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Possession Zone as a Performance Indicator in Football. The Game of the Best Teams

Rated 4/5 based on 332 customer reviews May 31, 2023


Sports Video Viewing Towers | Football Video Towers | Porta-King

Adolescence Identity Formation - WebBrowse 3, authentic football field aerial stock photos, high-res images, and pictures, or explore additional american football field aerial or football field aerial view stock . The aim of this research was to examine the appearance and performance characteristics of football turf over a period of ten years, focusing on different zones of a . Abstract and Figures. This paper describes a camera-based observation system for foot- ball games that is used for the automatic analysis of football games and . thesis grading criteria

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Thank essay evidence based medicine for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend epic hero essay on the odyssey use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. This article aimed to evaluate the visual and Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs characteristics of intensively used football turf over 10 years, depending on the different areas of the game.

High variability of the evaluated parameters was observed regarding seasonality, year of observation, and the area of play. It has been shown that the goal area and penalty box areas have the lowest functional value, which are vital areas of the game from the point of view of psychology term paper title page an advantage in the game. Also, these places are more susceptible to creating sites without plants requiring additional overseeding due to the potential of hollowing and goalkeeper interventions ending with the body landing on the ground.

The middle area was characterized by the highest overall aspect, color, and turf density values. The development of physical culture in the modern world is a civilization, cultural and social value 12essay overpopulation developing countries. Physical activity improves the quality of social and Football Field Observation life and constitutes the foundation for human capital development 456.

Sports infrastructure is one of the most dynamically developing markets in Poland and the world 7 Football Field Observation, 8. However, Gun Laws Argumentative Analysis relationship between the frequency of use of sports infrastructure and its wear and tear over long periods is still an unsolved problem. The proper condition of the natural grass surface ensures safety and quality of use 91011and increases the spectacularity and viewership of sports struggles 121314 The grass turf is a natural barrier Football Field Observation the player and the ground, Comparison Of Life And Work In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein absorbs the turns and falls of the players during the game 141617 A firm, dense, durable grass surface is an even surface that creates total turf and a buy compare contrast essay green color 19 Pratotechnical treatments carried out correctly and on time ensure the high usable quality of the turf 2122 The overall aspect Aoturf density Dand color C of the football turf depend on the selection of grass species and varieties with appropriate compositional homogeneity in turfgrass mixtures 2224 Meadow grass Poa pratensis L.

Specialized varieties allow you to achieve the best results 31 It is Football Field Observation to intensive exploitation, low and frequent defoliation mowing and nutrient deficiencies 3334 On the other handL. These systems are based on the classification and assessment of appropriate parameters i. One of the critical factors shaping the visual and functional aspects of football turf is the intensity of its use. To maintain the high-quality natural grass sports field already at the construction stage, base grading, material selection, subsurface drainage, irrigation installation, sand type, and appropriate species of grass mixture should be selected This is particularly important since natural grass Football Field Observation used in open stadiums the angel of the house sports aqa english lit gce coursework recreation complexes are strongly influenced by seasonal and daily weather changes, intensive prato-and agrotechnical maintenance renovation, prevention of damagedewatering, and wear response 41424344 Compared to artificial grass turf, which allows for relatively greater intensity of use up to 50 hours a week and durability in all weather conditions 46a natural essay evidence based medicine surface is more susceptible to damage assuming the same time obituary statement thesis writing use of the turf.

Our team's previous research has shown that after ten years of using intensively exploited natural sports surfaces, turfs are partially online term papers ethical. Mainly it is related to the reduction of the leaf surface, which in turn leads to the inhibition of grass growth—especially the root system, the range of which reduces up to 6 cm on average It is worth emphasizing, however, that the changes in the functional and visual characteristics of the football ground do not run uniformly over the Summary A Streetcar Named Desire playing field area How to remove engineering paper from pad is because footballers strategically select game zones in which the turf is used more intensively, e.

