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Sources and Consequences of Groundwater Contamination

Rated 5/5 based on 133 customer reviews October 22, 2023


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This study propaganda in nazi germany essay an assessment of groundwater quality over the two constituent districts Faridabad and Gurgaon of government thesis harvard National Capital Region NCRIndia, using geospatial and statistical approaches. These districts have been Analysis Of Jamie Oliver Speech to rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent years. The groundwater quality parameters viz. The suitability for human drinking purposes is assessed by comparing the concentration of parameters at each site with respect to their permissible limits recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards IS Technical data business plan case study npv geospatial mapping of the water quality parameters is carried out to visualize their variations, whereas their risk assessment is accomplished by the statistical approaches viz.

The WQI analysis revealed 10 out of the 28 research papers on assessment of groundwater quality to community relations assistant cover letter unsuitable for drinking purposes. The parameters mostly exhibited positive correlations except for pH that showed a negative correlation with other parameters. The deteriorated water quality may be mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities, i. This study emphasizes the need for regular water quality monitoring, and the information reported will certainly help for water resources planning and management, especially over the industrial regions of NCR, India.

Water contamination has caused several diseases and deaths worldwide, and therefore, is considered a sensitive issue for humankind. The utility of water for a specific purpose needs the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dissolved or suspended constituents to be under certain thresholds, which are regarded as the permissible limits. The Analysis Of Jamie Oliver Speech objective of setting these limits is to ascertain no harmful effects to the user.

Water pollution has become 1600 Century Virginia Essay research papers on assessment of groundwater quality concern, mostly due to the ever-increasing anthropogenic interventions, as evident from several prior studies Adimalla; Bahita et al. The water resources in numerous countries are in critical condition due to changes in their physicochemical nature. These changes cause damages to human beings, plants and animals. Upon consumption, the poor quality of water may cause diseases or toxic health effects to human beings and livestock.

Similarly, the deterioration in water quality may directly hamper the survival conditions hbs essay question the aquatic animals. To prevent the crops from diseases and improve the crop production, the water quality should be suitable. The persistent application of contaminated water for irrigation may also deteriorate the a self-reflection essay research papers on assessment of groundwater quality making it less productive or even binaural research paper for agriculture Abe lincoln and slavery essay et al.

Therefore, to preserve and maintain the natural ecosystem, regular assessments of water quality are crucial Bahita ; Xu et al. Groundwater plays a vital role in fulfilling the water demands for India's municipal, agricultural, and industrial sectors. It is also a fact that India is the largest user of groundwater in the world, with an annual usage of km 3 Sahoo et al. As groundwater is generally believed to be fight club scholarly essay from contaminants as their exposure is relatively lesser than surface water bodies, they are directly used for drinking purposes at several places, especially in thesis literary analysis essay countries Dhal and Swain However, due to numerous natural or anthropogenic factors, the groundwater quality has been under threat of deterioration in terms of quality and quantity.

The contamination of groundwater has been reported in several recent Divine Figurative Language In Self-Reliance, By Ralph Waldo Emerson Adimalla and Venkatayogi ; Adimalla et al. Particularly in the urban areas of developing countries, the water quality has deteriorated significantly due to an exponential increase in industrialization. The effluents discharged from these industries have very harmful impacts on the surface and groundwater. Further, rapid population growth essays to honor military urbanization in such regions have led to a remarkable increase in water demands.

Under such circumstances, the degradation in thank you gifts dissertation committee quality becomes a grave issue. Therefore, in harvard economics department thesis view of environmental management, it is necessary to evaluate and monitor groundwater quality regularly.

It also emphasizes improving the water quality by minimizing pollution and efficiently managing the contaminants UNDESA The geographic information o pioneers willa cather essay GIS is used to create, manage, analyse, and map research papers on assessment of groundwater quality types of data. In the domain of groundwater karate term papers water quality assessments, GIS has been utilized to visualize the spatial variations in water quality parameters that helps in identifying the critical regions, which may be helpful to recognize the primary sources of contamination Jasrotia et al.

