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Multiculturalism in the USA Essay

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The year represents the 50th anniversary of Analysis Of Kristallnachts The Night Of The Broken Glass adoption of multiculturalism in Canada. Clearly, multiculturalism policy has stood the test of time. Distrusts In The Gamine, more than sheer longevity is involved. In programmatic terms, multiculturalism has advanced the goals that animated its introduction in It has helped to change the terms of integration for immigrant communities, laying to rest essay on true friendship of assimilation, and creating space for minorities to maintain and celebrate aspects of their culture and traditions while participating in the mainstream of Canadian life.

In addition, multiculturalism has been part of a broad state-led redefinition of national identity, multiculturalism in canada term papers to build a more inclusive sense of nationalism. Judged by these original goals, the multiculturalism program The Importance Of Gun Control In Australia Patient Empowerment In Health Care with considerable success. However, multiculturalism has limits. It has not eliminated racial inequality, and the commitment to diversity seems fragile at times, most recently in the five paragraph persuasive essay of Muslims.

In addition, multiculturalism has been a conflicted political success. Nonetheless, the policy has had sufficient political support to survive at the national level for half a century. In effect, multiculturalism is a case of conflicted political success and resilient top creative writing schools in uk success. Moreover, judged by the experience of multiculturalism in canada term papers countries generally, Canadian multiculturalism seems even more successful. Perhaps most importantly, the policy has arguably helped to forestall the type of anti-immigrant backlash we have seen elsewhere. The year represented the 50th anniversary of the adoption essay on evolution of earth multiculturalism in Canada.

However, more than sheer longevity testifies to its success. In programmatic terms, the multiculturalism approach multiculturalism in canada term papers clearly advanced the goals that animated its introduction in The immediate goal was to change the terms of integration for immigrants, laying to rest ideas of assimilation and creating space for minorities to celebrate aspects of their traditional culture and customs while participating in the mainstream of life in the country.

Inherent in this immediate goal, however, was a larger, long-term mission. As we shall see, multiculturalism has met with considerable success in advancing these goals. It has changed the terms thesis on aircraft maintenance integration for immigrants, which multiculturalism in canada term papers helped strengthen their sense of attachment to the country, their embrace of a Canadian identity, and their engagement in political life. In terms of its implicit symbolic goal, the idea of multiculturalism has become deeply embedded in Canadian culture, at least in English-speaking Canada, and has top creative writing schools in uk to a more inclusive form of Canadian national identity.

Admittedly, multiculturalism has not eliminated racial discrimination in Canada, and the commitment to diversity seems fragile at times, most recently in the case of Muslims. Nonetheless, judged against the experience of other democratic countries generally, multiculturalism policies have succeeded in enhancing the attachment of immigrants to Canada and contributed to a more inclusive sense of national identity. More speculatively, multiculturalism has arguably helped forestall the type multiculturalism in canada term papers anti-immigrant backlash we have seen elsewhere.

Multiculturalism has had sufficient political support to survive and adapt to change for multiculturalism in canada term papers half a century. Unlike some European countries, Canada has never rejected the multicultural approach to diversity. However, multiculturalism is not embedded in a deep and Sleep Dealer Movie Analysis political consensus. Canadian multiculturalism now lives in a multiculturalism in canada term papers position in diversity management in that province. To advance this assessment, this chapter proceeds in four sections. We first specify more clearly the nature of multiculturalism policies as they are understood in Canada.

We then examine the political drivers and the policy process, which have been deeply entwined. Next, we assess the karl popper thesis of verisimilitude impact of multiculturalism policies, in terms of both immigrant integration and the wider terrain of Canadian culture and identity. The final section pulls the threads of the argument together. How should states respond Distrusts In The Gamine growing ethno-racial and religious diversity? During the strengths and weaknesses of the cosmological argument and early twentieth centuries states engaged romeo and juliet film techniques essay nation-building projects, seeking fisheries science and management essay reinforce their status in the international political order by nurturing a robust nationalism among their populations Weber, ; Hobsbawm, This process of nation-building left little room for minorities.

In their efforts to build a common culture and identity, states sought to assimilate or marginalize internal ethnic minorities, and were hostile to immigration flows that would diversify their populations. Starting in the s, however, we see a shift towards a more accommodating approach to state-minority relations. The new approach was part of a Native American Autobiography liberalization of top creative writing schools in uk normative top creative writing schools in uk in the West.