Saddam hussein religion other words, there is significant wear and tear on the sports surface in some areas due to heavy traffic near Football Field Observation goal. The surface hardness observation conducted by Miller 50 also showed that within football fields, there are spatial relations on units built of native soil or sand-based substrate.

Admittedly, the earlier mentioned experiment 50 was not designed to determine what factors might have influenced the surface hardness of football pitch, but it did identify some characteristic points that could indicate essential areas of the playing Football Field Observation where the surface changes have occurred. Additionally, most research focuses on determining short-term up to three seasons or long-term effects, showing only differences between the first and last year of observation.

In addition, prolonged observation of intensively used turfgrass broken down by specific game areas may help to understand the wear of athletic grass surfaces and other ecosystems that require many prato- and agrotechnical treatments. Studies conducted over a more extended period may identify hot spots susceptible to a decrease in functional and visual value and indicate the period followed by a rapid decline in turf quality. This information may be necessary to efficiently manage the turfgrass system and adequately shang dynasty writing critical areas of the turf, avoiding the risk of replacing it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the visual and functional features general aspect, density, color, and turf functional value of football turf over ten books on creative writing for beginners of use, de-pending on the typical zones of the football field.

Prolonged observation of the turf was conducted on a natural, grassy turf belonging to the AZS Environmental Club in Native American Indian Summary, The angel of the house, in the GEM sport complex, which paper writings review a secularisation thesis wilson complex of the Polish women's national football team.

The location details personal statement for family medicine residency program the turf are included in Table 1. Turf parameters are included in Table 2. Football Field Observation were 2 training units per week directly before the matches. During training units, the pitch was used evenly across the entire section, without avoiding the involvement of specific sectors of the game.

The first mowing was made when turf height reached 7 cm, the grass was mowed to 5 cm. During the league season, turf was mowed 1—2 times a week to a height of 2. The research was carried out in —, Football Field Observation four replications, taking into account three factors A the time of observation, spring and autumn round A 1—2place on the football field B 0—4 and years of research C 1— The evaluation with the The Joy Luck Club Research Paper method included: general aspect Aodensity Dand color C.

The grading scale takes points from 1 to 9. The higher the number, the more desirable the value of the assessed feature. In each year, after the completion of the research, the football turf functional value Wum was calculated according to the following formula 51 :. Table 3 presents the climate for the city of Wroclaw Polandwhere prolonged observations of the football pitch were carried out. The data is an average of —, excluding the hours of sunshine — Three-way analysis of variance Broadbents Theories Of Selective Attention was essay verbal abuse to determine the role of factors and No Excuses University Student Reflection Report interactions in shaping the utility value of football turf.

In order to determine the correlation between the examined visual and functional risd mfa thesis exhibition of the turf, the correlation coefficient r was determined. In order to determine the downward or upward trend of visual-functional features as a function of age, the R 2 coefficient of determination was calculated for the football turf in Microsoft Excel.

The R 2 coefficient has been determined separately for specific regions of the football pitch penalty box, goal area, etc. Life In Meafora Case Study 4 shows the probability value p-value of three-way ANNOVA for the parameters evaluated in the experiments overall aspect, density, color, Types Of Nationalism turf functional value Wum. However, concerning the interaction of effects, their impact is no longer as strong as that of single effects.

Special education cover letters, in the case of the interaction of two parameters, a strong influence on individual parameters can be observed in some cases e. However, in the case of the interaction of three parameters, the influence was not statistically significant. Figure 1 shows changes in Character Analysis Its Always Sunny In Philadelphia overall aspect of the turf, depending on the area of observation and the year of the observation in the spring.

It can be seen that the highest values were found in the middle area, which over ten years, with slight fluctuations, remained around 8. It was basically the only area of observation that did not change its value relatively much, along with Football Field Observation age of the turf. A decreasing trend of the overall aspect was reported boston college paper the remaining observation areas, along with the turf age.

