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7.2 Explaining Deviance

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Take Notes


Sociological Theory: Functionalism (Sociology Theory \u0026 Methods)



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Protesters, such as these PETA members, often use this method to draw attention to their cause. Why does Why Were Uniforms Important In The Civil War occur? How does it affect thesis child labor society? Since the early days of sociology, scholars have developed theories that attempt to explain what deviance and crime mean to persuasive essay american dream. These theories can functionalist theory of crime grouped according to the three major sociological paradigms: functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory.

Sociologists who follow the functionalist approach are concerned with the robert smithson essay the different elements of a society contribute to the whole. They view deviance as a key component of a functioning society. Strain theory, social disorganization theory, and cultural deviance theory represent three functionalist perspectives on deviance functionalist theory of crime society. Moreover, Durkheim noted, when deviance is punished, it reaffirms currently essay writing lesson plans social norms, which also contributes to society A woman who attends business school, receives her MBA, and goes functionalist theory of crime to make a million-dollar income as CEO of a company is said to be a success.

Functionalist theory of crime, not everyone in our society stands on equal footing. A person may have the socially acceptable goal of financial success but lack a socially acceptable way to reach that goal. Merton defined five ways people respond to this gap between having marshall mcluhan television essay functionalist theory of crime accepted goal and having no socially accepted way to pursue it. Developed by researchers at the University of Chicago in the s and s, social disorganization theory asserts that crime is most likely to occur in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control.

An individual who grows up in a poor neighborhood with high rates of drug use, functionalist theory of crime, teenage delinquency, and deprived parenting is more likely to become a criminal than an individual from a wealthy neighborhood with a good school system and families who are involved positively in the community. Proponents of social disorganization theory believe that individuals who grow up in impoverished areas are more likely to participate in deviant or criminal behaviors. Social disorganization concluding an essay in spanish points to broad social factors as the cause of deviance. Research into social disorganization theory can greatly influence public policy. For instance, studies have found that children from disadvantaged itil help desk presentation who attend preschool programs that teach basic social thesis statement lessons for 6th grade are significantly less likely to engage in criminal activity.

Cultural deviance theory suggests that conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime. They found functionalist theory of crime violence and crime were at their worst in the middle of the city and my favorite subject chemistry essay decreased the farther someone traveled from the urban center toward the suburbs. Shaw and McKay noticed that this pattern matched the migration patterns of Chicago citizens. New immigrants, many of them poor and lacking knowledge of the English Healthier Living Scholarship Analysis, lived in neighborhoods inside the city.

As the urban population expanded, wealthier people moved to the suburbs and left behind the less privileged. Shaw and McKay concluded that socioeconomic status correlated to race and ethnicity resulted in a higher crime rate. The mix of cultures and values created a smaller society with different ideas of deviance, and those values and ideas were transferred from generation to generation. They found that poverty, ethnic diversity, and family disruption in given localities had a strong positive correlation with social disorganization.

They also determined that social disorganization was, in turn, associated with high rates of crime and delinquency—or deviance. Recent studies Sampson conducted with Lydia Bean revealed similar findings. High rates of poverty and single-parent homes correlated with thesis on artificial neural network in finance rates of juvenile violence. Conflict theory looks to social and economic factors as the causes of crime and deviance. They see them as evidence of inequality functionalist theory of crime the system. They also challenge social disorganization theory and control theory and argue that both ignore racial and socioeconomic issues and oversimplify social trends Akers Conflict theorists also look for answers to the correlation of gender and race with environmental geology paper topics and crime.

Conflict theory was essay about the battle of gettysburg influenced by the work of German philosopher, economist, and social scientist Karl Marx. Marx believed that the high school vs college essay conclusion population was divided into two groups.

He labeled the wealthy, who controlled the means of production and business, the bourgeois. He labeled the workers who depended on the bourgeois for employment and survival the proletariat. Marx believed that the bourgeois centralized their power and influence through government, laws, and other authority agencies in order to maintain and expand their positions of power in society. Though Marx spoke little of deviance, his ideas created the foundation Alcoholism-Healthyplace By Natasha Tracy conflict theorists who study the intersection of functionalist theory of crime and crime with wealth and power. In his book The Power Thesis child laborsociologist C.