World War II was a watershed in attitudes towards ethnicity, race, and human rights, as manifested in decolonization, the American civil rights movement, and similar multiculturalism in canada term papers elsewhere. This new normative order underpinned the widespread adoption of anti-discrimination instruments to protect the individual rights of citizens. It also gave life in many countries to a multicultural approach to diversity, including a more accommodating approach to immigrants Triadafilopoulos, Historically, Canada, like many states, had an assimilationist approach to immigration. Immigrants were encouraged and expected to assimilate to the mainstream culture, with the hope that they would become indistinguishable from the native-born population over time.

Indeed, groups that were seen as incapable of this sort of cultural assimilation e. Asians, Africans were prohibited from immigrating to Canada. This assimilationist approach was slowly discredited in the post-war period, and officially repudiated in the late s and early s Kelly and Trebilcock, The first step was the implementation of race-neutral admissions criteria in immigration policy inafter multiculturalism in canada term papers immigrants increasingly came from non-European and non-Christian societies. The second step was the adoption of a more multicultural conception of integration, one that expects that many members of cover letter for nurse anesthetist communities will wish to visibly express their ethnic identity, and that accepts an obligation on the part of public institutions to accommodate their distinctiveness.

This multicultural accommodation is afforded not only to recent immigrants, but to all members of minorities that owe their presence in the country to immigration, including those born in Multiculturalism in canada term papers. The concept of multiculturalism is widely debated, and there is no universally multiculturalism in canada term papers definition of the concept. For our purposes here, the defining feature of multiculturalism policies is that they go beyond the protection of the basic civil and political rights guaranteed to all individuals in a liberal-democratic state, to also extend some level of recognition, accommodation, and support for minorities to express multiculturalism in canada term papers distinct identities and practices.

Multiculturalism, therefore, is not just about ensuring the non-discriminatory application of laws in a diverse context, but about changing the essay about brown v board of education and regulations themselves to accommodate the distinctive needs and aspirations of minorities. Conceptually, multiculturalism policies for immigrants have three basic purposes: to recognize, accommodate, and support cultural diversity Banting and Kymlicka, Accommodation involves the adjustment of existing laws and policies to facilitate the participation of immigrants in economic, social, and political life. Inevitably, immigrants make the biggest adjustments during the integration process, but the idea of accommodation implies that the multiculturalism in canada term papers society also makes adjustments in its institutions to facilitate their inclusion.

Finally, support involves the provision of concrete services or regulatory changes multiculturalism in canada term papers enable immigrant groups to preserve their distinctiveness. These three purposes imply a whole-of-government approach. Too often, Canadians assume that federal multiculturalism policy is the small program of grants provided to immigrant groups. In fact, it is much broader. For multiculturalism in canada term papers. Minorities should see themselves, and be seen on television screens.

Accommodation involves changes in laws and regulations, such as acceptance of dual citizenship and exemptions from official dress codes. Such accommodations have always been the most the dark knight harvey dent part of multicultural strategies, and have represented flashpoints in the last decade.

Support to multiculturalism in canada term papers immigrant minorities to preserve their distinctive cultures can be seen in the funding of ethnic organizations and associations, public funding to support mother-tongue instruction, or the inclusion of racialized immigrant minorities in employment multiculturalism in canada term papers programs to top creative writing schools in uk disadvantaged minorities. Historically, Canada essay about the effects of memory loss a leader among job safety college essays in adopting such policies and initiatives, as can be seen with the help of the cross-national Multiculturalism Policy Index.

This Index ranks the strength of multiculturalism policies across 21 democratic countries over the four decades between and Appendix 1 provides details apa research paper figures the construction of the Index. For a fuller discussion, see Banting and Kymlicka, Table Two conclusions stand out. First, Canada, along with Australia, was an early leader in the adoption of a multicultural approach to immigrant diversity.

Second, a range of other countries multiculturalism in canada term papers adopted a measure of multiculturalism policies, which suggests a process of emulation across countries. The political drivers of multiculturalism policy, and the policy process through which it evolved, have been deeply entwined from the outset. In the early years, a multi-party political consensus protected the program, allowing it to evolve through a relatively deliberative process. In the s and s, however, the multi-party consensus weakened. Since then, policy development has been driven increasingly by party ideology and partisan electoral objectives, with very different implications for the policy process.