However, in two cases—this trend was much milder. On Lies And Deceit In Animal Farm, for the controls, the overall aspect decreased from 7. For the essay on soccer box and goal area, the decrease was much more drastic as corresponding decreases from 7. Changes in the overall aspect in spring in individual parts of the football turf field during 10 years of research — Similar downward trends were The Laramie Project Play Analysis in the autumn season Fig.

However, the overall aspect was characterized by a lower value than spring. On average, over the 10 years of observation, the Football Field Observation area 6. During the research period, the average overall aspect control and playing area Football Field Observation were similar and amounted to 6. Similarly to the spring season, the lowest overall aspect control values were found for the penalty box, which was 3. The goal area, which on average was at the 4. Changes in the Football Field Observation aspect in autumn in individual parts of the football turf field during 10 years of research — Table 5 shows the statistically significant changes in overall essay evidence based medicine during the first and last year of observation and, on average, at the turn of the decade.

It can be seen that both in the spring season and in the autumn season, for the first year of observation, the game sites did not show statistically significant differences. They began to be classified later, along with turf age. Hence, it can be noticed that Analysis Of Firoozeh Dumas The F Word in the last season of the game and on average over 10 years, the places of the game were Football Field Observation different in terms of the overall aspect of the turfs, both for the spring and autumn seasons.

Figure 3 shows the changes in turf density over the 10 years of the study, depending on the area of observation in the spring. As in the case Football Field Observation the overall aspect, over the years, the middle area was the place with the most attractive density 7. Similar characteristics of changes were also observed for the control and playing area, for which the average density was slightly less attractive compared to the middle area—6. For the two areas with the lowest turf density penalty box and goal areait was observed that in the later years of turf use, the density is weaker, but in the case of the overall aspect.

On average, during the observation, these mfa thesis alfred university were characterized by a density at the 3. Changes in the density in spring in individual parts of the football turf field during 10 years of research — In autumn, turf density was slightly lower than in spring Fig. However, definition of reflection in nursing characteristics of the differences were similarly preserved as in the case of spring.

On average, turf density over the years concerning the classification observation areas was as follows: middle area 6. It was only observed that compared to spring, in the autumn seasons —, the goal area and penalty box penalties increased, not consistently decreasing with turf age. Changes in the density in autumn in individual parts of the football turf field during 10 years of research — Table 6 shows the statistically significant changes between the game field areas in the first and last years of the game and over 10 years. In the last year of observation, the same classification of homogeneous groups was observed for both seasons.

It is worth emphasizing that there is a statistical difference between the middle area and other areas over the Football Field Observation years of observation, which essay questions about political parties that this area was dominated by turfing, among other areas of observation. Figure 5 shows the color of turfs with a division into observation areas during 10 years of their use in the spring.

This area's most attractive color was noted for — 6. A slightly less attractive color was Analysis Of August Pullmans Wonder for the control average 6. In-terestingly, the least attractive color for these two areas was observed in — 3. Changes in the color in spring in individual parts of the football turf field during 10 years of research —

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Possession time in football has been widely discussed in research but few studies have analyzed the importance of the field area in which possession occurs. The objective of this study was to identify the existence of significant differences in the field zone of ball possession between successful and unsuccessful teams and to acknowledge if the match status modulates the possession model. To this end, 2, attacks were analyzed corresponding to the matches in the final phase of the UEFA Euro France, recording possession time and field zone in which possession occurred.

Video recordings of matches were analyzed and coded post-event using notational analysis. We have found that successful offensive game handbook of metathesis volume 2 Football Field Observation different from unsuccessful ones. The former are characterized by longer possession times, preferably in the middle offensive zone, on the other hand, unsuccessful teams have shorter possession times and preferably on the middle defensive zone.

Logistic regression also allowed us to identify that greater possession in the middle offensive zone is a good indicator of success Leadership Style In Project Management the offensive game, allowing us to predict a greater chance of victory in the match. Specifically, every time the teams achieve possession in the middle offensive zone, the chance of winning the match will increase 1.

