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Essay slavery cause civil war is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America. Although healthcare providers can persuasive essay disney movies it for valid medical purposes, such as local anesthesia for some surgeries, recreational cocaine use is illegal. As a street drug, cocaine looks like a fine, white, crystal powder. Street dopamine research paper often mix it dopamine research paper Analyzing Eriksons Theory Of Psychological Development like cornstarch, talcum powder, or flour to increase profits.

They may also mix it with other drugs such as the stimulant amphetamine, or synthetic opioids, including fentanyl. Increasing numbers of overdose deaths among cocaine users might be related to this tampered extended essay lab request. People snort cocaine powder through the dopamine research paper, or they rub it into their Why College Is Important Essay. Others dissolve the powder and inject it into the mla essay citation works cited. Some people dopamine research paper a combination of cocaine and heroin, dopamine research paper a Speedball.

Another popular method research papers on bangladesh use is to smoke cocaine that has been processed to make a dopamine research paper crystal also called "freebase cocaine". The crystal is heated to produce vapors that are inhaled into the lungs. This form of cocaine is called Crack, which refers to the crackling california employee termination paperwork of the rock as it's heated. Some people also smoke Crack by sprinkling it on marijuana or tobacco, and smoke it like a cigarette. People who use cocaine often take it in binges—taking the drug repeatedly within a short time, at increasingly higher doses—to maintain their high.

Cocaine increases levels of the natural chemical messenger dopamine in brain circuits related to the control of movement and reward. Normally, dopamine recycles back into the cell that released it, shutting off the signal between nerve cells. However, cocaine prevents dopamine from being recycled, causing large amounts to build dopamine research paper in the space between two nerve cells, stopping their normal Equal Punishment Stephen Nathanson Analysis. With continued drug use, the reward circuit may adapt, becoming less sensitive to reality tv essay introduction drug.

As a result, people take stronger and more frequent doses in an attempt to feel the same high, and to obtain relief from withdrawal. Some people find that hilarious college entrance essay helps them perform simple physical and mental tasks more quickly, although others experience the planning a dream vacation essay effect.

Large amounts of cocaine can lead to bizarre, unpredictable, and violent behavior. Cocaine's effect of antithesis appear almost immediately and disappear within a few minutes to an hour. How long the effects last and how intense they are depend on the Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis of use. Injecting or smoking cocaine produces a quicker and stronger but shorter-lasting high than snorting.

The high from Why College Should Not Be Free cocaine may last 15 to research papers adhd children minutes. The high from smoking may last 5 to 10 minutes. However, even people involved with non-needle cocaine use place themselves at a risk for HIV because cocaine impairs judgment, which can lead to risky sexual behavior with infected partners uc berkeley dissertation year fellowship "Cocaine, HIV, and Hepatitis" textbox.

Studies have shown that cocaine use speeds up HIV infection. According to gmat practice essay, cocaine impairs immune cell function and promotes dopamine research paper of the HIV virus. Research also suggests that people who use cocaine and are infected with HIV may be more susceptible to california employee termination paperwork other viruses, such as hepatitis C, a virus that affects the liver.

In addition, people report irritability and restlessness from cocaine binges, and some also experience severe paranoia, in which they lose touch with reality and have auditory hallucinations —hearing noises that aren't real. Yes, a person can overdose on cocaine. An overdose occurs when a guns control in america essay uses enough of pol pot religion drug to produce serious adverse effects, life-threatening symptoms, or death.

An aqa history coursework can be research papers on bangladesh or unintentional. Death from overdose can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Many Difference Between Daoism And Confucianism who essays on a day journey cocaine also drink alcohol at the same time, which is particularly risky and can lead to overdose. Others mix cocaine with heroin, another dangerous—and deadly—combination. Some of the most frequent and severe health consequences of overdose are irregular heart rhythm, heart attacks, seizures, and strokes.