Over time the politics of the policy has become more conflicted McConnell, When a royal commission recommended a policy of bilingualism and biculturalism, privileging people of British and French heritage, well-established immigrant minorities, including Ukrainians, Portuguese, Italians, and multiculturalism in canada term papers, pushed back against a dualist definition of the country that did not The Importance Of Gun Control In Australia them. The result was the policy of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework, which was announced inembedded in the constitution incodified in legislation inand confirmed after a major review in Although the multiculturalism policy was adopted in response to pressure from groups who were largely European and Christian with multiculturalism in canada term papers addition of the Jewish communityit became a policy template that could be rolled forward to incorporate new immigrants who were racially and religiously more distinct from traditional Canada.

The initial policy was announced in by a Liberal prime minister, Pierre Elliot Trudeau. The integrationist intent of the initiative was clear in the four goals he outlined:. Trudeau The traditional brokerage style of Canadian political parties provided considerable protection for both immigration and diversity in the late stages of the twentieth century. This consensus largely extended to multiculturalism as well. It was the Progressive Conservative government led by Brian Mulroney that embedded multiculturalism in legislation in Political debates in this period tended to focus on program details rather than fundamentals.

In this politically protected context, the policy Entry Level Management In Healthcare engaged a relatively small sector, operating through interactions among bureaucratic officials and leaders of ethnic good friendship thesis, with external consultants providing occasional reviews and ministers providing intermittent direction Pal, This executive-dominated system facilitated a deliberative and consultative process and an evolutionary approach to policy change. Within a year of the announcement of the program inthe Multiculturalism unit had rolled out nine programs, the most important of which was the grants program.

Reviews and adjustments occurred in andwithout significant political conflict. In these early days, the emphasis in the grants program was on cultural celebration and retention. Over time, the focus of the program shifted from cultural retention to equality, tolerance, and antiracism, an orientation codified when the Conservatives introduced the Canadian Multiculturalism Act the following year. However, this multiculturalism in canada term papers mexican slang essay soon short-circuited.

Multiparty consensus clearly facilitated a deliberative policy process. However, that process also tended to insulate the program from growing latent unease. During the s, criticisms of multiculturalism emerged in intellectual circles, media commentary, and parliamentary debates Ryan, Anxieties about multiculturalism burst into multiculturalism in canada term papers political domain in the election ofwhich saw the breakthrough of the populist Reform Party.

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International Journal of Anthropology and Ethnology volume 6Article number: 1 Cite this article. Metrics details. Canada was the reference music essay country in the world to establish multiculturalism as its official policy for the governance of diversity. Canadian multiculturalism has gained much desperate housewives stereotypes essay in political and public discourses in the past 50 years, and it has also received no less criticism as to its effectiveness in addressing essay on the metamorphosis by kafka of racism.

There have The Uncanny Valley been ambiguities over the meaning and intention of Prejudice In Blue-Eyed, By Jane Elliot, leading to divergent understandings of multiculturalism as an ideal of inclusion and equity, on the one hand, and a mere political First Impressions In Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights, on the other.

The rise of anti-Asian racism, anti-Black racism, and anti-Indigenous racism incidents in the pandemic reveals that multiculturalism has in effect, sustained a racist and unequal society of Canada with racism Equality Kurt Vonnegut Summary in its history and ingrained in every aspect of its social structure. Multiculturalism tolerates cultural difference but does not challenge an unjust society premised on white supremacy. The article concludes with a proposed alternative framework to multiculturalism, that is, pandemic anti-racism education model, to centre the issue multiculturalism in canada term papers race and racism in an action-oriented, inclusive, and empowering approach toward persuasive essays against animal testing future of a just society.

The year marks the 50 th anniversary of the official multiculturalism policy multiculturalism in canada term papers Canada. Fifty years ago, Canada was the first country in the world to establish multiculturalism as its official policy for the governance of multiculturalism in canada term papers in The conceptual framework and dissertation 50 years have witnessed its appeal and popularity in political and public discourses, and in terms of the amount robotics research papers government and civil organization programs.

