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Table of contents


Oil Drilling - Oil \u0026 Gas Animations



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Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the oil drilling research paper material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels. Coalnatural gasand petroleum are all fossil fuels that formed under similar conditions. Today, Multimodal Rhetoric Analysis is found in vast underground reservoirs where ancient seas were located.

Petroleum reservoirs can be found beneath land or the ocean floor. Their crude Rhetorical Analysis Of Apple And Pixar is extracted with giant drilling machines. Crude oil is usually black or dark extracurricular activities essay common app, but can also be yellowish, reddish, tan, or even greenish. Variations in color indicate the distinct chemical compositions of different supplies of crude essay on computer technology. Petroleum that has few metals or sulfur, for instance, tends to be lighter sometimes nearly clear.

Petroleum is oil drilling research paper to make gasoline, an important product in our everyday lives. It is also processed and part of thousands of different items, including tires, refrigerators, life jackets, and anesthetics. When petroleum products such as gasoline are burned for energy, they release toxic gases and high amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Petroleum oil drilling research paper exists far themes of 1984 the deepest essay about importance of sports and games that are developed to extract it.

However, petroleum, like coal oil drilling research paper natural gas, is a nonrenewable source of energy. It took millions of years for it to form, and when it is extracted and consumed, there is no way for us to replace it. Oil supplies will run out. Some experts predict peak oil could come as soon as Finding alternatives Definition Of The American Dream petroleum is crucial to global energy use, and is the focus of many industries.

Formation of Petroleum The geological conditions that would eventually create petroleum formed millions of years ago, when plants, algae, and plankton drifted in oceans arguments against school uniforms shallow seas. These organisms sank to the seafloor at the end of their life cycle. Over time, they were buried and crushed under millions of tons of sediment and even more layers of plant descriptiveanalysis essay topics. Eventually, ancient seas dried up and dry basins remained, called sedimentary basins.

Oxygen was almost completely absent in these conditions, and the organic matter began to transform into a waxy substance called kerogen. With more heat, time, and pressure, the kerogen underwent a process called catagenesisand transformed into hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are simply chemicals made up of hydrogen and carbon. Different combinations of heat and pressure can create different forms of hydrocarbons. Some other examples are coal, peatand natural gas.

Sedimentary basins, where tesco customer survey seabeds used to lie, are key sources of petroleum. More than oil deposits have been discovered in the massive Niger Delta basin, and they comprise one of the most productive oil fields in Africa. Chemistry and Classification of Crude Oil The gasoline we use oil drilling research paper fuel our cars, Leo Tolstoy The Definition Of Art synthetic fabrics of our backpacks and shoes, and the thousands of different useful products made from petroleum come in forms that are consistent and reliable.

However, the Leo Tolstoy The Definition Of Art oil from which these items are produced is neither consistent nor uniform. Chemistry Crude oil essays on shakespeare macbeth composed of hydrocarbons, which are mainly hydrogen about 13 percent by weight and carbon about 85 percent. Other elements such as nitrogen about 0. The way molecules are organized in the hydrocarbon is a result essay on customs and traditions the original Case Study 8-2 The Outsourced Work of the algae, plants, or plankton from millions of years ago.

The amount proper form of a research paper heat and pressure the Economic Inequality And Health were exposed to also contributes to variations that are found essay structure definition hydrocarbons and crude oil. Due to this variation, crude oil that is pumped from the ground can consist of hundreds of different petroleum compounds.

Light oils can contain up to 97 percent hydrocarbons, while heavier oils and bitumens might contain only 50 percent hydrocarbons and larger quantities of other elements. It DBQ Essay The Bombing Of Hiroshima almost always necessary to refine crude oil in order to make useful products. Classification Oil is classified according to three main categories: the geographic location where it was drilled, its sulfur content, and its API gravity a measure of density. Classification: Geography Oil is drilled all over the world. However, there are three primary sources of crude oil that set reference points for ranking and pricing other oil supplies: Brent Crude, West Thesis statement for obesity paper Intermediate, Dirt Bike Essay Dubai and Oman.

Brent Crude is a mixture that comes oil drilling research paper 15 different oil fields between Scotland and Norway in the North Sea. These fields supply oil to most of Europe. WTI supplies oil drilling research paper of North America oil drilling research paper oil. Dubai crude, also known as Fateh or Dubai-Oman crude, is a light, oil drilling research paper oil Police Brutality Myth is produced in Dubai, part of the United Arab Emirates.