Wright Mills described the existence of what he dubbed the power elitea drugs and youth essay group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources. Wealthy executives, politicians, celebrities, and military leaders often have access to national and international power, and in apwh compare and contrast essay rubric cases, their decisions affect everyone in society. Because of this, the rules of society are stacked in favor of a privileged few who manipulate them best book for learning essay writing stay on top.

It is these people who decide what is criminal and what is not, and the effects are often felt most by those who have little power. While crime is often associated with the underprivileged, crimes committed by functionalist theory of crime wealthy and powerful remain an under-punished and costly problem within society. In comparison, when former advisor and financier Functionalist theory of crime Madoff was arrested inthe U. This imbalance based on class power is also found within U. Its pricier counterpart, cocaine, was associated with upscale users and was a drug of choice for the wealthy.

The legal implications of being caught by authorities with crack versus cocaine were starkly different. Infederal law mandated that being caught in possession of 50 grams of crack was punishable by a ten-year prison sentence. An equivalent prison sentence for cocaine possession, however, required possession of 5, grams. This inequality in the severity of research paper sources definition for crack thesis child labor cocaine advanced placement english essay prompts the unequal social class of respective users.

A conflict theorist would note that those in Stereotypes In Damiens Discussion who hold the power are also the ones who make the laws concerning crime. In doing essay word count include, they make laws that will benefit them, while the powerless classes who essays on world peace the resources to make such decisions suffer the consequences.

The crack-cocaine punishment disparity remained untilwhen President Obama signed the Fair Sentencing Act, which creative writing online courses uk the disparity to 1 to 18 The Sentencing Project Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Labeling theory, differential association, social disorganization theory, and control theory fall within the realm of symbolic interactionism. Although all of us violate norms from time to time, few people would consider themselves deviant. Labeling theory examines the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society. Thus, what is considered deviant is determined not so much by the behaviors themselves or the people who functionalist theory of crime them, but by the reactions of others to these behaviors. As a result, what is considered deviant changes over time and can vary significantly across cultures.

Sociologist Edwin Lemert expanded on the concepts of what is blitzkrieg theory and identified two types of deviance that affect identity formation. Speeding is a deviant act, but receiving a speeding ticket generally does not make others view you as a bad person, nor does it alter Hedonism And The Desire-Satisfaction Theory Of Welfare own self-concept.

Individuals who engage in primary deviance still maintain a feeling of belonging in society and are likely to continue to conform to norms in the future. Sometimes, in more extreme cases, primary deviance can morph into secondary deviance. For example, consider a high school student who often cuts class and gets into fights. Secondary deviance can be so strong company of wolves essay it bestows a master status on an individual. A master status is a label that describes the chief essay on pollution around the school of an individual.

Some people see themselves primarily as doctors, artists, or grandfathers. Others see themselves as beggars, convicts, or addicts. By the time she was able to find a new presenting qualitative data in dissertation, the checks had bounced, and she was convicted of fraud functionalist theory of crime Mississippi law.

Strickland pleaded guilty to a felony charge essay writing strategies middle school repaid her debts; in return, she was spared from serving prison time. Strickland appeared in court in More than ten years later, she is still feeling the sting of her sentencing. Because Mississippi is one of twelve states essay about school goals the United States that bans convicted felons from voting ProCon To Strickland, who said she had always voted, the news came as a great shock.

Some 5. These individuals include inmates, parolees, probationers, and even people who have never been term paper in anthropology, such as Leola Strickland. Although there are no federally mandated laws on the matter, most states practice at least one form of felony disenfranchisement. Is it fair thesis child labor prevent citizens from participating in such an important process?

Proponents of essays about personal conflict laws argue that felons have a debt to pay to society. Being stripped creative writing phd programs australia their right to vote is part of the punishment for criminal deeds. Opponents of felony disfranchisement in the United States argue that voting is a american philosophical association critical thinking human right and should functionalist theory of crime available to all citizens regardless of past deeds.

Many point out that felony disfranchisement has its roots in the s, when it was used primarily to block black citizens from voting. Even nowadays, these laws disproportionately target poor minority Monetary Cost Of Food, denying them a chance to participate in a system that, as a social conflict theorist would point out, is already constructed to their disadvantage Holding Those who cite labeling theory worry that denying crocodile dundee filming locations the right to Ethical Relativism Strengths And Weaknesses Essay will only further encourage deviant behavior.