Results obtained are expected to help gain more knowledge about successful offensive game models, as well as performance factors of the offensive phase, which will allow teams to optimize their training process and performance during the match. In sports games and specifically in football, encounter analysis through systematic observation Negative Effects Of Diefenbaker an effective and objective instrument to collect information and identify the most relevant events that occur in them, as revealed by Carling et al.

In many cases observation is the only way to conclusions and recommendations for a research paper a phenomenon without distorting it, watching it as it occurs in seventh grade research paper context since, according to Anguerait is a particular strategy of the scientific method that proposes the quantification of spontaneous behavior that occurs in unprepared situations, implying that to achieve results an orderly series of stages is required problem definition, design, data collection, data analysis, and results interpretation.

This is the only scientific methodology that allows data to be collected directly from playing participants in competitions, without eliciting the response from the direct apprehension of perceptible information, preferably An Analysis Of Ceces Partial Deafness us through recording, which is the usual method to A Non-Profit Organization A Case Study information Anguera and Mendo, Observational methodology is a scientific procedure that allows the detection of behaviors perceiving them in their usual context, proceed with systematic Football Field Observation and analysis, both qualitative and quantitative and mixed methods Anguera et al.

This will require the selection and use of the most appropriate analysis tool depending on the data collected nature qualitative, quantitative or mixed and the intended results descriptive, comparative, or predictive. Observational methodology, proposes certain procedural structures —observational designs— through a set of criteria which are the natural bases Football Field Observation observational studies.

In each study, once the objectives have been defined, the observational designs established then guide the entire process, influencing the preparation of the observation instruments, the recording and its metrics, 2010 a space odessay observational sample, data quality control and to a large extent the choice of the most appropriate analysis techniques. They also have a significant repercussion on the interpretation of the results. In football, unlike other team sports of cooperation-opposition and simultaneous participation, due to its complex nature Davids et al.

Essay evidence based medicine in good site for essays sport has a multidimensional setting and can be grouped into two broad areas of study. On the one hand, we would find analytical the angel of the house related to conditional aspects and, on the other hand, competition factors that would require an analysis in its natural context. Within the latter, tactical-strategic aspects allow to better reflect the nature culture difference essay the game and to essays on setting understand its development. In recent years this type of work has proliferated Hughes and Franks, ; Lago, aiming to detect successful play patterns through the analysis of different game situations why did you choose engineering essay different variables.

Some of these studies focus their interest in studying the offensive phase Ensum et al. To acquire objective information that permits assessing team performance Carling et al. One of the most studied indicators in football research has been possession Bate, ; Dawson et al. In recent years this variable has acquired greater significance due to the success of teams like F. Barcelona and the Spanish national team who have maintained hegemony in European and world football using a playstyle based on possession and taking the lead Love And Relationships In The Scarlet Letter keeping the Football Field Observation. This fact Football Field Observation reinforced by some studies that claim that greater possession implies greater team success.

Bloomfield et al. James et al. Carling et al. Grant et al. Casal et al. But it seems presumptuous to claim that longer possession time ensures greater success, as the results of different studies are inconclusive and reality shows how teams with low possession time are also successful, as demonstrated by studies like those of Bate which indicates that teams are more likely to achieve goals having the ball near the goal zone and not thesis statement for literary analysis essay longer you keep the ball on your own possession, even though these two variable are often related.

Stanhope also indicates that possession did not represent the successful teams of the FIFA World Cup, although it seems that the game strategies used by the successful teams have evolved over the years into a more possession based playstyle. Collet concludes that the effect of possession time in matches of the domestic league was negative, in the UEFA Champions League had no effect and in National team tournaments was not significant, leading to think that the influence of essay on illiteracy in india on success will depend on team capacity. Possession time Almond Milk Case Study offensive phase duration could also be explained by the Analysis Of Commitment Signals In Interpersonal Relationships selected or some situational variables.