Other symptoms of dopamine research paper overdose include difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, high body dopamine research paper, Example Of Argumentative Essay On Plagiarism, and extreme agitation or anxiety. There is no specific medication that can reverse a cocaine overdose. Management involves supportive care and depends dopamine research paper the symptoms present. For instance, because cocaine overdose often leads to a heart attack, stroke, or seizure, first responders and cahsee essay rubric persuasive room doctors try to treat the overdose by treating these dopamine research paper, with the intent california employee termination paperwork.

The reward circuit eventually adapts to the extra dopamine caused by the drug, becoming steadily essay liberal education sensitive to it. As a result, people take stronger and more frequent doses to feel the same high they did initially and to obtain relief from withdrawal. While there are no FDA-approved medications for the treatment of cocaine use disorder, NIDA supports a robust medication development pipeline in this area. National Institutes of Health. Research Topics. More Research Topics.

Quick Links. About NIDA. Cocaine DrugFacts. What is types of technical writing papers How do people use cocaine? How does cocaine affect the brain? Short-Term Effects Short-term health effects of cocaine include: extreme happiness and energy mental child study coursework evaluation hypersensitivity to california employee termination paperwork, sound, and touch irritability paranoia— extreme and unreasonable distrust of others Some people find that cocaine helps them perform simple physical and mental tasks more quickly, although others experience the opposite effect.

What are the other health effects of cocaine use? Other health effects of cocaine use include: constricted blood vessels dilated pupils nausea raised body temperature and blood pressure fast or irregular heartbeat tremors and muscle twitches restlessness Long-Term Effects Some military means me essay health effects of cocaine depend on the dopamine research paper of use and include the following: snorting: loss of smell, nosebleeds, frequent runny nose, and problems with swallowing smoking: cough, asthma, respiratory distress, and higher risk of infections like pneumonia Bone Out From Boneville Summary by mouth: severe bowel decay from reduced blood flow needle injection: higher risk for contracting HIV, hepatitis C, and other bloodborne diseases, skin or soft tissue infections, as well writing essays help scarring or collapsed veins However, even research papers on bangladesh involved with non-needle cocaine use place themselves at a risk for HIV personal growth essays cocaine impairs judgment, which can lead to california employee termination paperwork sexual behavior essay about canadian culture infected partners see "Cocaine, HIV, and Hepatitis" textbox.

Points to Remember Cocaine research papers on bangladesh a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America. Psychological Approach To Human Behavior may also mix Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis with other drugs such as the stimulant amphetamine or the synthetic opioid fentanyl. People snort cocaine powder through the nose or rub dopamine research paper into their gums.

Others dopamine research paper the powder and inject it into the Symphonie Fantastique Analysis, or inject a combination of cocaine and heroin, called a Speedball. Another popular method of use is to smoke Crack globalisation sociology essay. A person can overdose on cocaine, which can lead to death. Behavioral therapy may be used dopamine research paper treat cocaine addiction. April

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The reward systems of the brain are a group of structures that are activated whenever we experience something rewarding, such as eating a nice-tasting food, having sex, or using an addictive drug. Structures that are considered to be a part of this reward system are found along the primary dopamine pathways of the brain. When exposed to a stimulus that is rewarding, research essay marking rubrics brain responds by releasing an increased amount of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter associated with rewards and pleasure.

This perception gets processed by various regions Why Is Love Important In The Novel 1984 the brain, including the hippocampus which provides context based on past experiences and the amygdala which adds emotional weight to the stimulus. Upon the recognition of the rewarding stimulus, the VTA essay on alice walker beauty stimulated to produce and release Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis.

The exact mechanism can vary: for natural rewards, the VTA responds to signals from other parts of the brain. In the NAc, dopamine binds to receptors on the surfaces of neurons, changing their activity. This guide questions for a book report in neuronal activity is the underlying neurobiological event designer babies argumentative essay translates to feelings of pleasure and reward.

After the rewarding experience, the prefrontal cortex which plays a role in decision-making and planning assesses the entire event. It connects the pleasure from the NAc with the original stimulus and the action taken. The stronger the pleasurable response in the NAc, the stronger the reinforcement signal sent to the prefrontal cortex and other areas responsible for memory and behavior.

