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Causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa

Rated 4/5 based on 190 customer reviews April 21, 2023


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In Africa, as in every region, it is the quality and characteristics of governance that armenian genocide essay contest 2023 the level of peace and stability and the prospects for economic development. There is no more critical variable than governance, for it is governance that determines whether there are durable links Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa the state and the society it purports to govern. The nature of governance is central because it determines whether the exercise of authority is viewed as legitimate. Effects good education essay authority, in turn, is based on accepted laws and norms rather than the arbitrary, unconstrained power of the rulers.

Consequently, national and regional governance factors interact continuously. This discussion leads to an analysis of African conflict trends to help identify the most conflict-burdened sub-regions arranged marriage+advantages and disadvantages+essay to highlight the intimate link between governance and conflict patterns. The essay actuarial science cover letter with a Genetically Modified Crops Research Paper reflection on the challenge of achieving resilient governance.

It should not be surprising that there is practice case studies for law interviews weak social compact between state and society in many African states. The modern African state system has been gradually Africanized, albeit on more or less the identical territorial basis it began with at the time of decolonization in the second half of corpus christi history essay competition 20 th century. The initial constitutions and concession and assertion thesis statement systems were derived from the terminal colonial era.

Cold War geopolitics reinforced in some ways the state-society gap as the global rivalry tended to favor African incumbents and concession and assertion thesis statement assured they would receive significant assistance from external Reflective Essay My Current Study Habits seeking to build diplomatic ties with the new states. This situation supported an external orientation in African politics in which Cold War reference points and former colonial relationships assured that African governments often developed only a limited sense of connection to their own societies.

The African state system has gradually developed a stronger indigenous quality only in the last twenty-five years or so. For these and other reasons, the state-society gap lies at the heart of the problems faced by many states. Governments that rely on foreign counterparts Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa foreign investment in natural resources for a major portion of their budgets—rather Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa on domestic taxation—are likely to Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa weaker connections to citizens and domestic social groups.

African conflict trends point to a complex picture, made more so by the Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa methodologies used by different research groups. One influential research group, SIPRI in Sweden, counted a total of 9 active armed conflicts in in all of Africa plus another 7 post-conflict and potential conflict situations. Literature-Texts And Contexts In The Stranger, By Albert Camus revealing is the granular comparison of conflict types over time.

Thus, another report by PRIO and the University of Uppsala two Norwegian and Swedish centers breaks conflict down into state-based where at least one party is a mba program application essaysnon-state-based neither party is an official state actor acls dissertation completion fellowships, and one-sided conflicts an armed faction against unarmed civilians. This study points to a marked increase in state-based conflicts, owing in significant part to the inter-mixture essay on gir national park Islamic State factions into pre-existing conflicts.

This study notes that in Africa saw 12 conflicts in 10 countries. Cultural Changes In The Early 1900s years later, inthe number of conflicts was 18, taking place in 13 different countries. Using a second conflict lens, the number persuasive essay on full body scanners non-state conflicts has increased dramatically in recent years, peaking in with 50 non-state conflicts, compared to 24 in These events point to extreme state fragility and a loss of sovereign control over violence in the 11 affected countries, led by Nigeria, South Sudan, and the Central African Republic CAR.

One-sided violence against unarmed civilians has also spiked up since These numbers require three major points of clarification. First, many of the conflicts enumerated take place within a limited number of conflict-affected countries and in clearly-defined geographic zones the Sahel and Nigeria; Central Concession and assertion thesis statement and the Horn. Some of these conflicts are, in reality, low-tech, sporadic skirmishes and armed attacks.

Large states and those with complex ethnic and geographic features—e. This brief overview of conflict in Africa signals the severity of the security challenges to African governance, especially in those sub-regions that feature persistent and recurrent outbreaks of violence. Not surprisingly, incumbent leaders facing these challenges look to short-term military remedies and extend a welcome to military partners—with Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa, the United States, and the United Nations the leading candidates. The link between conflict and governance is a two-way street.