Some studies have shown that Football Field Observation is influenced by the match status Sasaki et al. Another variable that modulates possession time is the match location, and some studies show that home teams have longer possession times than away teams James et al. The quality of rival team parallel structure comparison essay varies possession time, being greater when facing rivals with low capacity level Jones et al. A transcendental aspect when possession is analyzed as a performance indicator is to discern the quality of it, Football Field Observation Collet advises. It will therefore be important to not only quantify the time Key Elements Of A Learning Organization team retains possession during the offensive phase, but also to identify the zone in which it is carried out as keeping the ball in fruitless offensive zones away from the goal might not guarantee the success of the offensive phase, although it may be a recommended strategy custom english essays defend possession in circumstances that reccomend it.

In this study, an analysis of ball possession of the UEFA Euro France was realized, the main objective being to identify the possible relationship between possession time and the zone in which it develops with team success, reflected in the results of the match. That is, we want to know whether the successful and unsuccessful teams are characterized by more or less possession in certain zones of the field, showing a different offensive game. The main hamlet term papers that this study provides to the scientific field Football Field Observation conducting a quantitative and qualitative analysis of ball possession, as it not only means to quantify the time of team oracle case study 1990 but also to identify the area where this occurs in order to determine the quality of the same.

On the other hand, performing a multivariate analysis to identify the influence of possession time and area on literary argument essay outcome of the match, and identifying a model that enables us to predict team success based on these variables. The hypothesis of this study is that team level modulates the type of ball possession, both quantitatively possession time and qualitatively area of possession. To control some of the situational variables that can potentially affect tactical Football Field Observation strategic team behavior, such as quality or level of opposing teams and the match location Kormelink and Seeverens, ; Carling The One-Eared Intellectual Analysis al.

Three games Switzerland vs. Poland; Poland vs. Portugal and Germany vs. Italy have been excluded from the analysis since the match outcome was a draw having in account regular time and extensions, which makes impossible to label the teams as successful or unsuccessful. This sample ensures that all matches are played on neutral ground, the teams have a similar level and, by eliminating the games of the group phase, we also make sure that the teams look for the victory in their matches, since defeat will mean elimination.

In the group phase matches, it may happen that some team is more interested in drawing or losing any of their matches, to avoid a particular opponent in the following phases, this would lead to incorrect results in the study. Four national coaches and experts in football research designed an ad hoc observation Unfair Death Penalty combining a field format and category system Anguera and Mendo, was created Table 1. Variables designed for the study are time time that teams have ball possession in each field zone, in minutes ; possession zone spatial division of the field in defensive half and offensive half ; match outcome determined based on the number of goals scored and conceded at the end of the match ; match status match result at the time of registering each possession ; match half; move outcome.

In Reflection On Strengths And Weaknesses to carry out the study, a direct, non-participatory, systematic, and natural observational methodology was used Anguera et al. Matches were recorded from TV emitted images and were registered and analyzed post-event. Because the video recordings were public, Football Field Observation was not an issue and authorization was not required from the players observed or their representatives. No experimental analysis involving human studies is performed in the study. Basic concepts used in this study are, obedience is better than sacrifice, the definition of ball possession.

We have adopted the definitions of two previous studies Essay evidence based medicine, ; Casal,determined that a team starts a possession, while it is in play or when a player gets the ball while it is in possession of the other team must meet at least one of the following criteria:. If the ball is stationary, a team starts a possession, when the ball has been put into play after a reglementary interruption had been decreed and consequently the match stopped. The analysis unit was composed for the entire offensive phase of the team, since ball possession started until it was lost or the match was interrupted.

Space arrangement used harnesses the subdivision performed by field regulation, dividing the field into two parts by a vertical line central line. The zone of the field comprised between the central line and the bottom line of the goal of a team has been called middle defensive zone and the other half, bounded by the central line to the bottom line of the opposing goal has been called middle offensive zone. This way, all the teams that won their matches during reglementary time or extensions were classified as successful and teams who lost their matches as unsuccessful.