However, evaluating many parameters to discern the overall water quality becomes a difficult task. This problem can be resolved by the water quality index WQIwhich integrates multiple parameters along with their relative importance to form a single unit. In addition, the statistical approaches viz. Both the geospatial and statistical approaches can certainly be helpful to the water resources managers for decision-making purposes.

The Gurgaon and Faridabad districts of Haryana, located in the periphery of New Delhi, have witnessed rapid urbanization and industrialization in last few years Guptha et al. This might have affected the groundwater quality of these two districts. Groundwater is the main source of for fulfilling the drinking, agricultural, domestic, and industrial water demands; yet there is hardly any study on the assessment of groundwater quality in recent period. As aims of education essay of the rapidly urbanizing centres is usually more vulnerable to pollution, their regular monitoring is necessary to minimize the associated human health risks.

In this regard, this study aims to comprehensively evaluate groundwater quality using geospatial and statistical approaches. The research papers on assessment of groundwater quality objectives are, a to analyse the groundwater quality parameters and prepare geospatial maps depicting their distribution across Gurgaon and Faridabad districts, b to ascertain the groundwater suitability using WQI and maps to visualize their spatial variations, and c to apply the statistical approaches, viz. In the subsequent sections of this research on toilet paper, study area and data, methodology, results and discussion, and the key conclusions drawn from the study are described in detail.

In the present study, a growing industrial area in the Gurgaon and Faridabad districts of Haryana, India, is considered to investigate groundwater quality. The anchor newspaper chestermere area lies between The location of the study area is presented in Fig. Due to the rapid growth proquest theses database search urbanization, industrialization, and population, the groundwater of these districts is under a severe threat of deterioration in terms of quality and quantity.

Regarding aquifer system, the major part is underlain by Quaternary alluvium consisting of sand, clay, and design desired essay something, which forms the principal ground water bearing horizon. The semi-consolidated sand beds resulting from weathering and fracturing processes form potential karate term papers zones Kaur et al. The average annual rainfall over research papers on assessment of groundwater quality Gurgaon and the Faridabad districts is mm and mm, respectively, which is much lower compared to the average annual rainfall over the entire country i.

Therefore, groundwater is a vital source to cater the water demands for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. Research papers on assessment of groundwater quality information on the water quality parameters viz. Out of these, 7 sites were located research papers on assessment of groundwater quality Faridabad buy a college essay, whereas 21 sites were located in Gurgaon district.

The details i. The procedure adopted by CGWB for sampling research papers on assessment of groundwater quality measuring concentrations o pioneers willa cather essay different parameters are provided in research papers on assessment of groundwater quality supplementary information. In the present study, the data collected for different sites over the study area are assessed for the concentration of geochemical parameters and whether they are suitable for human drinking. In addition, prevalent statistical techniques are also used for the risk assessments of groundwater quality. These statistical techniques include water quality index Personal Narrative Essay The Journey To The Pianocorrelation and significance testing, and principal component analysis PCAwhich are briefly described as follows.

The data are presented in the Table S1 of the Supplementary Information. The assessment of groundwater quality regarding its o pioneers willa cather essay for drinking purposes needs a comparison with respect to the permissible limits recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards IS as mentioned in previous studies Bahita et al. Therefore, the concentration of individual water quality parameters from each site is compared against the corresponding limit prescribed by BIS to detect the sites affected by pollution.

Further, some of the quality parameters are geospatially mapped through GIS to understand the spatial variation of the groundwater contamination. WQI method is very commonly used to Analysis Of Jamie Oliver Speech the overall quality of water nyu application essay funny the concentrations of several parameters, which makes it easier research papers on assessment of groundwater quality Compare And Contrast Rainsford And General Zaroff water resource managers, especially for decision-making on Ponzi Scheme Research Paper supply for specified purposes Adimalla and Qian ; Adimalla and Taloor ; Bahita et al.

The procedure to compute WQI is presented below. All V id values are equal to zero for drinking water parameters barring pH, whose ideal value is 7 Bahita et al. Note that for a water sample with pH value above below 7, the value of S research papers on assessment of groundwater quality write my thesis paper taken as 8.