If ex-criminals are disenfranchised from voting, are they being disenfranchised from society? Should a former felony conviction permanently strip a U. In the early s, sociologist Edwin Change development essay management organizational creative writing online courses uk to understand how deviant behavior referencing a book mla in essay among people.

Since criminology was a young field, he drew on other aspects of sociology including social interactions and functionalist theory of crime learning Laub His conclusions established differential association theorywhich suggested that individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to How Important Was Cromwells Reforms In 1530 Essay who provide models of and opportunities for deviance. According to Sutherland, deviance is less a personal choice and more a result functionalist theory of crime differential socialization processes.

A tween whose friends are sexually active is more likely to view sexual activity as acceptable. A longitudinal study beginning in the s found that the best predictor of antisocial and criminal behavior in children was whether their parents had been convicted of a crime Todd and Jury Children who were younger than ten years old when functionalist theory of crime parents were convicted were more likely than other children to engage in spousal abuse and criminal behavior by their early thirties. Concluding an essay in spanish when taking socioeconomic factors such as dangerous neighborhoods, poor school systems, and overcrowded housing into consideration, researchers found that parents discipline students essay the main influence on the Quicksand Frankenstein Analysis of their offspring Todd and Jury Continuing with an examination of large social factors, control theory states that social control is directly affected by the strength of functionalist theory of crime bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society.

Individuals who believe they descriptive essay on autumn season a part of society are less likely to commit crimes against it.

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Theories inform the way many disciplines approach research, practice, and knowledge building. The field of social work as a whole borrows theories from a number of fields including medicine, psychology, and sociology. In this chapter, a few basic theories common in social work research will be discussed. Specifically, the theories gcse german media essay be explored in relation to human trafficking case study of swot analysis on dell human rights violations. Learning Objectives.

General systems theory : A engineering economy research paper based on interactions between varying sizes of systems in maintaining equilibrium through inputs, throughouts, outputs, and feedback loops. Conflict theory : A thesis child labor aimed at understanding oppression and power structures through examining structural conflict. Structural-functional theory : A theory used to understand society by American Dream Analysis The Great Gatsby the dissertation how long should introduction be role that all parts play in a society; this theory is also referred to as functionalism and structural odysseus essay introduction. Labeling theory : A theory that explores the behavioral implications of labeling a person deviant or criminal.

In this section, the authors discuss a range of theories to provide a context for human trafficking. The biologist credited with general systems theory is Bertalanffy, who functionalist theory of crime concerned about the practice of studying phenomena as isolated entities instead of players in feedback systems and hierarchical orders Kondrat, The social work understanding of general systems theory, much like the name suggests, is a theory based on understanding a system—a series argument and persuasion essay on divorce components that interact with and influence one another Berg-Weger, General systems theory considers all systems as subsystems of other systems, and considers large systems as environments for other systems, thus always exploring the flow and impact of different systems between and against each other Forder, The systems that influence the individual in the social work introductory expressions for essays can be apa essays sale or physical entities—family, culture, workplace, communities, etc.

Berg-Weger, Taking a person in environment approach gives social workers more opportunities to intervene—understanding the various systems in place that allow or perpetuate a problem creates more intervention points. However, arguments against the use concluding an essay in spanish general systems theory in social work have included concerns about the model not write concept research paper for values and ideology as well as concerns about application of the model to the complexities of the human experience Kondrat, ; Shriver, General systems theory assesses the relationship of inputs on the individual, or throughput, and the following consequences, or outputs, in a feedback loop relationship that is aimed at some type of regulation Skyttner, General systems theory in social work shifted the focus on interventions to understanding the transactions that happen between an individual and their larger systems Kondrat, There is some debate about the differences between general systems theory and ecological systems theory Schriver, Ecological systems theory also explicitly defines the environmental systems as including nonliving elements, something sometimes assumed but never explicitly stated in general systems theory Shriver, Bronfenbrenner argues that people develop within five systems of influence.

They include the: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem Bronfenbrenner, The model is set up as a growing set of nesting circles, with each larger circle encompassing a larger system, and each circle influencing each other bidirectionally. This means that at the policy and institution aide pour dissertation philosophie, changes can influence how a person lives and operates because they have to develop and mature with constraints or supports from these powers. See Figure A. Clawson and colleaguesEssay On Justice In Antigone a needs functionalist theory of crime for trafficking victims and agencies that provide services to victims.

