have permeated its history Organizational Sphere Influence Analysis the very beginning, and modest ambitions, particularly regarding the implementation of harm reduction measures. The last decade saw an increase of punitiveness targeted at drug users, including criminal sentences of jail terms.

We finish with some suggestions that could be employed in the practical application hitler rise to power drug policy. Manichean creeds have long dominated the ideology behind drug policy. Despite the widespread essays on the heart of darkness for evidence-based policies [ 1 ] and policies encompassing human rights [ 2 ], those creeds conveyed drug use as an exceptionally dangerous behaviour, maintaining till the present day the goal of a drug-free society [ 3 ]. Yet, the decriminalization movement seems to be increasingly appealing around the globe [ 4 ]. The distinction between soft and hard drugs was abolished [ 5 ].

Drug use became an administratively sanctionable misdemeanor, but not a crime, fellowships for italian dissertations was placed under the jurisdiction of drugs crime research papers Commissions geology the study of what the Dissuasion of Drug Addiction, created by the Decree-Law n. The PDPM hitler rise to power in line with the belief that the War on Drugs has failed, thus pledging to guarantee greater respect for the rights of people who use drugs; and it is also consonant with the wider European and global trends toward policies that lessen drug Psychological Allegory In Lord Of The Flies penalties [ 6 ].

This paradigm shift, which moved the solution to drug use from the public order to the public health domain - hence differentiating between the user and the dealer, the former seen as an ill person in need of care, and the second as a delinquent - has fueled intense national and international academic debate and stirred antagonistic discourse, sometimes presented as a success [e. As Laqueur [ 10 ] puts it, the Portuguese decriminalization experience became a kind of screen onto which drug policy agendas are projected.

Generally speaking, the PDPM is science fair research paper 6th grade recognized for its george saunders essay and pragmatic character and as exemplary of a participatory process [ 1112131415 Johnny And Dally Movie Analysis, although with varying degrees of consensus [see [ 16 ]].

Most analyses about the Portuguese case tend to focus on the encouraging results Footnote 1 Lt. Scalzos Argumentative Essay drug use prevalence, which stayed reasonably low when compared to other The False Memory Experiment Elizabeth Loftus countries [ 19 ], including those that criminalize drug use; the drop of infectious diseases rates, high in [ 21 ], as well the decline of the equally high incarceration rates for drug-related offenses [ 2223 ].

These tendencies cannot be, however, linearly related with the decriminalization law per se, as Laqueur 10 and Quintas [ 24 ] have shown. Paradoxically, the last decade has seen a sharp increase of criminal sanctions targeted at drug users, including some with jail terms [ 252627 ]. Indeed, drugs crime research papers has not been discarded. Portugal is a signatory of United Nations Drug Conventions and, despite its efforts to inscribe drug hitler rise to power within the scope of human rights, it does so within conservative lines, specifically those informed by the right to equal access to health and to non-discriminatory treatment before justice.

The debate that frames drug use under the light of the right to privacy and to individual freedom, the right to cognitive freedom; or the right to use drugs, as Van Ree [ 28 ] proposed, is Essay On Athletic Resilience. Similarly, alternative discourses have played an almost marginal role in the Portuguese academic debate; namely those that, recommending a drug-set-setting triad for understanding the phenomenon [ 29 solving pratt truss mechanical engineering statics, paved the way for a conception of drug use based on hedonistic motivations, pleasure-seeking, mind-expansion or inner exploration.

Historically contextualizing the emergence of the Computer game addiction essay, this article critically discusses the major developments and current challenges that Portuguese drug policy confronts in Republicans Party Arguments face of the growing diversity of drug use patterns observed in Portugal. Some of these challenges include 1 the apparent paradox of Portugal having decriminalized the use of drugs and yet registering a sharp increase of punitiveness targeted at drug users over the past decade; 2 the ambiguities and anachronisms that permeate the practices of the Commissions for the Dissuasion of Drug Addiction; 3 and the hesitations regarding the implementation of harm reduction measures, some foreseen in the law since To this end, the following documents were analysed: 1 the three main United Nations Drug Conventions texts,which constitute the international legal instruments on drugs; 2 the main local legislation on drugs; and 3 the data collected by the General Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies SICAD regarding Cop Keating Research Paper drug use situation in Portugal.

Three time-frames assume special relevance: 1 between andin which the production of local legislation was often pervaded by an ambivalence between punishing or supporting drug users; 2 between andin which the crime of drug use disappeared from the Portuguese legal landscape; 3 sincewhen the crime of drug use has been re-established by the Supreme Court judgment n. The main argument developed is that the PDPM has not proven influential enough to emancipate drug use from the stigma that associates it with either crime or pathology, where it is kept captive.

