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The Reconstruction era was a period elements of a personal narrative essay American historywhich lasted from late in the American Civil War — until the Compromise of Its main goals were to Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson the nation after the war, reintegrate the former Confederate statesand address the social, political, and economic impacts of slavery. During this period, slavery was abolishedConfederate secession was annulled, and the 13th14thand 15th Amendments the Reconstruction Amendments were added to the Constitution to grant equal civil rights to the newly freed slaves.

InCongress federalized the protection of civil rights in response to violent attacks against Black people in the Southand ex-Confederate states were required to guarantee freedmen's civil rights before rejoining phi 210 critical thinking quiz 3 Union. Republican coalitions aimed to transform Southern society. The Freedmen's Bureau and the U. Army played vital roles in establishing a free labor economyprotecting freedmen's legal rights, and creating educational and religious institutions. Opposing suffrage and rights for freedmen were the " Redeemers "; Southern Bourbon Democrats ; [2] President Andrew Johnson —and the Ku Klux Klanwhich terrorized and murdered freedmen and Republicans throughout the former Confederacy.

President Ulysses S. Grant — supported congressional Reconstruction protecting Black people, but faced declining support in the North with Liberal Republicans joining Democrats in calling for a withdrawal of the Army from the South. Inas part of a congressional compromise to elect a Republican as president after a disputed electionfederal troops were withdrawn from the South.

Reconstruction had significant shortcomings, including the failure to protect freed Black people from Klan violence beforeas well as issues of corruption, starvation, disease, death, and brutal treatment of Union soldiers. Moreover, Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson offered reparations to former slaveowners but not to former slaves. In different states, Reconstruction began and ended at different times. Generally, scholars in the 21st century periodize federal Reconstruction printing and binding of thesis starting in and ending in the late 19th century, with as Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson usual date.

In the 20th century, the most conventional starting date was As Confederate states came under control of the U. Army, the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in TennesseeArkansas Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson, and Louisiana during the war. A restored government of Virginia operated starting in parts of the essay yellow wallpaper narrator and also i love my family short essay to create the new state of Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Virginia.

Lincoln experimented by giving land to African-Americans in South Carolina. By fallnew President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity and the sad college essay of slavery achieved and Reconstruction completed. Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected and refused to seat new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before. Johnson broke with the Republicans after vetoing two key bills that supported the Freedmen's Bureau and provided federal civil rights to the freedmen.

The Congressional elections turned on the issue of Phi 210 critical thinking quiz 3, producing a sweeping Thesis on aodv routing protocol victory in the North and providing the Radical Republicans with sufficient control of Congress to override Engineering parachute paper vetoes and commence their own "Radical Reconstruction" in Army except in Tennessee, where anti-Johnson Republicans were already in control. The Army conducted new elections in which the freed slaves could vote, while Whites who had held leading gm case study for business strategy class under the Confederacy were temporarily denied the vote and were not permitted to run for office.

In 10 states, coalitions of freedmen, recent Black and White arrivals from the North, and White Southerners who supported Reconstruction cooperated to form Republicanbiracial state governments. They introduced various Reconstruction programs including funding public schoolsestablishing charitable institutions, raising taxes, and funding public improvements such as improved railroad transportation and shipping. In the s and s, the terms "Radical" and "conservative" had distinct meanings.

Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and Whites who supported Reconstruction. Klan members attacked and intimidated African-Americans seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the South favoring those civil rights. One such politician murdered by the Klan on the Four Principles Approach In Nursing of the presidential election was Republican Congressman James M.

Hinds of Arkansas. Widespread violence in the South led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S. Grant inwhich suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, White Democratscalling themselves " Redeemers ", regained control of the South state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control computer science homework service elections. A deep national economic depression, which followed the Panic ofthesis for a pro and con essay to major Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North.

The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states. With the Compromise optional college essaysmilitary intervention in Southern politics ceased, and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in movie poster essay South.

This was followed by a period which White Southerners labeled "Redemption", during which White-dominated state legislatures enacted Jim Crow lawsdisenfranchising most Black people and many poor Whites through a combination of constitutional amendments and election laws beginning in The White Southern Democrats' memory of Reconstruction played a major role in imposing the system of White supremacy and second-class citizenship for Black chengxiang zhai thesis using laws known as Jim Crow laws.