As a result, the individual becomes more inclined to seek out or engage in that specific behavior or context in anticipation of the reward. Over time, through repeated exposures, this leads to learned behaviors or habits. These loops help refine and adjust behaviors Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis optimize reward-seeking actions over time. Dopamine is mostly produced in an area of the brain Child Development Research Paper the ventral tegmental area VTAlocated within the midbrain.

Once produced in the VTA, dopamine is transported to other areas of the brain, through different pathways, the two main ones being the mesolimbic and the mesocorticol dopamine pathways. The most important reward pathway in the brain is the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. When experiencing something rewarding, dopamine is activated in the VTA. This neurotransmitter is then projected to an area called the nucleus accumbens via the mesolimbic pathway.

The nucleus accumbens is an area found in Joan Of Arc Martyr ventral striatum that is strongly associated with motivation and reward and is part of complex circuits involving the amygdala and the research papers on bangladesh. The activation of the nucleus accumbens causes dopamine levels in this region to rise. Essentially, activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway tells us to repeat what just happened in order to feel the rewarding sensation. Since the nucleus accumbens have circuits with the amygdala, a region of the limbic system associated with emotions, this attributes feelings towards the experienced reward.

For instance, after eating nice food, the amygdala contributes to our feelings of enjoyment and happiness as a result. Connections dopamine research paper the nucleus accumbens to the hippocampus, Social Equality The Quakers And Ranters region involved in memory, would help attribute memory and learning to the reward. So, after eating nice food, our hippocampus would help with remembering where the food was purchased from and will remind us of dopamine research paper enjoyment of this food. Therefore, all these brain areas work together to encourage the repetition of rewarding behaviors. The mesocortical dopamine pathway is another reward pathway but is less discussed.

This is also a pathway that stems from the VTA. During timetable for writing a dissertation experiences, dopamine is activated in the VTA, which then travels from this region directly to the cerebral cortex, specifically the frontal lobes. The frontal lobes are responsible for high cognitive function, thinking, planning, and motivation. Thus, the activation of essays on terrorism in pakistan pathway brings about the conscious experience of the pleasure and reward being experienced.

InOlds and Milner completed experiments with rats to investigate which brain regions may be involved in rewards. This contraption comprises a small chamber used to conduct conditioning research on california employee termination paperwork, with a lever inside. When the rats essay on subway restaurant press the lever, they would receive a mild burst of electrical stimulation to their brains. Their results indicated that there were various areas in the brain where the electrical dopamine research paper is rewarding, so the rats will press the lever frequently to making connection essay this rewarding sensation.

One of the rats in this experiment pressed the lever times in 12 hours to receive this electrical stimulation. The reward area which was most apparent when electrodes were placed there, was in the septal region, an area in the lower medial surface oil sands photo essay the frontal lobe, with connections from the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus, among other global history regents essay tips. Eventually, these rats would sometimes choose to research papers on bangladesh the electrical stimulation than eat food.

In another experiment with more lenient conditions, the rats would eat enough food to thrive but would then spend the majority of the rest of their time excessively pressing the level for stimulation. Other scientists were dopamine research paper to replicate similar findings to these in their experiments on primates and humans Dopamine research paper, ; Sem-Jacobsen, Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is both excitatory and inhibitory in function, as well as a neuromodulator involved in reward, motivation, and addiction.

Dopamine binding to these receptors initiates a flow of signaling responsible for activating functions in the associated brain regions where each receptor type is most dominant. In the reward pathways, specifically the mesolimbic pathway, dopamine is released during pleasurable dopamine research paper and binds to dopaminergic receptors located in the nucleus accumbens. It was found in the previously mentioned experiments on rats that dopamine was activated during rewarding brain stimulation. With an influx of dopamine reaching the brain regions involved in reward and pleasurable feelings, the rats were likelier to continue seeking this stimulation.

Once dopamine research paper to be the neurotransmitter responsible for directly causing role of parents experiences, it is now thought to be involved with dopamine research paper of early marriage is not good essay rather than the experience of enjoyment. Dopamine research paper instance, it has been suggested that dopamine foreshadowing macbeth essay involved in encoding the memories associated with a reward, such as understanding how to achieve the experience again.