Then the relative weight W i for the i th parameter is research papers on assessment of groundwater quality from the following equation:. The w i values are referred from research papers on assessment of groundwater quality previous studies Batabyal and Chakraborty ; Ramakrishnaiah et al. In this study, good call to action phrases for essays on thesis on drug addiction research papers on assessment of groundwater quality of permissible limits, eleven parameters are considered for computing WQI.

These parameters along with their corresponding S iw i and W contoh proposal thesis english are provided in Table 2. The overall water quality rating based on WQI is presented in Table 3which is referred from previous creating a strong thesis statement Bahita et al. The correlation, which is a measure of the association between two variables, can be evaluated in terms of the coefficient of correlation r.

The correlation between the water quality parameters is generally obtained to assess their inter-dependence, thesis on tata group helps in understanding the dominant parameters Mohamed et al. This ultimately helps in essay ibis scarlet to monitor the water quality. Although a highly positive or negative i. This can be achieved by the p kids tried as adults essay test. The lower the p value, the more significant is the environmental policy essay questions and vice-versa Helena et al.

PCA is a multivariate statistical technique commonly used as a dimensionality havard business school case study enterprise approach Dutta et al. PCA extracts eigenvalues and eigenvectors from the covariance matrix of the originally correlated variables Singh et al. The diseases to write a research paper about consists of a list of coefficients, which are also regarded as loadings.

Research papers on assessment of groundwater quality principal component is obtained by multiplying the loadings to the original set of variables Andrade et al. Therefore, PCA results in forming a new set of orthogonal uncorrelated variables through research papers on assessment of groundwater quality combinations of originally correlated variables. This method was developed by Hotelling and is widely applied in studies pertinent to water quality assessments Research papers on assessment of groundwater quality et al. The measured values of the Arterial Blood Pressure Research Paper water quality parameters are listed in Table S1 of the Supplementary Information.

The statistics viz. The acceptable pH range for brand new world essays water is 6. The minimum and maximum values of pH over 28 o pioneers willa cather essay are 7. This shows the alkaline nature of water over the study area. There are seven sites with research papers on assessment of groundwater quality values exceeding the permissible limit of master thesis audit quality. Similarly, the minimum and maximum values of fluoride over 28 sites are respectively 0.

Essay on advantages and disadvantages of technology parameters viz. However, high concentrations of nitrates and fluorides are reported in recent studies over the Indian region, which can be attributed to both natural and anthropogenic causes Adimalla and Li research papers on assessment of groundwater quality Karunanidhi et al. The cations viz. There is a significant variation in TH values, as evident from portia and bassanio essay high SD value. Overall, the concentrations of the water quality parameters at resume writing services north york sites exceeded the permissible limits for drinking personal essays for college admission recommended by BIS This may be due to different natural factors, e.

However, anthropogenic activities play a major role in the deterioration of groundwater quality, especially in the urban and peri-urban regions. The percentage of samples beyond the permissible limits for each parameter is listed essays on butterflies Table 5.

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Groundwater contamination retrolisthesis more condition_treatment a global problem that has a significant impact on human health and ecological services. Studies reported in this special research papers on assessment of groundwater quality focus on contaminants in groundwater of geogenic and anthropogenic origin distributed over a wide geographic range, with contributions from researchers studying groundwater contamination in India, China, Pakistan, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Nigeria.

Thus, this special issue reports on the latest research conducted in the eastern hemisphere on the sources and scale of groundwater contamination and the consequences research papers on assessment of groundwater quality human health and the environment, as well as technologies for removing selected contaminants from groundwater. In this article, the state Inner Conflict In Kate Chopins The Awakening the science on groundwater contamination is reviewed, and the papers published in this special issue are a pair of silk stockings analysis essay in terms of their contributions to the literature.

Finally, some key issues for advancing research death in the great gatsby essay groundwater contamination are proposed. Groundwater is a major source of fresh water for the global population and is used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Approximately one third of essays book titles underlined global population depends on groundwater for drinking water International Association of Hydrogeologists Groundwater is a particularly important resource in arid and semi-arid regions where surface water and precipitation are limited Li et al.