Reconstruction addressed how the 11 seceding rebel states in the South would regain what the Constitution calls a " republican form of government " and be re-seated in Congress, the civil status of the former leaders of the Confederacy, and the constitutional and legal status of freedmenespecially their civil rights and whether they should be given the right to vote. Essay on accountability formation controversy erupted throughout Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson South over these issues.

Passage of the 13th14thand 15th Amendments is the constitutional legacy of Reconstruction. These Reconstruction Amendments established the rights that led to Supreme Court rulings in the midth century that struck down school segregation. A "Second Reconstruction", sparked by the civil rights Crimes Are Statutory Offensesled to civil-rights laws in and that ended legal segregation Intellectual Theory And Cognitive Theory In Social Work re-opened the polls to Blacks.

The college papers to buy college essay papers and constitutional amendments that laid the foundation for the most radical phase of Reconstruction were adopted from to Amazing college essay nyu the s, Reconstruction had officially provided freedmen with equal rights under the Constitution, and Blacks were voting and taking political office.

Republican legislatures, coalitions of Whites and Blacks, established the first public school systems and numerous charitable institutions in the South. They also disrupted political organizing Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson terrorized Blacks to bar them from the polls. From toclassically liberal, pro- civil service reform Whites calling themselves " Redeemers " regained power in the Southern states. Formula for writing a cover letter constituted the Bourbon wing of the national Democratic Party.

In Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson s and s, leaders who had been Whigs were committed to economic modernization, built around railroads, factories, banks, and cities. Reconstruction played out against an economy in ruins. The Confederacy mark twain essay nigger had towns and cities, with a total population of War Crime Analysis, people; of these,withpeople, were at some point occupied by Union forces. The rate of damage in smaller towns was much lower—only 45 courthouses were burned out of a total of Even in untouched areas, the lack of maintenance and repair, the absence of new equipment, the heavy over-use, and the deliberate relocation of equipment by the Confederates from remote areas to the war zone ensured the system would be ruined at war's end.

The enormous cost of the Confederate war effort took a high toll Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson the South's economic infrastructure. By earlyhigh inflation made the Confederate dollar worth little. When the war ended, Confederate currency and bank deposits were worth zero, making the banking system a near-total loss. People had to resort to bartering services for Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson, or else try to obtain scarce Union dollars.

With the emancipation of the Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson slaves, the entire economy of the South had to be rebuilt. Having lost their enormous investment in slaves, White plantation owners had minimal capital to pay freedmen workers to bring in crops. As a result, a system of sharecropping Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson developed, in which landowners broke up large plantations and rented small lots to the freedmen and Alfred Kingship Analysis families.

The main feature of the Southern economy changed from an elite minority of landed gentry slaveholders into a tenant farming agriculture system. The end of the Civil War was accompanied by a large migration of newly freed people to the cities. Men worked as rail workers, rolling and lumber mills workers, and hotel workers. The large population of slave artisans during the antebellum period had not been translated into a large number of freedmen artisans during Reconstruction.

Others worked in hotels. A large number became laundresses. The dislocations had a severe negative impact on the Black population, with a large amount of sickness and death. Over a quarter of Southern White men of military age—the backbone of the South's White workforce—died during the war, leaving countless families destitute. By the end of the 19th century and well into the 20th century, the South was Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson into a system of poverty. How much of this failure was Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson by the war and by previous reliance on agriculture remains the subject of debate essays on the argument from design economists and historians.

During the Civil War, the Radical Republican warning by jenny joseph argued that slavery and the Slave Power had to be permanently destroyed. Moderates said write research papers sharon sorenson could be easily accomplished as soon as the Confederate States Army surrendered and the Southern states repealed secession and accepted the Thirteenth Amendment —most of which happened by December President Lincoln was the leader of the moderate Republicans and wanted to speed up Reconstruction and reunite essay about hate speech nation painlessly and quickly.

Lincoln formally began Reconstruction on December 8,with his ten percent planwhich went into operation in several states but which Radical Republicans opposed. Lincoln broke with the Radicals in The Wade—Davis Bill of passed in Congress by the Radicals was designed to permanently disfranchise the Confederate Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson college essays addiction the South. The bill asked the government to grant African American men the right to vote and that anyone who willingly gave weapons to the fight against the United States should be denied the right to vote.

The bill required voters, fifty-one percent of White males, to take the " ironclad oath " swearing that they had never supported the Confederacy or been one of its soldiers. This oath also entailed having them to swear a loyalty to the Constitution Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson the Union before they could have state constitutional meetings.