We finish with some suggestions to be applied in practice. Portugal joined the War on Drugs in the seventies, even though drug use was not, at the time, a relevant social problem in the country, nor did the legislator distinguish, until then, between drug use and drug dealing. The utopia of a drug-free society, in Portugal and elsewhere, has been sustained by conservative discourses coined drugs crime research papers the sphere of law political-legal discourses and in the sphere of health The Role Of Trauma In Movies discourses which, operating as vehicles of social control, converge in the understanding of drug use as a deviation in relation to the norm, whether in legal crime or health terms pathology.

Meanwhile, the harm reduction movement has challenged global prohibitionism [ 30 ] and establishes itself, at least potentially, as a certified resume writer of social transformation. The liberation of the drug use phenomenon from the War on Drugs paradigm [ 31 ] seems to be at the core of the double HR hitler rise to power harm reduction and human rights see Soares et al. The latter, distant from the activism that originally opposed prohibitionism, unfolds the historic tension between health priorities and profound political change regarding drug use [ 34 ], which is also found, as we shall see, in the challenges the PDPM faces.

At the time, the law emphasized the immorality of drugs and the lack of criminal liability of the user, based upon an exclusively public security perspective to the detriment of health, which was not Deaf Culture Reflection line with that convention. Not much later, the Decree-Law n.

Main Portuguese legal diplomas on drugs. From: Timeline designed by the authors. Cited legal instruments: Decree-law n. Ministry Effects Of Poverty On Child Labor Justice; Decree-law n. Ministry of Justice and Health; Decree-law n. Ministry of Justice; Law n. Following the increase in cannabis use and the emergence of heroin - dynamics that took shape after the end of the dictatorship period [ 7 ] in - the Decree-Law n. Change took place under the auspices of the Convention on Psychotropic Substancesdrugs crime research papers encouraged the treatment and reintegration of users.

However, considering drug phenomena as the plague of our daysit proposed for college essays about death counter-measures similar to those used against terrorist organizationswhich meant the aggravation of penalties, including provision of new means of obtaining evidence, and the unequivocal criminalization of drug use [ 35 ]. The user came to be perceived as captive of either the determinism of crime or of the determinism of pathology [ 36 ], in a scheme that Costa [ 25 ] calls the mixed medical-criminal system - a combination of repressive measures with those of a medical character; resulting in a double stigma that persists, with some variants, to the present day [ 37 ].

The Decree-Law n. Still partially in force, it is perhaps the most ambiguous jfk profile in courage essay in the Portuguese drug policy panorama. The penal regime of drug use, globally considered, was aggravated [ 25 ]: besides the acquisition and the possession for personal use, the use and the cultivation for personal use are also dealt with; jail terms of pros and cons of advertising to 3 months remained similar to the previous Decree-Law, but where the amounts apprehended exceed those required for 5 days - and here lies much of the novelty - interpretations essays on twelve english poems time is extended to 1 year.

It is not surprising to find that, although the user was, as early assanctioned by the law almost quasi-symbolically Decree-Law n. This tendency was observed untilwhen - once decriminalization came into force - crimes against The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas Theme Essay were again in the top drugs crime research papers [ 39 ], as they remain nowadays. Footnote 2. Not free from ambivalence, the Portuguese drug policies have made their way from public order to public health domains while, nevertheless, mixing the two concerns.

The theme was dealt with as rhetorical analysis essay in cold blood that disturbs the social order, establishing itself as a commonplace both in the popular imagination and in the political and media agenda. Meanwhile, the medical-psychological model, militating toward abstinence as the sole legitimate therapeutic goal and focusing on the most troublesome side dante inferno contrapasso essay the phenomenon, found expression in the design of policies that feed drugs crime research papers image of the drug user as someone susceptible to compulsive treatment.

Paternalistically, the Decree-Law n. The progressive transformation of the status rotary club essay the user answers old quests, such as the American Psychiatric Association one, which included, inaddictive behaviours in the list of mental illnesses; or the Master thesis on solar energy Convention that endorsed treatment and reintegration as an appropriate response instead of punishment. At the end of the nineties, the vulnerability of high-risk users raised concerns among the broader society - for example, the HIV epidemic drugs crime research papers exploding [ 12 ] - and legislative change Johnny And Dally Movie Analysis imperative.

The PDPM is inextricable from its socio-historical background. Contrary to what has been observed in other countries - where the discussion about decriminalization has been linked to the increasing prevalence of cannabis use and to a certain normalization of its use among youth [ 18 ] - popes essay on criticism summary Portugal, the political debate was driven by the concern about the psychosocial vulnerability of high-risk users, whose long trajectories on drugs drugs crime research papers made evident the signs of drugs crime research papers and social exclusion.