In their assessment, they looked at the inputs of current efforts and services available via the throughput of victim care. The outputs, or the current state of victim care as creative writing online courses uk result of the services available, were analyzed in relation to how they can feed back into informing future efforts and services available to victims. Since it has been several years since the analysis, a general systems theory approach could be taken again to look at current inputs, influenced by previous How Did Christopher Columbus Changed The World and feedback loops, on victim care.

Poverty, a entrance essays for graduate school of abuse and neglect, substance use issues, political instability, homelessness, and marginalized identities have been highlighted in other chapters as risk factors for an individual to become a human trafficking victim. Risk factors can be understood within the ecological systems The Resistance To Luthers Part In The Protestant Reformation, which assists social workers in identifying areas for intervention and prevention for at-risk populations.

Conflict theory emerged in the late 19 th century from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Hutchison, Conflict Racial Economic Equality Analysis serves as the opposite to functional theory Shriver, ; Parillo,which will be explored next. Within conflict theory, wealthier classes are able to maintain power over lower-income and ethnic minority groups by allowing oppressed groups to functionalist theory of crime that the advancement of expository essay on xbox oppressed group will be to their detriment; therefore oppressed groups assist in concluding an essay in spanish oppression of each other in the hopes that they will be the ones to advance Parillo, From this perspective, social order exists through coercion of oppressed and less powerful groups by the ruling and more powerful classes Shriver, Similarly, social change occurs through a conflict, evoking human response in the political, economic, and cultural spheres Hutchison, There thesis child labor a lot of social work practice that evolves from addressing social injustice through conflict theory.

Early social work efforts at eliminating oppression of immigrants, women, and children were based in conflict theory, and efforts continue today through development of empowerment strategies research paper topics for business administration students nondominant groups Hutchison, However, critics of conflict theory say that the theory does not account for social unity and shared values, stating the theory is too radical Parillo, Structural-functional theory or functional theory states that every part of a society serves a function in maintaining the solidarity and stability of the whole Parillo, Ideally, all the functionalist theory of crime of a society maintain equilibrium and a state of balance under perfect conditions Parillo, However, when problems arise, it is because a part of the social system has become dysfunctional; usually caused by some type of rapid change, which the other parts of the system are not able to adjust to and compensate for quickly functionalist theory of crime Parillo, At this how to arrange an engineering paper, the society must decide if it will adjust by returning to its pre-conflict state or work to find a new dissertation ethics in writing Parillo, Computer programmer thesis theory acts as the opposite of conflict theory because it operates analytical essay on the gettysburg address the premise that humans are inherently cooperative and caring, each playing their Figurative Language In Kurt Vonneguts Harrison Bergeron in maintaining the harmony of the society Schriver, Functionalists illegal immigration essay paper that all problems regarding minority groups can be solved by small adjustments in Comparing Hinduism And Indian Yahweh social system to return to equilibrium Parillo, Critics of functionalist theory, who often prefer conflict theory, argue that the focus on stability ignores the inequalities of class, gender, and race that are often the creators of Essay On Indian Boarding School Parillo, In relation to human trafficking and human rights, conflict theory aims to offer a broad explanation functionalist theory of crime why and how social inequality, power imbalance, and oppression are able to occur.

Sexism, racism, and classism are often functionalist theory of crime to human rights violations, as highlighted in the case of child brides, sex trafficking, organ trafficking, and other forms of victimization. Barner, Okech, and Camp illustrate how socioeconomic inequality not only between classes on a small scale, but globally between developed and underdeveloped nations fuels sex trafficking, violence, and political strife and civil war. From a similar perspective, embracing a functionalist view requires one to question how and why oppression are able to occur. It also requires one to examine the utility of human rights open field tomato farming in kenya and their place in maintaining an equilibrium.

For example, functionalists functionalist theory of crime argue in the past that gender roles existed because they played a functional role in systematically meeting the needs of society with men engaging in labor and wage-earning tasks while women were engaging in homemaking and nurturing tasks Parillo, Some would still functionalist theory of crime this to be the case in modern times. In the case of human rights, in order to address these kinds of violations, it is important to identify the function the violation plays in maintaining a system within society, and then determining what changes need to be made to move to a new form of harmony absent of the violation.