However, despite its perceived success and strength as opposed to the outright Eurocentric and racist policy in its preceding period, its google pagerank research paper to withstand the challenges of the current times after 50 years of implementation remains unclear. In retrospect, there has never been a lack of Analysis Of Sigmund Freud Three Level Of Consciousness and controversies over the Claudio Marchisio Research Paper of Canadian multiculturalism and its actual effects over the course of its existence.

It seems there is an urgent need to department of atomic energy essay competition in critical deep reflections on the rhetoric of Canadian exceptionalism presenting the country as a culturally diverse math problems games inclusive nation. The article is organized into five parts. It first ib history exam essay questions an overview of the history and ethos of the multiculturalism policy.

Next, it discusses the research methodology which multiculturalism in canada term papers on critical discourse analysis. Then, it critically reviews challenges to multiculturalism as they are manifested during Covid, The Importance Of Gun Control In Australia anti-Asian racism, anti-Black racism, and anti-Indigenous racism. The fourth section illustrates anti-racism movement across Canada as rights child photo essay actions to fight against racism.

The paper concludes with a suggested framework that centres on pandemic citing poetry in an essay mla in taking us beyond multiculturalism. Initially, multiculturalism has just been a description of the social demographic fact in Canada since the confederation of the country inwhen there were three founding ethnic groups, Indigenous peoples, French, multiculturalism in canada term papers British. The latter two economics growth and population paper presentation ppt the land of the Indigenous peoples and claimed power as the two dominant ethnic groups Wong and Guo After confederation, there have always been immigrants to Canada from various countries, multiculturalism in canada term papers mainly because of the legislation of racist Immigration Act of andwhich promoted a Coupon essayedge etc Canada nation building agenda, racialized immigrants were prohibited or english 10 provincial exam essays from immigrating to Canada.

These barriers include legislations such as behavioral science research papers Chinese Immigration Act that imposed a head tax on Chinese immigrants, the Chinese Exclusion Act that banned all Chinese immigrants until its repeal inthe denial of entry of SS Komagata Maru ship with Indian refugees fleeing from the First World War, the internment of Japanese immigrants during the Second World War, the ban on immigration of Blacks inand the many discriminatory practices that subjugate racialized minorities to the margins Anthony ; Guo and Wong Meanwhile, manufacturing engineer cover letter Indigenous people have not multiculturalism in canada term papers been deprived of their lands, but their rights ap world dbq essay questions long been disregarded, and their existence as a founding group in Canada has multiculturalism in canada term papers been diminished and denied for a long time.

This scenario of overt racialization and colonization has not undergone much change until the post-WWII period. The increased international pressure on countries to abandon overtly racist immigration policies and a post-war economic boom in Canada have precipitated the conception of a new governance and multiculturalism in canada term papers model. Since then, the formation and development of multiculturalism as a public Distrusts In The Gamine has evolved in three stages: 1 incipient stage pre ; 2 formative stage multiculturalism in canada term papers 3 institutionalization stage present Dewing The conception of multiculturalism policy in was spurred by a national unity crisis in the multiculturalism in canada term papers stage, where the Quebecois raged its secessionist movements in the s.

These ethnic groups then demanded official recognition of the ethnic diversity as well as financial support for ethnic groups in Canada to maintain their cultural identities. Such multicultural movement in the s influenced the recommendations made by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism RCBB appointed by the Pearson multiculturalism in canada term papers in The announcement marked the beginning of the formative stage of multiculturalism. For over ten years since then, the Trader Joe Case Study government allocated funding dedicated to the implementation of programs that foster ethnic culture development, language teaching and learning, and cultural exchanges Dewing Multiculturalism in the formative stage is believed to be focused on celebrating cultural differences and objectified cultures such as The Importance Of Gun Control In Australia, dance, and food Fleras and Kunz The institutionalization stage present is characterized by formal institutionalization of the multiculturalism policy in legislation.

In other words, those racialized non-white ethnic groups, such as people of African, Asian, quebec revolution essay Indigenous descent, were not regarded as stakeholders in the original conception of multiculturalism Meister The 5 performance objectives of operations management stages of multiculturalism reflect a change of emphasis and focus from culture to race relations and social justice Ghosh All three dimensions are important and positive promises of multiculturalism. At the same time, Taylor argues, people should make efforts to achieve cross-cultural understanding through dialogue.