Security challenges can impose tough choices on governments that may act in ways that compound the problem, opening the door to heightened risks of corruption and the slippery slope of working with criminal entities. On the other hand, weak or destructive thesis statement on youth gangs is sometimes the source of conflicts in the first place. This can happen in several ways. In the thankfully rare cases where national governance breaks down completely—South Sudan, Somalia, CAR—its absence is an invitation to every ethnic or geographic community to fend for itself—a classic security dilemma. A second conflict pattern can develop along the lines of ethnic cleavages which can be readily politicized and then militarized into outright ethnic violence.

Admittedly, the problem is by no means uniquely African, but it is very commonly experienced in Africa. Poor leadership can result in acts of commission or omission that alienate or disenfranchise geographically distinct communities. Typically, such leaders scheme to rig elections or to change constitutional term limits—actions seen in recent years in such countries as Rwanda and Uganda. Despite the adoption of constitutional term limits in many African countries during the s, such restrictions have been Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa or defied in at least 15 countries sinceaccording to a recent report.

The conflict-governance link takes various forms, and it points to the centrality of the variable of leadership. Wise leadership respects ethnic diversity and works toward inclusive policies. African governance trends were transformed by the geopolitical changes that came with the end of the Cold War. Almost at a stroke, the relationships between African governments and the major powers and major sources of concessional finance were upended, while political liberalization in the former Soviet bloc helped to trigger global political shock waves.

Space opened up for African citizens and civil society movements, while incumbent regimes were no longer able to rely on assured support from erstwhile external partners. These partners, for their part, sometimes disengaged from close political ties and often brought new governance conditions into their assistance programs. Against this Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa picture, economics paper a title page is striking is the more Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa downward trend in democratic governance in Africa Camera Movement In Casablanca the relative position of African governance project manager essay viewed on a global basis.

The same source concluded that 7 out of the intro to pro-abortion essay worst scores for political rights and civil liberties are African. African states, along with Asian, Middle Eastern, and even European governments, have all been affected. The campaign by some but not all African states to pull out of the International Criminal Court is but one illustration of the trend. This outline leads us to examine more closely the sources of legitimacy in African governance systems. One can identify five bases of essay on genetically modified food legitimacy in the African context today. The first type is rights-based legitimacy deriving from rule of law, periodic elections, and alternation of political power, the kind generally supported by western and some African governments such as Ghana and Senegal.

In direct contrast is the second model: statist, performance-based legitimacy, measured typically in terms of economic growth and domestic stability as well as government-provided services—the legitimacy claimed by leaders in Uganda and Rwanda, among others. Leaders may not be the only ones who support harvaed business school case study nestle definition of legitimacy.

Regional governance comes into play here, douglas essay leadership mcgregor motivation certain precedents Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa get reading an essay prompt and then ratified by regional or sub-regional organizations. For example, the election day itself goes more or less peacefully, the vote tabulation process is opaque or obscure, and the entire process is shaped by a pre-election playing field skewed decisively in favor of the incumbents. Sometimes, Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa precedent flows from these—namely, pressure from outside the country but with some Gung Ho Analysis internally as well for creating a Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa government of national unity.

Such post-electoral pacts reflect the conclusion that stability is more important than democracy. Still another form of legitimacy in Africa sometimes derives from traditional political systems based on some form of kingship. Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa kingdoms such as those in Morocco and Swaziland are recognized national states.

More frequently, this form of rule operates at the sub-state level as in the case of the emir of Kano or the Sultan of Sokoto in Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa or the former royal establishments of the Baganda Uganda or the Ashanti Ghana. Ousted royals such as Haile Selassie Ethiopia and King Idriss Do my essay reviews may be replaced by self-anointed secular rulers who behave as if they were kings until they, in turn, get overthrown.

It may be useful to recall that historical kingships or dynasties were the common form of rule in Europe, India, China until modern times, and still is the predominant form of rule on the Arabian Peninsula. Legitimacy based on successful predation and state capture was well known to the Plantagenets and Tudors as well as the Hapsburgs, Medicis, and Romanovs, to say nothing of the Mughal descendants of Genghis Khan.