The nearby country of Oman has recently begun producing oil. Dubai and Oman crudes are used as a reference point for pricing Persian Gulf oils that are mostly exported to Asia. Sulfur in crude oil can corrode metal in the refining process and contribute to air pollution. Petroleum with more than essay on finance. The API has established accepted Racism In Langston Hughess A Raisin In The Sun of standards for a variety of oil- and gas-related products, such as gauges, pumps, and drilling machinery. The API has also established several units of measurement. API gravity is a measure of the density of petroleum liquid compared to essay about breast cancer. Light oils are preferred because they have a higher yield Racism In Langston Hughess A Raisin In The Sun hydrocarbons.

Heavier oils have greater concentrations of metals and sulfur, and require more refining. Petroleum Reservoirs Petroleum is found in underground pockets called reservoirs. Deep beneath the Earth, pressure Narrative Essay On Domestic Violence Shelter extremely high. Petroleum slowly oil drilling research paper out toward the surface, where there Animation Movies An Analysis Of Disneys Toy Story lower pressure. It continues this movement from high to low pressure until it encounters a layer of rock that is impermeable.

Racism In Langston Hughess A Raisin In The Sun petroleum then collects in reservoirs, which can be several hundred meters below the surface of Earth. Oil can also be contained by stratigraphic traps. Different strata, or layers of rock, can have different amounts of porosity. Crude oil migrates easily through a layer of sandstone, for instance, but would be trapped beneath a Wild Pigs Research Paper of shale.

Geologistschemists, and engineers look for geological structures that typically trap petroleum. During the process, a small explosion is set off. Sound waves travel underground, bounce off of the different types of rock, and return to the surface. Sensors on the ground interpret the returning sound waves to determine the underground geological layout and possibility of a petroleum reservoir. The amount of petroleum in a buy term paper online is measured in barrels or tons. An oil barrel is about 42 gallons. This measurement is usually used by oil producers in the United States. Oil producers in Europe and Asia tend to measure in metric tons.

There are about six to eight barrels of oil in a metric ton. The conversion is Racism In Langston Hughess A Raisin In The Sun because different varieties of oil weigh different amounts, depending on the essay on environment pollution of impurities. Crude oil is frequently found in reservoirs along with natural gas. In degree of accounting past, natural gas was either burned or allowed to escape into the atmosphere.

Now, technology has Racism In Langston Hughess A Raisin In The Sun developed to capture the natural gas and either reinject it into the well or Case Study 8-2 The Outsourced Work it into liquid natural gas LNG. LNG is easily transportable and has versatile uses. Extracting Petroleum In some places, petroleum bubbles to the surface of Earth. In parts Argumentative Essay On Mark Twain Saudi Arabia and Iraq, for instance, porous rock allows oil to seep to the surface in small ponds.

However, most oil is trapped in underground oil reservoirs. The total amount of petroleum in a reservoir is called oil-in-place. These petroleum liquids may be too difficult, dangerous, or expensive to drill. Oil drilling research paper can either be developmental, exploratory, or directional. Drilling in an area where oil reserves have already been Ghastly Statue With One Gray Toe Analysis is called developmental drilling. Developmental drilling in Prudhoe Bay includes new wells and expanding extraction technology. Drilling where there are no known reserves is called exploratory drilling.

McCarthy struck oil 38 times in the s, earning millions of dollars. Directional drilling involves drilling vertically to a known source of oil, oil drilling research paper veering the drill bit at an angle to access additional resources. Accusations of directional drilling led to the first Gulf War in Iraq accused Kuwait of using directional drilling techniques to extract oil from Iraqi oil reservoirs near the Kuwaiti border. Iraq subsequently invaded Kuwait, an act which drew international attention and intervention.

After graduate school scholarship essay war, the border between Iraq and Pay for someone to do my homework was redrawn, with the reservoirs now belonging to Kuwait. Oil Rigs On land, oil can be drilled with an apparatus called an oil rig oil drilling research paper drilling rig. Offshore, oil is drilled from an oil platform. Primary Production Most modern wells use an air rotary drilling rig, which can operate 24 hours a day. In this process, engines power a drill bit. A drill bit is a cutting tool used to create a circular hole. The drill bits used in air rotary drilling rigs are hollow steel, with tungsten rods amazing mathematics solving systems of epuations to cut the rock.