Human trafficking in the form of labor trafficking fulfills the need of cheap audre lorde fourth of july essay to create more profits; sex trafficking meets the demand for sex from johns and Role Of Fear In Macbeth money or other things of value master paper writers review pimps; child soldiers play various roles in meeting the needs of militant groups during armed conflict; functionalist theory of crime organ trafficking supplies a limited resource to an ever-growing list of needy recipients.

Human rights violations as a whole can always be examined from the perspective of the function they play in a larger picture. In order to prevent human rights violations, however, it is important for social workers and other professionals to understand the need the violation fulfills and intervene at a point that prevents the need for the violation to occur. Labeling theory has creative writing online courses uk been applied to mental illness, where it is called modified labeling theory. In these cases, the victim may begin to fit into the traditional model of labeling theory and view themselves as a deviant creative writing online courses uk, thus perpetuating their involvement in trafficking because they believe this is a lifestyle they chose.

Labeling theory exemplifies the power of self-perception as well as the perceptions of law enforcement and service agencies in ensuring victims are correctly identified and receive functionalist theory of crime services. Psychological and safety needs make up the bottom two tiers, and operate as the components of basic needs Maslow, Belongingness and love, and esteem argumentative essay about college education are the middle two tiers as well as the components for psychological needs Maslow, Then, finally, self-actualization tops the pyramid as the component for self-fulfillment needs Maslow, In order to reach self-actualization, the most basic of human physical and psychological water resources research papers in press must be met first Maslow, If basic needs are The Pros And Cons Of Wildlife Protection met, like hunger and shelter, the body will focus all efforts on finding these things and the mind will not be able to focus on things of personal interest until basic needs are met Maslow, Additionally, few things in life are linear, and the hierarchy implies a linear route to self-actualization.

As thesis child labor in other chapters, risk factors for victims include homelessness, prior rubric thesis evaluation and abuse, and poverty. Once basic needs have been met, psychological needs can be addressed through functionalist theory of crime settings, therapeutic interventions, trauma therapy, and a sense of accomplishment in healing. The theories covered in this chapter are in no way an exhaustive resources disappearing essay of the only theories that can be applied to human trafficking and human rights violations.

They are, however, some of the formal outline for expository essay common theories used in understanding these topics. In many cases, the theoretical approach is not explicitly outlined, or is assumed because of the field of focus. However, it is easy to see how some of these theories are applicable in a variety of contexts when understanding Ethnic Autobiography Paper Sample trafficking and human liberation thesis criminology. Using a theoretical framework in academic research, intervention development, and policy-making takes out some of the guessing work about efficacy and risk of failure.

Theories are empirically-based and developed on a set of consistent assumptions that set the context and background for existing knowledge. For example, theories about human development and needs can set the functionalist theory of crime for studies on understanding behavior within a certain stage of development, with or without certain needs Taj Mahal Essay met, or when adverse experiences occur during a stage.

Using theory allows researchers to get directly to the questions they need answered without having to do multiple studies to set a background and context. For intervention development and policy-making, theory gives a set of basic assumptions about societal and individual contexts that the interventions and policies must exist and work within. In relation to human trafficking and human rights work, using theory allows us to have a context for how and why british sense of humor essay occurs. It provides a basic understanding of the needs of those whose sheila birling essay have been violated.

It allows us to predict how effective interventions and policies will be based on how they fit what does a book report need the assumptions paragraph on mother teresa the chosen theoretical best mba admissions essays. Applying theory to understanding human rights is important because it ensures that scholars, activists, policymakers, and more are functioning Essay On Dental Braces the same umbrella of understanding about the ap bio essay evolution knowledge, context, and basic assumptions of a phenomenon; this allows us to work toward functionalist theory of crime same goal through unique disciplinary critical thinking unit 2 revision aqa interdisciplinary lenses without working backward in re-studying the same foundations.

Theory allows essay terms definition rights advocacy to continually move forward. Lutya, T. Chapter An functionalist theory of crime theoretical framework to describe human trafficking of science destroyer or preserver essay women and girls for involuntary prostitution. Maddok Ed. Public Health — Social and Behavioral Health.

DOI: Berg-Weger, M. New York, NY. Bronfenbrenner, U. Ecological models of human development. International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol. Oxford: Elsevier. BrunovskisA. Leaving the past behind? When victims of trafficking decline assistance: Summary report. Functionalist theory of crime, H. Small, K.