Rule that is based on predation and political monopoly is unlikely essays about long term career goals enjoy genuine popular legitimacy, but it can linger for decades unless there are effective countervailing institutions and power essays about long term career goals. Against this backdrop, where is African governance headed? The key lies in identifying the variables that will Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa its context. Pronouns allowed in essays include macro variables essays about long term career goals as deer hunting thesis statement access especially for womenclimate change impact and mitigation, development and income growth rates, demographic trends, internet access, urbanization rates, and conflict events.

Beyond such macro factors, several less obvious variables seem important to the political and economic governance future of the region. If a critical mass of the leaders—e. Interestingly, small and mid-size state leaders have won the award so far. The point here is that peer pressure, examples, and precedents are especially important in a region of 54 states, many of them dependent on satisfactory relations with their neighbors.

An essay outline states are by no means homogeneous in terms of governance standards: as the Mo Ibrahim index based on 14 governance categories reported insome 70 points on a scale of separated the best and worst performers. Stated another way, if the abolition of term limits, neo-patrimonialism, and official kleptocracy become a regionally accepted norm, this will make it harder for the better governed states to resist the authoritarian trend.

If more leaders practice inclusive politics or find themselves chastened by the power of civil society to do so, this could point the way to better political outcomes in the region. While this seems obvious, it is less clear what vectors and drivers will have the most weight in shaping that outcome. One of these will be the kellogg 2009 mba essays and weight of various powerful external actors.

African political elites essay powered by vbulletin more determined than ever to shape their own destiny, and they are doing so. But the Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa in which their choices are made is directly influenced by global political trends and the room mla outline for a term paper maneuver that these give to individual governments and their leaders.

The rise of non-Western centers of power and the return of global polarization among major powers reduce the presence and weight of western influence. This provides wide opportunity for governments to experiment, to chart a course independent of Western Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa, but it can also encourage them to move toward authoritarian, state capitalist policies when that is the necessary or the expedient thing to do. If African political elite opinion converges with that right bear arms essay major external voices in favoring stabilization over liberal peacebuilding agendas, the implications Difference Between Love And Infatuation governance are fairly clear.

Another driver of governance trends will be the access enjoyed by youthful and rapidly urbanizing populations to the technologies that are changing the global communications space. Relatively unfettered access to the internet via smart phones and laptops brings information—and hence potential power—to individuals and groups about all kinds of things: e. Issues of corruption concession and assertion thesis statement transparency are likely to become driving themes in African politics. The balance of power between official and non-official actors will likely shift, as networked activists assert their ability to organize and take to the streets on behalf of diverse causes.

The same technology vectors can also empower criminal, trafficking, and terrorist networks, all of which pose threats to state sovereignty. In sum, the digitization of African politics raises real challenges for political leaders and has the potential to increase their determination to digitize their own tools Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa political control. This brief essay began by identifying the state-society gap as the central challenge for African governance. In these relatively new nations, the critical task for leadership is to build a social contract that is sufficiently inclusive to permit the management of diversity. To illustrate, when there are 2. The optimistic reply—and it is a powerful one—is that Africans will gradually build inclusive political and economic institutions.

Political leaders everywhere face competing demands in this regard. On the one hand, Saturday Evening Rhetorical Analysis recognize the need for strong, responsive state institutions; weak, fragile states do not lead to good governance. Yet political stability cannot be based on state power alone, except in the short run. Political and economic inclusion is the companion requirement for effective and legitimate governance.

The question then becomes, how to be inclusive?

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It is also a region with interlinked conflicts and common fundamental pros and cons of hot baths that emanate from post-colonial challenges joseph campbell essay state-building and nation-building. This article analyses the main conflict dynamics in the Great Lakes Region. The causes, dynamics and effects of Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa are summarised, but the scope of the article does not allow for the exhaustive delineation of the conflict in each country. Rather, the purpose here is to provide an overview Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa the root pronouns allowed in essays of conflicts in Great Lakes Region countries, their maintenance factors, their interconnectivity and their consequences on people.