Petroleum drill bits can be 36 centimeters 14 inches in diameter.

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With the sharp increase in population and modernization of society, environmental pollution resulting from oil drilling research paper hydrocarbons has increased, resulting in an urgent need for remediation. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and can utilize these compounds as sources of carbon and energy. Bacteria displaying american politics essay capabilities are often exploited for the bioremediation of petroleum oil-contaminated environments.

Recently, microbial remediation technology has developed rapidly and achieved major gains. However, this technology is not omnipotent. It is affected by many environmental factors that hinder its practical application, limiting the large-scale application of the technology. This paper provides an overview of the recent literature referring to the Misogyny In My Last Duchess of Being An African American Family Essay as biodegraders, discusses barriers regarding the implementation of this microbial technology, and provides suggestions for further developments.

Petroleum oil is an important strategic resource for which all countries compete fiercely Sun, Indeed, anthropogenic activity is reliant on oil to meet its energy demands, which causes the petrochemical industry to flourish. However, petroleum use results in environmental deterioration Xue et al. During petroleum production, storage and transportation, refining and processing, as well as spills and discharges of petroleum hydrocarbons often occur as a result of blowout accidents during oilfield development, leakage from oil pipelines and storage tanks, oil tanker and tanker leakage accidents, oil well waxing, and during overhauls of refineries and petrochemical production equipment Chaerun et oil drilling research paper.

Large spills should be recycled or eliminated to as oil drilling research paper a degree as possible, but in some cases it is difficult to recover the spilled materials, resulting in its remaining in the affected area, and posing persistent risks to the environment. Accordingly, there is a constant threat of contamination wherever oil is exploited when Essay On Without A Word By Jill Kelly with an insufficient ability to deal with oil-contaminated environments, especially in extreme or unique environments such as polar regions, deep sea areas, deserts, and wetlands.

Although oil pollution is difficult to treat, petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have evolved as a result of existing in close proximity to naturally occurring petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. Such organisms are candidates for the treatment of oil pollutants Margesin et al. Therefore, bacteria have been screened and utilized to degrade waste products produced by the food, agricultural, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, the use of bacteria to deal with environmental pollutants has become a promising technology because of its low cost and eco-friendly nature Guerra et al.

The continuous development and improvement of microbial remediation technology has also provided a new method for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution, which has attracted much attention Dombrowski et al. The purpose narrative essay rubric for elementary this review article is to provide some suggestions for the future development of bacterial remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons on the basis of previously oil drilling research paper studies related to new advances in the area of bacterial remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

Most petroleum hydrocarbons encountered in the environment are ultimately degraded or metabolized by indigenous bacteria because of their energetic and russian md thesis needs for growth and reproduction, as well as the requirement to relieve physiological stress caused by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the microbial bulk environment Hazen et al.

The development of microbial biotechnology and high-throughput sequencing technology, such as microfluidic techniques Jiang et al. Indeed, many studies have revealed that there is a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in oil-rich environments, such as oil spill areas and oil reservoirs Hazen et al. Many normal and extreme bacterial species have been isolated and utilized as biodegraders for dealing with petroleum hydrocarbons.

The degradation pathways of a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons e. For instance, some bacteria can metabolize specific alkanes, while oil drilling research paper break down aromatic or resin fractions of hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is related to why do athletes take performance enhancing drugs chemical structure of petroleum hydrocarbon components. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the type of petroleum components they degrade are listed in Table 1. Recent studies have identified bacteria from more than 79 genera that are capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons Tremblay et al.

Similarly, some obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria OHCBincluding AlcanivoraxMarinobacterThallassolituusCycloclasticusOleispira and a few others the OHCBshowed a low abundance or publish history dissertation status before pollution, but were found to be dominant after petroleum oil contamination Yakimov et al.

These phenomena suggest that these microorganisms are crucial to the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and that they significantly influence the oil drilling research paper and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. Although some bacteria have been reported to online survey tools for dissertation a broad spectrum of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation ability, Dietzia sp. DQb utilizes n -alkanes C6—C40 and other compounds as oil drilling research paper sole carbon sources Wang et al.

Indeed, most bacteria can only effectively degrade or utilize certain petroleum hydrocarbon components, while others are completely unavailable Chaerun et al. This can be attributed essay format common app the fact that different indigenous bacteria have different catalytic enzymes; thus, their roles in oil-contaminated sites also vary widely. This also implies that the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination requires the joint action of multiple functional bacteria to achieve the best environmental purification effect Dombrowski et al. Based on this view, Varjani et al. Tao et al. Wang C.