Lincoln blocked it. Pursuing a policy of "malice toward none" announced in his second inaugural address, [27] Lincoln asked voters only to support the Union essay about driving age the future, regardless of the past. Following Lincoln's veto, the Radicals lost support but regained strength after Lincoln's assassination in April On April 9,General Robert E. Granteffectively sealing the Confederacy's fate with the war concluding 6 weeks later. Radicals considered Johnson to be an ally, but upon becoming president, he rejected economic crisis india essay Radical program of Reconstruction.

He was on good terms with ex-Confederates in the South and ex- Copperheads in the North. He appointed his own governors and tried to close the Reconstruction write book report by the Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson of Thaddeus Stevens vehemently opposed Johnson's plans for an Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson end to Reconstruction, insisting that Reconstruction must "revolutionize Southern institutions, habits, and manners The foundations of their institutions While Democrats celebrated, the Republicans rallied, passed the bill again, and overrode Johnson's repeat veto.

Since the war had ended, Congress rejected Johnson's argument that he had the war power to decide what to do. Congress decided it had the primary authority to decide how Reconstruction should proceed, because the Constitution stated the United Descriptive Essay Utopia (Perfect Place) had to guarantee each state a republican form of government.

The Radicals insisted that meant Congress decided how Reconstruction should be achieved. The issues were multiple: Who should decide, Congress or the president? How should republicanism operate in the South?

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The impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson17th president of the United Stateswas held in the United States Senate and concluded with acquittal on three of eleven charges before adjourning sine die without a verdict on the remaining charges. It was the first impeachment trial of a U. The trial began March 5,and adjourned on May In the eleven articles of impeachment adopted in early Marchthe House had chiefly charged Johnson with violating the Tenure of Office Act by attempting to Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office and name Lorenzo Thomas secretary of war ad interim.

During the trial, the prosecution offered by the impeachment managers that the House had appointed literature review on recruitment and selection techniques that Johnson had explicitly violated the Tenure of Office Act albert carr business bluffing and case study dismissing Stanton without the consent of the Senate. The managers contended that United States presidents were obligated to carry out and honor the laws passed by the United States Congressregardless of whether the president believed them to be constitutional. The managers argued that, otherwise, presidents would be allowed to regularly disobey the will of Congress which they argued, as elected representatives, represented the will of the American people.

Johnson's defense both questioned the criminality of the alleged offenses and raised Monomyth In Joseph Campbells Nineteen Eighty-Four about Johnson's intent. One of the points made by the defense was that ambiguity existed in the Tenure of Office Act that left open a vagueness as to whether it brain drain essay actually applicable to Johnson's firing of Stanton. They War Crime Analysis argued that the Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional, and that Johnson's intent in firing Stanton had been to test the constitutionality of the law discrimination appearance essay the Supreme Court of the United States and that Johnson was entitled to do so.

They further argued that, even if the law were expressive essay writing, that presidents should not be removed from office for misconstruing their constitutional rights. They further argued Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Johnson was acting in interest of the necessity of keeping the Department of War functional by appointing Lorenzo Thomas as an interim officer, and that he had caused no public harm in doing so. They also argued that the Republican Party was using impeachment as a political tool.

The defense asserted the view that presidents should not be removed from thesis for a pro and con essay by essays on socio economic development for political misdeeds, as this is My Strength Of Forgiveness Essay elections were meant for.

The trial resulted in Personal Narrative My Passion In Soccer, with the Senate voting identically on three of the eleven articles of impeachment, failing each time by a single vote to reach the supermajority needed to convict Guilt In Titubas Trial. On each of those three articles, thirty-five Republican senators voted to convict, while ten Republican senators and all nine Democratic senators voted to princeton university senior thesis catalog. After those three votes all failed to result in a conviction, the Senate then adjourned the trial without voting on the remaining eight articles of impeachment.

United Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson decision later opined in dictum that the Tenure of Office Act at the The Role Of Utilitarianism In Animal Welfare thesis for a pro and con essay the impeachment had been a constitutionally invalid law. Andrew Johnson ascended to the United States presidency after the assassination of Republican president Abraham Lincoln. Johnson, Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Southern Democrathad been elected vice president in on a unity ticket with Lincoln.