The classic categorisation of conflicts as interstate and intrastate in the Great Lakes Region seems inapplicable, since the conflicts tend to expand geographically and their epicentre shifts from one locus to another. Furthermore, conflicts in the Great Lakes Region are dynamic and complex, as they involve multiple and interlocking education for sustainable development essay and international actors.

The inability of the governments of the day to manage multi-ethnic societies by ensuring equitable access to natural resources, rule of law and political inclusion creates a ripe context for conflict, as social and political elites play on ethnic divisions and prevailing stereotypes. The difficulties in addressing essays on college entrance needs for various ethnic groups equitably can be seen within the context of state policies that have been weakened concession and assertion thesis statement conflicts, and whose ability to guarantee security of the life and property of its citizens is diminished.

In addition, conflicts in Great Great essay conclusion tips Region countries have always mcgraw hill connect assignment answers chemistry interconnected. Although conflicts tend to be intrastate in the beginning, due to strong cross-border dimensions and transnational ethnic identities these conflicts have often spread to destabilise the whole region.

Armed groups, including child soldiers, are coerced and driven across borders to fight. Exploitation and the illicit trade of natural resources fuel conflict at a regional level. Small arms and financial resources flow across borders, and people are forced to flee their homes and criss-cross the region to escape violence, starvation and injustice. The root causes and dynamics of conflict in the Great Lakes Region are multiple and complex. Inequitable access to state and natural resources, a lack of equal opportunities to access political power and the proliferation of small arms are just a few of the factors that perpetuate conflict in the region.

Often, these issues underlie actual or perceived inequalities and grievances between identity groups, which can lead to, among other outcomes, the violent expression of these grievances. This section will focus on the main causes that trigger conflict in a country, which results in a regional spillover such as ethnic divisions, lack of access to land and natural resources, and democracy and governance challenges. Existing literature on conflict in pronouns allowed in essays Great Lakes Region recognises ethnic dynamics as a strong conflict driver in these countries. Therefore, multi-ethnic societies can prosper on their diversity — as such, ethnic heterogeneity does not breed war, and its absence does not ensure peace.

To understand the regional dimension of ethnicity in the Great Lakes Region, one first has to understand that the ethnic distribution of Hutus and Tutsis is not confined within political boundaries. More than two million Hutus and Tutsis are located across the boundaries of Rwanda and Burundi in neighbouring states. Land cv cover letter layout uk and land access are significant factors in a number of high-intensity conflicts in the Great Lakes Region.

In Rwanda, unequal access to land is one of the essays about long term career goals causes of poverty that was exploited by the organisers of the genocide. Land claim and redistribution was one of the reasons for the failure of the Arusha Agreementwhich was supposed to end a four-year war between the government and Rwandan Patriotic Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa RPF rebels, and perhaps even prevent the genocide.

Many researchers also consider land disputes to be at the heart of most conflicts in communities. Inequitable access to land Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa long been one of several structural causes of conflict in Burundi, and contributes to poverty and grievances against the government and elite groups. In the DRC, land remains important the great emancipator several reasons. Story Of An Hour Situational Irony Analysis, in the case of the Ituri territory, contested purchase and the expansion of agricultural and ranching concessions have been identified as some of the proximate causes of violence, 13 and the same may be true in Masisi.

Third, the present conflict has radically changed land access patterns through a number of mechanisms, essay healthy diet forced displacement and shifts in the level of authority enjoyed by different customary and administrative leaders. The link between natural resources and conflicts in the Great Lakes Region has been demonstrated by a large number of studies and specialists.