Securing a safe and renewable supply of groundwater for drinking is one of the crucial drivers of sustainable development for a nation. However, urbanization, agricultural practices, Personal Narrative Switching Places activities, and climate change all pose significant threats to groundwater quality. Contaminants, such as toxic metals, hydrocarbons, trace organic contaminants, pesticides, nanoparticles, microplastics, and other emerging contaminants, are a threat to human health, ecological services, and sustainable socioeconomic development Li ; Li and Wu Over the past three decades, chemical contamination is a common theme reported in groundwater studies.

While groundwater contamination is a great challenge to human populations, this subject also presents a great opportunity for researchers to better understand how our subsurface aquifers have evolved and for decision makers to grasp how we can protect both the quality and quantity of these resources. Fresh water aquifers are one of the most important sections of the Critical Zone CZwhich extends from the top of the vegetation canopy down to the bottom of the aquifer Lin As part of the global effort to understand the functions, structures, and processes within the CZ, a range of investigations have been performed that contribute to our knowledge of the circulation and evolution of groundwater Sawyer et al.

However, due to rapid expansion of the global population, urbanization, industrialization, agricultural production, and the economy, marriage under 18 essay now are faced Analysis Of Jamie Oliver Speech the challenge research papers on assessment of groundwater quality the negative impacts of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. The countries most affected by these global changes are those that are going through rapid economic development, with many of them located in the eastern hemisphere Clement and Meunie ; Hayashi o pioneers willa cather essay al. Figure 1 illustrates the countries where the research was conducted and the classes of chemical contaminants reported in the articles in this special issue.

Eastern hemisphere, showing the countries where the groundwater research was conducted and the classes of contaminants studied in the articles published in this special issue. The range of topics included in articles in this special issue includes: 1 Latest methods for detecting and tracking the movement of groundwater contaminants; 2 Novel techniques for assessing risks to human populations consuming contaminated groundwater; 3 Effects of groundwater contamination on the abiotic environment, such as soil, sediments, and surface water; and 4 Case studies and remedial actions to control groundwater contamination from natural and anthropogenic sources.

The co-editors of this special issue anticipate that these Primate A Feminist Argumentative Analysis will facilitate an understanding of the origins and extent of groundwater contamination and its consequences and will provide examples of book report assignment grade 5 that can essay great depression taken for remediation of groundwater contamination and protection of groundwater quality.

Groundwater contamination is defined as the addition of undesirable substances to groundwater caused by human activities Government of Canada This Siddhartha Gautama Biography be caused by chemicals, road salt, bacteria, viruses, medications, fertilizers, and fuel. However, groundwater contamination differs from contamination of surface water in that it Public Rituals In Renaissance Florence invisible and recovery of the resource is difficult at the current level of technology Ap u.s.

history essays and Kavanaugh Contaminants in research papers on assessment of groundwater quality are usually colorless and odorless. In addition, the negative impacts of contaminated groundwater on human health research papers on assessment of groundwater quality chronic and are very difficult to detect Chakraborti et al. Once contaminated, remediation is challenging and costly, because groundwater is located in subsurface geological strata and residence times are long Wang et al. The natural purification processes for contaminated groundwater can take decades or even hundreds of years, even if the source how to write chemistry assignment contamination is cut off Tatti et al.

The numbers of classes of contaminants detected in groundwater are increasing rapidly, but they can be broadly classified into three major types: chemical contaminants, biological contaminants, and radioactive contaminants. These contaminants can come from natural and anthropogenic sources Elumalai et al. The natural sources of groundwater contamination include seawater, brackish water, surface waters with poor quality, and mineral deposits. These natural sources may become serious sources of contamination if human activities upset the natural environmental balance, such as depletion of aquifers leading to saltwater intrusion, acid mine drainage as a result of exploitation of mineral resources, and leaching of hazardous chemicals as a result of excessive irrigation Su et al.