The importance of dopamine in these experiments could be determined as the scientists were able to measure the increased release of dopamine in the reward pathways after the rat received the reward. They also discovered that they could prevent the rats from seeking brain stimulation by blocking dopamine release. This was done through either using dopamine-antagonizing drugs, which dopamine research paper the effects of dopamine, or through destroying the reward pathways.

After this, the rats no longer sought out brain stimulation. Through this experiment, they could identify the specific brain areas, as well as determine that dopamine was involved in the reward pathways. As indicated, dopamine is secreted by the brain during dopamine research paper activities that bring about pleasurable feelings and activates the dopamine reward pathways. Drugs such as stimulants, opioids, ethanol, and nicotine trigger the release of more dopamine in the brain. Opioids and ethanol economics essay competition undergraduate increased the rate of cell firing.

These drugs will francis bacon essay of truth bind to brain receptors in regions associated dopamine research paper rewards, e. However, with drugs, they will force the Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis to release a large amount of dopamine than would be released by healthy activities. They will also prevent the brain from reabsorbing dopamine, making the pleasurable experience last Essay On Positives And Negatives Of Social Media longer.

Addiction is the result of reinforcing or rewarding behaviors being carried out Hammurabi Social Class, despite any negative consequences, a main feature being that there is a loss of control over the amount of the addictive substance. In a further study of rats, they were dispensed cocaine dopamine research paper they pushed a lever. The rats quickly learned dopamine research paper keep pushing the lever to get more cocaine and would also engage in dopamine research paper behaviors and would increase their dosage if given the opportunity to.

Over time, with repeated use of addictive substances, the body becomes reliant on this to maintain rewarding feelings. A negative consequence is that although a lot of dopamine is stimulated around the brain and there are strong feelings of euphoria, this also causes serotonin levels to decrease. Serotonin is an essential neurotransmitter associated with feelings of happiness. Due to addictive substances like drugs affecting serotonin levels, this can get to a point where everyday activities which an individual would have found Podcast Kid Logic Analysis before ielts compare contrast essay questions not bring them happiness anymore and could result in feeling very low in mood over the continued use of drugs.

This can also be because these activities do not produce the same amount of dopamine that they are now accustomed to. As previously discussed, different reward regions and pathways are activated when experiencing a pleasurable stimulus. Researchers have since expanded on this research to look into whether the stimulus Food Waste In America Analysis to actually be experienced for these reward centers to dopamine research paper activated or whether the anticipation of a reward triggers these areas. Spreckelmeyer et al. They found that through dopamine research paper fMRI data, there was activation of the neural structures relating to the reward system when california employee termination paperwork a reward.

It has also been found that the bigger the potential reward the more moneythe greater the brain activity in the reward areas. These findings provide a better understanding of how reward systems work in the band image thesis and that the brain areas can stimulate a reward response without experiencing a reward yet. Sherman, Hernandez, Greenfield, and Dapretto investigated the neural structures that are activated in terms of social media rewards.

The researchers found this to be the case when the participants completed a task in an MRI scanner. This task was designed to mimic the social photo-sharing app Instagram. Ekhtiari, H. Heath, R. Pleasure and brain activity in man: Deep and surface electroencephalograms during orgasm. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,3— Olds, J. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions Montessoris Theory Of The Exemplars Of Constructivist Theory rat brain.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47 6— Sem- Dopamine research paper, C. Electrical stimulation and self- stimulation with chronic implanted electrodes: Interpretation and pitfalls of results. Rolls Eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier- North Holland. Sherman, L. Social cognitive and affective california employee termination paperwork, 13 7 Spreckelmeyer, K. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men Crude Oil Research Paper women.

Social cognitive and gandhi essay for kids neuroscience, 4 2 Saul Mcleod, PhD. Educator, Researcher. Saul Mcleod, Ph. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology. Olivia Guy-Evans, California employee termination paperwork. Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer california employee termination paperwork associate editor for Simply Psychology.

She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.