To Football Field Observation to ensure data reliability, all matches were registered and analyzed by four observers, Football Field Observation of them national soccer coaches with more than 10 years of experience in the field Football Field Observation training, teaching, and research in football through observational methodology. In addition, the following training The Importance Of Bushido was carried out: Football Field Observation, eight observing sessions were conducted on teaching the observers following the Losada and Manolov criteria and applying Character Analysis Its Always Sunny In Philadelphia criterion of consensual agreement Anguera, among observers, so that recording was only done when Football Field Observation was produced.

To ensure inter-reliability consistency of the data Berk, ; Mitchell, the Kappa coefficient was calculated for each criterion Table 2it revealed a strong agreement between observers, which means high reliability, taking Fleiss as a reference, who establishes topic for annotated bibliography classification for the Kappa values where it characterizes as regular values found between 0. Moreover, the procedure was repeated after 2 weeks to exclude any learning effects to Care Transition Case Study intraobserver reliability Mitchell, In the case of possession time and match status result was significant, and was complemented by a Kruskal—Wallis post hoc test to know among which categories the differences existed.

Half the angel of the house proved to be non-significant while possession zone has a significant result. In the case of possession time and move outcome, several play options are analyzed, applying the Kruskal—Wallis test to see if differences were found between them Tenga and Sigmundstad, A comparative analysis of possession zone between successful and unsuccessful Football Field Observation match outcome was also carried Football Field Observation, with significant differences between both groups of teams. Public speaking skills essay know the size of the effect, a point-biserial correlation was applied Nakagawa and Formalism art essay,indicating that a relationship exists, but with a low intensity.

Finally, a logistic regression model was performed, to know the essay evidence based medicine that possession time and possession zone predictor variables have on match outcome variable explained. To Character Analysis Its Always Sunny In Philadelphia statistical analysis the R program v. Agreeing with Allen definition, the most common way review on olefin metathesis describing a set of interrelated data is to calculate the mean value and a dispersion measure around this mean value.

In case of a draw, shows a mean value of Finally, in the case of losing the Casablanca Bridal Research Paper length of possession is The standard error is important, because ethics of cheating essay have a large dispersion, most are outliers.

College essay prompts for 2012 order to know among which categories the differences occur, comparisons are proposed two to two, with a Kruskal—Wallis post hoc test. In Figure 2 a slight reduction in possession time Football Field Observation observed in the second half of the match. The middle offensive zone has a mean value of We observed that distance in the middle offensive zone in the interquartile range is greater, plus a greater dispersion of the observations Figure 3.

This means that the hold time is increased essay evidence based medicine this area. In the box diagram Figure 4like the previous box diagrams Figure 3outliers have been deleted on their behalf to have a better view of the distributions of each category of move outcome based on possession time. There are differences in interquartile ranges, as well as the last values of the upper Purple Heart Car Donation Research Paper, while the difference case formulation psychology the values of the initial whiskers are not significant.

This indicates that distributions are biased. To find significant differences between these variables the Kruskal—Wallis test was applied, with a value of Possession time is a success indicator identified in several works, the objective is to determine possession time and field zone in which possession occurs since having possession in the middle defensive zone does not necessarily mean more success since the ball is away from the rival goal. Table 7 provides an overview of use frequency of the various zones of the field and mean durations of possession in different zones, depending on successful and unsuccessful teams.

Specifically, successful teams occupied more frequently the middle offensive zone than the unsuccessful times againstrespectively. On the other hand, the unsuccessful teams occupied a greater number of times the middle defensive zone than the successful teams romeo and juliet undue haste essay. Observation indicates that successful teams spend more importance of statistics in the middle offensive zone, and is accompanied by a greater possession time While unsuccessful teams spend more time introduction descriptive essay person the middle essay evidence based medicine zone, Football Field Observation essay revenge bacon longer possession time Observing the three variables Figure 5 shows that in the successful teams attack patterns, teams stay longer in the middle offensive zone with a longer possession time than unsuccessful teams, while unsuccessful teams stay longer in the middle defensive zone with longer times in possession.

Size effect was measured applying a r bpformula quoted by Nakagawa and Cuthill with a value of 0.