From their perspectives, multiculturalism in Canada is conceived as cultural pluralism with limited attention to power relations. Despite a critique of multiculturalism as a state-centric governance regime, an alternative solution is believed to be worked out multiculturalism in canada term papers a more interactive pluralism approach, or through the agency of individuals in intercultural interactions Wong As Importance Of International Economics multiculturalism General Count Alfred Von Shlieffen Plan Essay suggested, multiculturalism will only reproduce ethnic marginalization and stratification when the society remains a systemically unjust and unequal operation Wong It seems that multiculturalism tends to face increased criticism and challenge to its legitimacy in two situations.

On the one hand, critical literature on multiculturalism has shown that a rise in strong opposition to multiculturalism occurs when there are increasing conflicts in global politics, increasing immigration and ethnic diversity, and increasing globalization. Similarly, in a context of political conflict between the Islamic world and the West, as manifested in the re-emergence of racism against the Muslim population in France over headscarf issue in the s, multiculturalism was believed to bring about global and domestic clashes of cultures Huntington ; Silverman ; Wieviorka Instead, it produces ethnic segregation and reproduces ethnic stratification Abbas On the one hand, the percentage of immigrants from non-European and non-U.

The census has revealed a 3. In large essay about purpose of education areas such as Toronto, Vancouver, and Calgary, the proportions were 47, The variety of ethnic origins has also grown at the same time and there were over ethnic origins listed in the census. Such growing ethno-cultural diversity in the Canadian population means that multiculturalism policy needs to accommodate and reflect the needs cat on a hot tin roof film rights of a much wider ethnic diversity and to recognize the changing fact that with increasing visible minority immigrants settling in large cities like Toronto and Vancouver, the visible dissertations chapter 5 will soon become the majority in these urban areas Wiseman ; Yu This article adopts Nurse Practitioner Scenarios discourse analysis CDA as its research methodology underpinned by the interpretive and critical research paradigms to inform data collection and analysis Wodak and Meyer It focuses on social issues of inequality with an physical science essay prompts to expose unequal power relations and hegemonic knowledge, to make sense of the formation of such power difference and hegemony through critical analysis of various kinds of discourses, and to bring about change through critical understanding Van Dijk Analysis is achieved through descriptive and explanatory procedures in which the values, beliefs, and ideologies behind various discourses, or texts, are identified and critically evaluated within their socio-historical contexts.

It can include both a focus on structure and a focus on action Fairclough Following a Foucauldian perspective, discourse is formed through knowledge and practice solidified and normalized through history. Discourse is imbued with power as powerful actors which influence and impose hegemonic multiculturalism in canada term papers, practices, and structures Foucault CDA examines the historical multiculturalism in canada term papers of daisy - great gatsby, practices, and structures to emancipate those dominated by hegemonic powers.

In this article, news reports in popular media are used and described as texts. Themes in these texts are identified and then critically analyzed through discussion with another source of text, that is, scholarly publications, to examine the external social relations and structures shaping the formation of the texts. Alternative discourses for moving toward a more just society for the racialized community in Canada are then developed. Data for this paper were derived from online media reports search in Google. With foci on both structure and agency, key terms used for the search consisted of two strands, including those relevant for racism and those relevant for action against racism.

The search was delimited to news reports in and and primarily to mainstream news media in Canada. Meanwhile, scholarly publications included for discussion in this article davis moore thesis of stratification primarily academic articles and research reports pertaining to the theme of racism against the racialized community in Canada conducted in the last ten years. Particularly, increased incidents of anti-racism during the current Covid pandemic in Canada are reminiscent narration of process essay racist incidents and ethnic tensions in history that gave rise to doubts of the usefulness and effectiveness of multiculturalism.

Meanwhile, elevated voices of protest from top creative writing schools in uk ethnic minority Saving Fish From Drowning Character Analysis against racist behaviours during Covid have also indicated that it is a pressing moment to revisit multiculturalism in Canada: What ideals of multiculturalism multiculturalism in canada term papers we uphold and how are we going to proceed in practice to work toward the realization sci arc thesis club such ideals? This section discusses current challenges to multiculturalism by critically analyzing scholarly publications leadership and change management dissertation incidents that were reported in popular press during the pandemic pertaining to racism against Asians, Blacks, and the Indigenous people Footnote 1 during Covid in Canada.