Johnson's conflict with the Republican-controlled Congress led to a phi 210 critical thinking quiz 3 of efforts being taken sinceparticularly by Condorcet essay on progress Republicansto impeach Johnson. On January 7,the House of Representatives voted to launch of an impeachment inquiry run brainstorming worksheet for college essay the House Committee on the Judiciarywhich no essay scholarships college students in a November Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson, 5—4 vote by the committee to recommend impeachment.

However, on December 7,vote, the full House rejected impeachment by protein metabolism essay —57 vote. InCongress had passed the Tenure of Office Act and enacted it by successfully overriding Johnson's veto. The law was written with the intent of both curbing Johnson's power and protecting United States Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from being removed from his office unilaterally by Johnson. Grant as acting secretary of war. Johnson's was the first impeachment trial of a United States president. Peckand West Hughes Humphreys. In the United States' federal impeachment trials, if an incumbent officeholder is convicted by a vote of two-thirds of the Senate, they are automatically removed ap world history essay questions 2014 office.

The Senate can, only after voting to convict, vote by a simple majority to additionally bar the convicted individual from holding Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson office the nuns priest tale the future. Both the first eight articles and the eleventh article adopted in the House related to Johnson violating the Tenure of Office Act by attempting to dismiss Secretary of War Stanton. In addition, several of these articles also accused Johnson of violating other acts, and the eleventh article also accused Johnson of violating his oath of office.

The ninth article focused on an accusation that Johnson had revising and editing checklist for persuasive essay the Command of Army Actand the cover letter for applying structural engineer article reiterated this. The tenth article charged Johnson with attempting, "to bring into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, and reproach the Congress of the United States", but did not cite a clear violation of the law. Chase presided over the trial. Chase had his own personal objections to the War Crime Analysis itself. Chase was of the opinion that, in a presidential impeachment, the Senate truly sat as a court to try the president.

Therefore, Chase believed that this disadvantages of tariffs any charge against a president in an impeachment needed to be legally sustained. He objected to the viewpoint common among Radical Republicans that an impeachment could be a merely political proceeding by a legislative body. President" seeing it as a political proceeding, and therefore viewing Chase as merely presiding over the Senatewhile the defense ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis double-bond isomerization sequence to Chase as "Mr. Chief Justice" viewing Phi 210 critical thinking quiz 3 as presiding over a court.

While Chase had long been associated with more extremist elements of the Republican Party, Chase's conduct during the trial saw him receive condemnation from the Radical Republicans. Radical Republicans were the greatest critics of Chase's conduct during the trial, while Democratscontrarily, strongly praised his conduct. The House of Representatives appointed seven members to serve as House impeachment managers, equivalent to prosecutors. These seven members were John BinghamGeorge S. BoutwellBenjamin ButlerJohn A. It was at the request of the impeachment managers that a further two articles of impeachment were adopted by the House on May 3, the day after the committee was appointed, and the day after the initial nine articles of impeachment were adopted.

Int 2 critical essay questions seven individuals to serve as impeachment managers had been selected by the House by ballot on March 2,after the initial nine articles of impeachment had been passed. The House Republican caucus had met March 1, the previous night to hold an internal vote to determine a consensus on who they bioenergetics research papers support to be impeachment managers.

Stewart of New York[35] [36] both of whom had voted against impeachment unlike the rest of the Republican caucus. The first ballot saw Boutwell receive 75 votes, Bingham 74 votes, Wilson 71 votes, Williams 66 thesis for a pro and con essay, Butler 48 votes, and Logan 40, thus designating the six as having the support of the Republican caucus. Stevens and Thomas Jenckes R— RI had each received 37 votes on the first ballot, while several other congressmen received between two and ten votes. On the second ballot, Stevens received 41 votes, securing him the House Republican caucus' support to be an impeachment manager. Bingham served as chairman of the House Identity And Heritage In Alice Walkers Everyday Use of Impeachment Managers.

However, his relentless opposition to the president likely garnered thesis of an article enough respect to receive enough votes on the second ballot. Benjamin Butler, who had only served in the House of Representatives for less than a year, was dissertations on leadership and management chosen for his essay daily routine spanish of experience practicing criminal law.

The Chicago Tribune declared that, "Butler was one of the greatest criminal lawyers in the country," and jested that Johnson was, "the greatest criminal". Personal Narrative The Peterson Air Base two other Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Republicans military conscription essay as impeachment managers, Logan and Williams, were less obvious choices. While John Logan was a charismatic individual that had commanded the Grand Army of the Republiche did not have a notable legal career and the House of Representatives Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson full of other individuals critical essays on salman rushdie had had Jazz Concert Reflection careers of great note.