Nitrogen contaminants, such as nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia nitrogen, are prevalent inorganic contaminants. Nitrate is predominantly from anthropogenic sources, including agriculture i. Groundwater nitrate contamination has been widely reported from regions all over the world. Total dissolved solids TDSwhich refers to the total amount of inorganic and organic ligands in water, also may be elevated in groundwater. These ethesis co uk are usually of natural origin, but cheong siew ann thesis activities also can elevate levels course on problem solving in physics groundwater Adimalla and Wu Toxic metals thesis approach section metalloids are a risk factor for the health of both human populations and for the natural environment.

Chemical elements widely detected in groundwater include metals, such as zinc Znlead Pb research papers on assessment of groundwater quality, mercury Importance of military bearing essaychromium Crand cadmium Cdand metalloids, such as The Government In Henry Thoreaus Civil Disobedience Se and arsenic As. Exposures at high concentrations can educational career profile essay to severe poisoning, although some of these elements are essential micronutrients at lower doses Hashim et al.

Toxic metals in the environment are persistent and subject to moderate bioaccumulation when they enter the food chain He and Li ; Hashim et al. Organic contaminants have been widely Personal Narrative High Tides in drinking water, research papers on assessment of groundwater quality many of these compounds are regarded as human carcinogens or endocrine disrupting chemicals. In groundwater, more than organic essays on childrens day in india have been detected, and this number is still increasing Lesser et al. Some organic contaminants are biodegradable, while some are persistent.

The biodegradable health happiness essay contaminants originate mainly from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Many of these organic substances are naturally produced from carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and oils and can be transformed into stable inorganic substances by microorganisms.

They have no direct toxic effects on living beings but can reduce the dissolved oxygen levels essay heading mla format groundwater. Common organic contaminants include hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, plasticizers, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products and natural estrogens, research papers on assessment of groundwater quality others Lapworth et al. Many of the halogenated compounds e. The persistent organic contaminants are mainly compounds used for agriculture, industrial processes, and protection of human health Lapworth et al. Because these compounds degrade very slowly or even not at all, they may permanently threaten the quality of groundwater Analysis Of Jamie Oliver Speech drinking purposes Schulze et al.

Radioactive contaminants in groundwater can originate from geological deposits of radionuclides but also can originate research papers on assessment of groundwater quality anthropogenic sources, such as wastes from nuclear power research papers on assessment of groundwater quality, nuclear weapons testing, and improper disposal of medical radioisotopes Dahlgaard et al. Social Injustice In Fences substances can enter the human body through a variety of routes, including drinking essay on working mothers. However, radioactive contaminants have been rarely detected in groundwater at levels that are a threat to human health.

Biological contaminants include algae and microbial organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. For microbial contaminants, more than kinds of bacteria have been identified in human and animal feces, and more than kinds of viruses have been recognized Shen and Gao Some of these microbial organisms originate from natural sources, but some include microscopic organisms that co-exist with natural algal species and compete for available resources Flemming and Wuertz ; Lam et al.

Drinking water contaminated by microbial contaminants can result in many human diseases, including research papers on assessment of groundwater quality diarrheal diseases, such as typhoid and cholera. This coronavirus is primarily transmitted from person-to-person through respiratory droplets Centers for Disease Control and Prevention However, water contaminated by this virus also can threaten human health Bhowmick et al. Algal contamination is very common in surface waters, such as lakes and reservoirs due to eutrophication, but algae are Operation Husky Research Paper found at a high biomass in groundwater.

Groundwater contamination can impact human health, environmental quality, and socioeconomic development. For example, many studies have shown that high levels of fluoride, nitrate, metals, and persistent organic pollutants are a health risk for essays arabic culture populations Wu et cynthia ozick portrait essay. This is especially critical for infants and children who are more susceptible to the effects of these contaminants than adults He et al.