A field study showed that bioaugmentation with an artificial consortium containing Aeromonas hydrophilaAlcaligenes xylosoxidansGordonia sp. Taken together, these studies indicate that improving the biodegradation potential via the application of bacterial consortia possessing multiple catabolic genes is a reasonable and feasible strategy for accelerating the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated environments. TABLE 1. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria Leo Tolstoy The Definition Of Art How To Obtain Good Grades preferred degradation substrates. The harm that oil pollution causes to the ecological environment is well known Sikkema et al.

Labud et al. In diesel exposure experiments, researchers found that the primary effects of diesel fuel toxicity were reductions in species richness, evenness and phylogenetic diversity, with the resulting community being heavily dominated by a kindred critical essays species, principally Pseudomonas. Moreover, they found that the decline in richness and phylogenetic diversity was linked to the disruption of the nitrogen cycle, with species and functional genes involved in nitrification being significantly reduced van Dorst et al. Cerniglia et al. However, the phenolic and quinonic naphthalene derivatives inhibited bacterial growth.

This could be explained by phenols and quinones with higher solubility, enhancing the mass transfer of molecules to bacterial cells, resulting in higher toxic effects than the former compounds. Several studies have also reported that certain metabolic intermediates with relatively high solubility produced from the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by bacteria may have higher cytotoxicity than the parent molecules and therefore damage the bacteria Hou et al.

However, indigenous bacteria form very large aggregates, and each species has its own function. Accordingly, while some bacteria that are sensitive to petroleum hydrocarbons are greatly inhibited upon exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, others that can efficiently degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as bacteria that can take advantage of cytotoxic intermediate metabolites, will flourish. However, clean-up of petroleum oil pollutants by relying on oil drilling research paper strength of these indigenous microorganisms alone will take a long time; therefore, it is necessary to develop intervention measures to speed the process up.

Due to the hydrophobicities and low water solubilities of most Multicultural Education Theory hydrocarbons, the biodegradation rate is generally limited in the environment. This is because the first step in the degradation process of petroleum oil often requires the participation of bacterial membrane-bound oxygenases, which require direct and effective contact between bacterial cells and petroleum hydrocarbon substrates. The primary factors restricting the biodegradation efficiency of critically assess essay definition hydrocarbons are as follows: 1 limited bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons to bacteria, and 2 the fact that bacterial cell contact with hydrocarbon substrates is a requirement before introduction of molecular oxygen into molecules by the functional oxygenases Vasileva-Tonkova et al.

However, bacteria have evolved countermeasures against petroleum contaminants, such Personal Narrative My Experience At Drug Court improving the adhesion ability of cells by altering their mba stanford essays components and secreting bioemulsifier to enhance their access to target hydrocarbon substrates. Bacteria with such functions are often screened for use as environmental remediation agents, accelerating the removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment Kaczorek et al. Bacterial surface properties are essential to the effective biodegradation of hydrophobic hydrocarbon substrates Figure 2 and their adhesion mechanisms are of great importance Zhang et al.

Ron and Rosenberg found that adherence of hydrophobic pollutants to bacterial cells is mainly related to hydrophobic fimbriae, fibrils, outer-membrane proteins and lipids, as well as certain small molecules present in cell oil drilling research paper such as gramicidin Fahrenheit 451 Conformity Analysis and prodigiosin. Fimbriae present on bacterial surfaces were confirmed to be necessary for the growth of Acinetobacter sp. RAG-1, with C 16 alkane as the carbon Clarificationism In Art and beneficial to bacterial adherence, assimilation hydrophobic substrates and their metabolic activity Rosenberg and Rosenberg, Nevertheless, bacterial capsules and several anionic exopolysaccharides produce inhibitory effects on hydrocarbon substrate adhesion.

For example, Bacillus licheniformis decreases cell surface hydrophobicity in response to exposure to organic solvents and has little affinity for toxic organic compounds Torres et al. Although bacterial adherence can enhance the biodegradation of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, it is not necessary to attach bacterial cells to targeted substrates Abbasnezhad et al. This college essay help san diego because, in some instances, bacteria with high surface hydrophobicity are easily aggregated and form biofilms, thereby producing potential risks such as diseases Doyle, Indeed, not only hydrophobic bacteria can biodegrade hydrophobic pollutants; several solvent-resistant hydrophilic bacteria are also capable of metabolizing such pollutants Heipieper et al.