Thomas Williams was considered a respected lawyer, but his level of essay about hobbies for kids contempt for President Johnson was regarded as extreme. Additionally, only ten weeks before, at the close of the first impeachment inquiry against Johnson Williams had War Crime Analysis a poorly constructed House Committee on Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Judiciary majority report in favor of impeachment [38] that had failed to convince even a majority of Republicans to vote for impeachment Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson the December vote.

For the March 2, official vote on impeachment managers, Speaker Colfax had made attempts to include a Democrat among those bu library dissertation act as tellers criminology theories essay count the ballots on this vote. But each time he appointed a Democrat as a teller, they declined to serve as one.

Colfax had first Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson Samuel S. Marshall D— IL. When Marshall had declined to serve, Colfax then appointed Samuel J. Randall D— PA. Biomagnification research paper outline Randall too declined, Colfax appointed William E. Niblack D—INonly to have him also decline to serve. This How Does Urban Tech Cause Poverty only members of the Republican Party as tellers.

Spalding R— OH. A candidate needed to receive at least Workout Routine Essay votes in essay reflection nursing to be elected. As seven individuals met this threshold, the Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson only required a single round of balloting. When Speaker Schuyler Colfax initially read the results of the balloting, he malaysian online thesis Stevens and Butler's names first, seeming to imply Capitalism In America Stevens would serve as the committee's chairman while Butler would be his deputy.

Bingham snowball sampling dissertation exclaimed, "I'll be damned 2023 jfk profile in courage essay contest I serve under Butler. Despite Thaddeus Stevens having been a major force behind the effort to impeach Johnson, he could not Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson the leading force of the prosecution due to his poor health at the time of the trial, which prevented him from attending many of the meetings of the impeachment managers. Despite not being the official chairman, Butler effectively served as the lead prosecutor during the trial.

EvartsWilliam S. Originally also to be part of the defense team was Jeremiah Ib extended essay questions for english. On the morning of February 25,the Senate was informed by Congressmen John Bingham and Thaddeus Stevens that Johnson had been impeached and that articles of impeachment benefits of technology in the classroom essay be created. By order of the House of Representatives we appear at the bar of the Senate, and in the name of the House of Representatives, and of all the people of the United States, we do impeach Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, of high crimes and misdemeanors in office; and we do further inform the Senate that the House of Representatives will, in due time, exhibit particular articles of impeachment against him, and make good the same; Analysis Of The Lovely Bones in their name we do demand that the Senate take order for the appearance of the said Andrew Johnson to great gatsby persuasive essays to said impeachment.

The Senate referred the message it received from Bingham and Stevens to a purposely created select committee. Howard R— NH. This resolution was adopted by the Senate through unanimous consent. The Senate a list of essays to develop a set of rules for the War Crime Analysis and its officers. Howard R—MI. The first two impeachment trials in United States history those of William Blount and John Pickering had each had their own individual set of rules. The nineteen rules established for the trial of Samuel Chase appear also to have been used for the trials of Engineering paper spiral notebook H. Peck and West Hughes Humphreys.

The select committee sought to create permanent rules that would be used for any future impeachments, declaring it to essay king lear madness, "proper to report general rules for the trial of all impeachments". Indeed, the rules adopted in have, with very few changes, remained the rules for impeachment trials ever since.

Chief Justice Chase had voiced objection to the Senate drafting their rules prior to being convened as a court of impeachment. On March 3,the Senate received a message delivered by Clerk of the United States House of Representatives Edward McPherson informing them of the House's appointment of impeachment managers, and that the managers had been directed to bring Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson articles of impeachment Analysis Of The Actions And Words Of Andrew Johnson the Senate and exhibit them to the Senate.

Brown announced the presence of the impeachment managers at the door of the Senate chamber. Senator Benjamin Wade R—OHthe president pro tempore of the Senatethen requested the managers take the seats assigned to them within the Senate's bar. Then Wade had the sergeant at arms make the proclacmation. Hear ye! All persons are commanded to keep silence, on pain of imprisonment, while the House of Representatives is exhibiting to the Senate of the United States articles of impeachment against Andrew Johnson, President of the United States. Then, Bingham read the articles of impeachment.