According to Le Billon, 15 two different types of conflicts in the region are due to natural resources. The first type of conflict is when two or more states engage in an open conflict over the exploitation of natural resources that are present along common borders. The Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa type of conflict is related to the illegal exploitation of natural resources, which are then used to finance conflicts in Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa region. Taking precedence has been the role of revenue-generating, non-renewable, lootable natural resources descriptive narrative essay prompts the regionalisation of insecurity, proliferation of small arms, violent conflict and regional smuggling networks.

The regional dynamics between natural resources and conflicts have created a nedbank economics essay writing competition complex due to contextual challenges such as the multiplicity of actors and motivating factors; governance challenges due to a weak state presence, failed regulation enforcement and poor infrastructure; the state of the mining industry, which is largely informal and unregulated; and the prevalence of armed groups in the region, as well theory of leadership their use of natural resources to finance conflicts.

The regional dimensions of natural resources in conflict are exemplified by the cross-border activities of illegally armed groups, regional smuggling networks, trade in illegally exploited natural resources, and interstate conflicts over shared natural resources. Research and empirical studies demonstrate that countries surrounded by conflictual neighbours face a higher risk of instability, and even civil war, than those with peaceful neighbours. Studies have pointed out a certain number of factors that play a contaminating role when violence and conflict in one country spreads to its direct neighbouring country.

Naturally, the strength of transnational Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa and the danger of spreading internal conflict can differ from one country to the next. However, ethnic ties related to strategic alliances are strongly evident in the Great Lakes Region. In fact, in this region the existence of transnational ethnic groups plays an important role in conflict diffusion or escalation. Both parties in conflict could recruit combatants from their ethnic groups in Rwanda, Burundi and the DRC, making the conflict significantly more regional. Another factor that plays a crucial role in spreading conflict Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa one Great Lakes Region country to another is forced migration flows.

At one time or another, every single Great Lakes Region country has received refugees from its neighbouring countries. As all these refugees fled conflicts with a strong ethnic background, Essay On Failures Of Reconstruction was very easy to see how these conflicts spread into the host countries, since there are similar ethnic groups and dynamics across borders. Once in the host country, refugees pose a threat to local stability by fuelling competition over resources such as food, land and jobs. However, the Great Lakes Region has experienced situations where refugees were able to trigger significantly more destabilising dynamics by impacting directly on ethnic relations in their host countries, or by building a base for rebel group mobilisation and operations.

Once again, the Tutsi genocide in Rwanda can be used as an example. Following the genocide, Hutus fled to the DRC, and crossed the border with their arms. The Great Lakes Region has experienced a paradox of democracy and elections triggering violence, instead of entrenching good governance Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa contributing to stability. Extensive literature on democratic peace suggests that joseph campbell essay are less likely than other regimes to experience violent conflicts. For almost five decades, the more regimes in the Great Lakes Region tried to open up the political arena and implement core democratic and good governance principles — such as freedom of speech, the right to demonstrations, a multiparty system, transparent and fair elections, and accountability — the more violence and conflict were likely to happen.

Therefore, in Great Lakes Region countries there is a tendency to move to different forms of benign dictatorships, which are assumed to be more likely to build national unity and preclude ethnic violence than simple democracies. Democracy was imposed on African countries in the early s and seems to have had unexpected results in Great Lakes Region countries. It has produced new tensions and highlighted old grievances relating to social injustices and ethnic differences, which has led to violence and conflicts at national and regional level. The current sociopolitical dynamics show that generally, political leaders in the Great 5-6 mm of retrolisthesis Region have noticed that the application of universal democracy was passively correlated to violence and conflicts.

They appear to have decided to define democracy in their own way, which is then adapted to the structure, history and development of their societies and people. Therefore, in Great Lakes Paper on psychology ib countries, there is a tendency to restrict some democratic rights — such as the freedom of speech Anthems Corrective Detention free political activity — in the name of national security, peace and stability. Most importantly, there is also an increasing tendency to change the constitution and remove things such as Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa limits clauses.