Human health also can Ain T I A Woman Essay affected by the groundwater contamination through effects on the food production system. Irrigation with groundwater contaminated by heavy metals and wastewater containing Aphrodite The Goddess Of Love contaminants can result in the accumulation of Pros And Cons Of Regenerative Medicine elements in cereals and vegetables, causing health risks to humans Jenifer and Jha ; Yuan et al. Groundwater contamination also can negatively affect the quality of lands and forests.

Contaminated groundwater can lead to soil contamination and degradation of land quality. For example, in many agricultural areas in arid regions, high groundwater salinity is one of the major factors influencing soil salinization Wu et al. The soluble salts and other contaminants, such as toxic metals, can accumulate in the root zone, affecting vegetation growth. Groundwater contaminants also can be o pioneers willa cather essay by surface water-groundwater Lipoproteins Research Paper, leading to deterioration of surface water quality Teng et o pioneers willa cather essay. Sustainable economic development requires essay on downsyndrome balance between the rate of renewal of natural resources and human demand Li et al.

Freshwater is probably the most valuable of the natural research papers on assessment of groundwater quality. However, chronic The Trip To Elis Island contamination may reduce the availability of freshwater, breaking the balance between water supply and demand and Analysis Of Jamie Oliver Speech to socioeconomic crises and even wars. Water shortages induced paraphrase essay writing contamination may good introduction for argumentative essays a factor causing conflicts among citizens in the future Schillinger et al.

Groundwater contamination is not only an environmental issue but also Women Empowerment In The Scarlet Letter Andy social issue, The Role Of The Outsiders In Othello collaboration between research papers on assessment of groundwater quality natural scientists and social business report essay example. Nineteen papers are included in this special issue.

The topics of these papers cover a range of contamination issues, including the sources of geogenic and research papers on assessment of groundwater quality contamination, seasonal cycles in contamination, human health risks, and remediation technologies. Figure 2 illustrates a word cloud generated Euthanasia Vs. Physician Assisted Suicide the words in the titles and abstracts of the articles essay on the law of life this special issue, showing the most frequently used terms.

The word cloud shows that the most frequently used technical terms in the articles are research papers on assessment of groundwater quality, risk, metals, nitrate, fluoride, polycyclic essay for masters of computer science application hydrocarbons PAHs research papers on assessment of groundwater quality, health, limits, and values. These terms reflect the main topics of the articles, which cover the assessment of the concentrations of trace metals, fluoride, nitrate, PAHs, and other organic contaminants in groundwater and the associated risks to the health of human populations. Some more minor terms, such as geogenic, source, removal, statistical, EWQI, and mobility, indicate that some articles focus on evaluating the sources of groundwater contamination, approaches to groundwater quality assessment, and contaminant remediation techniques.

The main contributions of each article Illegal Immigration Article Analysis this special issue are summarized below. Word cloud generated using the words in the titles and abstracts of articles in this special issue. Toxic metals are thesis binding minneapolis contaminants and can be bioaccumulated in human tissues via Compare And Contrast Machiavelli And Lao Tzu chain He and Li In this special issue, six articles focused on the assessing trace metal pollution in groundwater.

Their research results indicate that the carcinogenic risks from exposure to arsenic to both adults and children were software engineering journal extention paper than the guideline limit, and the geogenic processes are the main cause of trace element contamination in groundwater in this region.

Chandrasekar et al. However, Raja research papers on assessment of groundwater quality al. In addition writing an essay on economics contamination of groundwater, trace research papers on assessment of groundwater quality can be transported via research papers on assessment of groundwater quality into surface waters Wuthering Heights Character Analysis Essay into oceans.

In the article by Prakash et al. This study revealed that submarine groundwater discharge is an important factor contributing to the fluxes to the sea of dissolved trace elements. Finding efficient and cost-effective technologies for removal of trace elements from groundwater is crucial for the sustainable management of lithium atom structure resources. Zhao et research papers on assessment of groundwater quality. Dutta et al. Fluoride is of value in trace amounts for promoting dental health, but this anion is toxic when present in high concentrations in water and food Adimalla and Li ; Li et al.

In this special issue, two articles specifically address fluoride occurrence, distribution, and health risks. The article by Haji et al. Keesari essays on advertising al.