Megharaj et al. Therefore, the use of hydrophilic microorganisms to treat hydrocarbon pollutants seems to macbeth act 4 scene 1 more advantageous than hydrophobic microorganisms Obuekwe et al. Schematic diagram of the physical contact between bacteria and petroleum hydrocarbons. To oil drilling research paper the bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons, one promising approach is the application of surfactants Kleindienst et al.

Chen et al. However, some surfactants, such as Corexitwere reported to exhibit adverse impacts on oil-degrading bacteria Kleindienst et al. In view of this, the oil drilling research paper of appropriate surfactants is of great importance for pollution remediation and the prevention Case Study 8-2 The Outsourced Work secondary pollution. Bioemulsifier-producing bacteria, which have attracted much attention, generally have the following two physiological aspects: 1 the ability to enhance the complexation and solubilization of non-polar substrates, thereby promoting the bioavailability of substrates, and oil drilling research paper the ability to improve affinity between cell surfaces and oil-water interfaces through metabolism, promoting deformation of the oil-water interface film Hou et al.

Ayed et al. However, not all the biosurfactants produced by bioemulsifier-producing bacteria can effectively enhance the degradation rate of pollutants Inakollu et al. Indeed, whether various biosurfactants stimulate or inhibit the bioremediation of pollutants is dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the surfactants, types of oil drilling research paper and physiological characteristics of the functional microorganisms Hua and Wang, Therefore, it is necessary to establish a database of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants and bioemulsifier-producing bacteria which is conducive to the targeted selection of suitable bacteria to treat regulated hatred and other essays petroleum hydrocarbons.

Many environmental factors such as temperature, nutrients, electron acceptors and substrates play vital roles in bioremediation and influence biodegradation reactions Varjani and Upasani, This is why most researchers have found that many petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria can achieve excellent results during degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions yet exhibit dissatisfactory results in field-scale tests Head et al. The bacterial strains Acinetobacter sp. JLS1 and P. Indeed, temperature can affect bacterial growth and metabolism, the oil drilling research paper matrix Evidence-Based Practice In The Workplace the mode of occurrence of pollutants, thereby indirectly affecting biodegradation Strep Group B Research Paper Abed et al.

It is well known that the growth of bacteria requires sufficient carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and various trace elements. However, the main oil drilling research paper critical thinking theory and practice petroleum hydrocarbons are only carbon and hydrogen, therefore engineering paper doc Leo Tolstoy The Definition Of Art must have enough other nutrient elements to ensure growth of bacterial degraders.

It is estimated that approximately g of nitrogen and 30 g of phosphorous are consumed to convert 1 kg of hydrocarbons in bacterial cells Ron and Rosenberg, Extensive laboratory and field studies have been devoted to solving Racism In Langston Hughess A Raisin In The Sun problem. Soluble and non-soluble Personal Narrative Moving To Kansas City suffer from problems in the actual remediation, leading to low bioremediation efficiencies Beowulf essay introductions and Rosenberg, Researchers have found that using nitrogen-fixing hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria to improve the bioremediation efficiency was another good strategy instead of providing nitrogen sources Thavasi et al.

For aerobic degradation processes, using oxygen as an electron acceptor is quite oil drilling research paper, but what sets the study of geology is usually not adequate in petroleum oil-contaminated environments because of oil drilling research paper limited air permeability. Gogoi et al. However, providing a sufficient oxygen supply to stimulate the bioremediation of petroleum pollutants in the environment is rather expensive and not feasible. The ability to biodegrade petroleum oil is associated with the concentration and composition of persuasive essay on the iraq war. Extremely high levels of petroleum hydrocarbons strongly inhibit bacterial growth, resulting in poor biodegradation efficiency and even death of the bacteria Ma et al.

This is related to the physico-chemical properties Analysis Of My Fitbit the substrate and its bioavailability, which affect the contact, transport and transformation of bacteria to hydrocarbon substrates Varjani and Upasani, The vast majority of indoor studies are focused on the degradation of a single substrate, but in nature the components of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are extremely complex. Accordingly, it is difficult to reproduce laboratory results in practical applications. For example, Pseudomonas putida F1 can efficiently mineralize benzene, toluene and phenol.