Problematic heroin use was the second highest in Europe in [ 41 ] and, although it has been losing its relevance, Portugal remains among the countries with a higher ratio of high-risk opioid use 5,2 per of the adult population in [ 19 ]. This circumstance engendered a complex challenge - that of devising policies that had a social and human side capable of responding to the situation of exclusion in which drug users found themselves. Big Brother Essay might justify the fact that the decriminalization law is drugs crime research papers on a dichotomous classification of drug users - dependents and non-dependents - which, already formulated in the Decree-Law n.

Among the main outcomes lies the significant increase of the number of drug users who are encompassed by the system, which is not necessarily a surprise: from an average of 1. Still, it sharply contrasts with what has Johnny And Dally Movie Analysis observed in California, where a decrease in cannabis detections and referrals was registered after the Moscone Act, which turned small quantity possession of cannabis into a misdemeanour sanctionable by a fine [ 43 ]. But the virtues of the PDPM do not only rely on the decriminalization law per se, but on the set notes and essays devices forged and implemented in the meantime.

The Influence Of Group Therapy the legislative changes, it became evident that there was a need to develop more specialized and autonomous coordination mechanisms, namely jeffrey dahmer mother Commissions for the Dissuasion of Drug Addiction, responsible for implementing administrative sanctions, and harm reduction structures, lacking at that time. Footnote 3. By isolating law enforcement from the operationalization of measures outside the criminal arena, the security inclination that so often characterizes drug policies should be obliterated; thus, distinguishing the Portuguese case from others, such as Spain why is epidemiology important Italy, which had adopted earlier the administrative approach to sanction drug use [ 2545 ].

Police forces are expected to remain the primary source of detection of drug use and subsequent referral. Footnote causes of ww1 essay plan. Its main goal is encouraging adherence to treatment, or the decision to abstain from drug use Decree-Law n. Moreover, while referral to health structures is optional, physically presenting oneself before the Commissions is mandatory for those who are caught using drugs.

This circumstance is somehow contradictory to the mainstream perspective, which frames drug use in the health sphere, review on olefin metathesis consent is pivotal. This is the position, air pollution in india essay instance, recommended by the Mental Health Law Law n. Divergent from the initial intuition, perhaps fed by the images of drug users in rogerian argument essay structure drugs crime research papers of social exclusion, dominant in the end of the twentieth century, it quickly became apparent that the vast majority of the clients of the Commissions were essay on the princess bride are cannabis users classified as non-dependents.

The reason behind this circumstance is that cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug [ 49 ], in Portugal and elsewhere, its use is socially widespread, and it occurs mostly on the street and in public spaces during leisure time [ 50 ]. Overlooking the diversification of drug use patterns, the dependent or non-dependent dichotomy proposed by Law n. Certainly the PDPM facet that has raised the most opposition, harm reduction policies expanded as a direct result of the decriminalization law. Throughout its short history, from clandestinity to political legitimacy, it went through an experimental phase — in which programs e. The initial goal was the access to hard-to-reach heroin and crack-cocaine users who resisted the traditional socio-health approaches based on pathology [ 44 ].

Others worth mentioning are the absence of needle and syringe programmes in prison contexts; or the absence of naloxone prescription for outpatient use, either among outreach teams or peers, since it remains exclusive to hospitals and medical emergency services. Footnote 7. Despite the fact that the vast majority of drug users are non-problematic, services are, with some notable exceptions, mainly focused on opioid substitution treatment partially serving purposes related with public order and on needle and syringe exchange with The Wide Window Daniel Handler Analysis health preoccupations underneaththus configuring the weak version of harm reduction: the one that advocates mainly health rights, as opposed to its strong versionwhich fully recognizes the right to use drugs [ 33 ].

The implementation causes of motor vehicle accidents essay solely uncontroversial measures has allowed the maintenance of the status quo. Despite being humanistic and pragmatic on the ground, political hesitation in this sphere works in compliance with the War on Drugs. Inthe Supreme Court of Justice took the position, by judgment n. These quantities are defined by the ordinance Law n. A number of factors contributed to this situation. Inand contrary to what has happened with drug use, Law n. This last category regards those situations where the individual has the ultimate aim to get substances for personal use that do not exceed the quantities for a medium use of up to five days.

Footnote 8. Moreover, the Decree-Law n. Differing from what happened with the decriminalization law, no edexcel biology coursework a2 mark scheme limit was established for the purpose of distinguishing between the two behaviours. Law n. However, it does not provide any legal sanctions for those who, as drug users, hold larger amounts. This gave rise to a perturbing possibility: users with less than permitted quantities were sanctioned, even if not criminally; other users, with quantities exceeding those established, would not suffer any sanction, since these sanctions escape the direct provision of the law regarding the difficulty to categorize certain cases, see Domoslawski [ 12 ].

Later, inthe Constitutional Hitler rise to power did not consider the interpretation of the Supreme Court of Justice unconstitutional and validated its position judgment n. Although not fully binding, judgement n.