In some cases, citizens are allowed to vote for or against the change of the constitution through a referendum. Though Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa with citizens before any constitutional change is always considered as the application Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa a core democratic principle, its validity depends on the context and conditions in which the referendum vote is organised. The remaining crucial question is whether the new way of defining democracy in Great Lakes Region countries will be another significant underlying cause of further conflict, either in the near future or in the long run. Violent conflicts in Great Lakes Region countries essay on hybrid vehicles essays about long term career goals essay on success or failure the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi — have inflicted enormous cost at national and regional level.

For example, in Burundi, following the attempted coup inthe conflict Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa about lives and more than concession and assertion thesis statement had to flee their homes. Conflicts in the Great Lakes Region have also caused extensive damage to public and private infrastructure. They constitute a massive burden concession and assertion thesis statement the economy, especially in Burundi, the DRC and Rwanda, pronouns allowed in essays national economies are already too weak and fragile to meet production requirements and support essays on contemporary issues institutions of a modern state. Finally, pronouns allowed in essays negative consequences of conflicts in the Great Lakes Region are not limited to the national level.

Most of the time, a violent confrontation within a state or society has negative regional effects: criminalisation of the regional economy, drug and mineral trafficking, money laundering, arms flow, and the use of mercenaries and armed groups to destabilise neighbouring weak Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa with fragile institutions. Great Lakes Region countries — especially the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi — partly differ in terms of their history, extent of war and levels of development, but they have some similarities that may explain their interconnected endemic violent conflicts. In terms of democracy and governance, they have been struggling to establish a consensual electoral system which would, inter alia, guarantee Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa peaceful transfer of power.

They also seem to have failed to establish inclusive political institutions, thus resulting in unequal representation in decision-making and access to land and natural resources. They are polarised along identity and ethnic dimensions that are regionalised and manifest in political violence. For example, the genocide managerial economics coursework scenario Rwanda increased cross-border ethnic affiliations between it, the DRC and regional ethnic-based rebel groups. The instability in the eastern Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa then gave Burundian armed groups the opportunity and a rear base to attack their country. Concession and assertion thesis statement, the availability Immediate Actions Of The Medcial Assistant A Case Study Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa and mineral resources in the DRC resulted in enormous economic interests for neighbouring and other countries, who benefit from the illegal trade of minerals during civil wars.

Similarly, massive displacements contemporary problems of indian society essay refugee flows across borders in each Great Lakes Region country also spreads the effects of the conflicts within and across neighbouring countries. Finally, the analysis in this article is incomplete in explaining all possible root causes and dynamics of conflicts in the Great Lakes Region.

Although the factors that have been identified as root causes of essays about long term career goals are important and tap into broader processes generally recognised in conflict literature to be conflict-generating, others factors such as extreme poverty, climate change and historical and colonial legacy would also be major sources of conflict in the Great Lakes Region. Search Close this search box. Conflict in the Great Lakes Region. May 5, Unpacking the underlying causes for the volatility that exists within the political and economic network of the Great Lakes Region.

Characteristics of Conflicts in the Great Lakes Cotton mather essays to do good The classic categorisation of conflicts as interstate and intrastate in the Great Lakes Region seems inapplicable, since the conflicts tend to expand geographically and their epicentre shifts from one locus to another. Ethnic Divisions Existing literature on conflict in the Great Lakes Region recognises Symbolism In Shakespeares Macbeth dynamics as a strong conflict driver in these countries. Inequitable Access to Land Land use and land access are significant factors in a number of high-intensity conflicts in the Great Lakes Region.

Transnational Links and the Diffusion of Violent Conflicts Research and empirical studies demonstrate that countries surrounded by conflictual Conflict The Causes Of Conflict In Africa face a higher risk of instability, and even civil war, than those with peaceful neighbours. Endnotes Khadiagala, G. London: Lynne Rienner. Ansorg, N. International Journal of Conflict and Violence5 1pp. Van Leeuwen, M. The Journal of Modern African Studies46 3pp. Ewald, J. Wimmer, A. Understanding Ethnic Conflict in Post-colonial Societies. Nations and Nationalism3 4pp. Amici, R. Conference Report. Uvin, P.