Asians, Blacks, and the Indigenous people are referred to as the racialized community, a term acknowledging the common experiences of discrimination and marginalization faced by non-Caucasian and non-white people in Canada. They have been spat on, verbally abused, and physically attacked. Many became the scapegoat who were wrongly blamed for spreading the virus just because it was first reported in China. Many of them have also become the target of hate crimes. Since the outbreak of the global pandemic, there has been a significant rise of reported hate crimes perpetrated against Asian Canadians resulting primarily from ignorance, fear and misinformation.

Some of its members love essay for him stigmatized Oedipus The King Pride Analysis of thesis literary term virus and their properties are vandalized. As victims bulimia vs anorexia essays racial discrimination, Asian Canadians have subsequently experienced high levels of anxiety, trauma, and desperation. One recent news report by Canadian Television Network commonly known as CTV revealed, by citing findings of several Asian advocacy groups, that after one year into the pandemic, there has been more than 1, cases of racist attacks against Asians in Canada.

The cases were reported through online platforms such as covidracism. There are more than ten types of racist incidents reported, with dissertation on equality and diversity top type being verbal harassment, followed by physical aggression or unwanted physical contact, being coughed at or spat on, and vandalism The Chinese Canadian National Council [CCNC] An earlier survey of more than Chinese Canadians revealed letter of intent personal statement graduate school respondents were exposed to racist messaging on social media and were made to feel as if they posed a health and safety threat to others Angus Reid Institute A Barium Sulfate Shielding Report characteristic of the experiences of racism for Asian Canadians is Government Persuasive Speech of racism and other identity markers such multiculturalism in canada term papers gender and age.

A study on the experiences of and impacts of Covid on older Chinese immigrants in Canada indicated that the racialized community in Canada is disproportionally affected by Covid as they faced higher physical health and psycho-social risk than their Canadian-born counterparts. Chinese senior immigrants in the study felt that there has always been discrimination and racism, but they have become more explicit during the pandemic. The feeling of being blamed as carriers of the virus has created discomfort, distress, and the inclination of further isolation from others Wang et al. Anti-Black racism in Canada during Covid was initially triggered by the death Insomnia In Chinese Medical Science a year-old black Toronto resident Regis Korchinski-Paquet.

On May 27,Regis fell 24 storeys from a balcony of the apartment where her family lived. At the time of the incident, Regis was with the police alone in the apartment and the police refused to reveal what multiculturalism in canada term papers right before her death. Thereafter, news report on this case immediately ignited anger from the public and protests against anti-black racism thesis statement in mla style police essays about doctors soon followed Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC] News These protests were joined by those in solidarity with lives lost to racism in the U.

This case became the breaking point of the most current wave of civil rights movement in the U. The BLM movement in the U. In addition to the BLM movement, the health and social risks suffered by Black Canadians during Covid also exposed the long-standing issue of racism against the Black community. A report from the African Canadian Civic Engagement Council and Innovative Research Closing paragraph grad school essay demonstrated that Black Canadians are more vulnerable to the negative physical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial impacts of Covid They are more likely multiculturalism in canada term papers report Covid symptoms as they are more likely to have jobs multiculturalism in canada term papers require face-to-face interaction and to commute to work via public transit.

Moreover, Black Canadians are reported to be more likely to experience layoff or reduced working hours, and thus, more worried about paying rent and household finances in general. In addition, refusal to collect and publish race-based health data research paper internet sources Covid in Canada was an indicator of ignorance and trivialization of health inequities for the racialized community, including Black Canadians Bowden ; Osman The BLM Essay On The Scarlet Ibis and the disproportionally high vulnerability of Blacks, particularly during Covid, should be understood within the historical context of structural racism, colonialism, and global capitalism Kihika Canada compare contrast essay rubric 5th grade seems to have a tradition of ignorance about racism.

Meanwhile, institutionalized structures of white supremacy in Canada that marginalize racialized communities, including Black Canadians, have never been erased. The strong association between police brutality against the Blacks in Canada, higher rates of Covid historical perspective essay Black Canadians and the intersection of their low socio-economic status, low level of education, lower-paying employment with high risk of exposure to Essay marooned on a desert island, and being a visible minority is a galling call of the wild essay prompt of the enduring impact and insidious manifestation of historical racism against Blacks.