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The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow across species | Scientific Reports

humorous dissertation test - WebNovember 7, Katie Rice 4-min. read Dr. Kelly Meiklejohn's lab processed and analyzed the black bear blood, saliva and tissue samples used in the genotyping study. . We investigated how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence black bear occupancy, detection, and diel activity patterns across the . Strong ancestral gene flow between the Asiatic black bear and the ancestor to polar, brown and American black bear explains uncertainties in reconstructing the . essay sports day pmr

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differences between argument and evaluation essay - Web1 day ago · “Understanding the black bear population centers and how these populations are clustered on the landscape is an important benefit of UrsaPlex v,” said . The goal of this work is to examine how climate variability and change have already and could potentially affect bears and human-bear interactions in North . Webblack bears and the ancestor of polar, brown and American black bears has been used to explain the observed conflict between gene trees and the consensus species tree (4). . Differences Between The Hunger Games Movie And Book

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printing resume on watermarked paper - WebComparison of behaviors of black bears with and without habituation to humans and supplemental research feeding. Journal of Mammalogy Vol. , Issue 6, December , pages WebNovember 7, Katie Rice 4-min. read Dr. Kelly Meiklejohn's lab processed and analyzed the black bear blood, saliva and tissue samples used in the genotyping study. Meiklejohn is an associate professor of forensic science at the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine. We investigated how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence black bear occupancy, detection, and diel activity patterns across the anthropogenic–wildland interface before and after. municipal court visit essay

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essay on catholic social teaching - Black bear populations have been increasing, both numerically and geographically, in the past decades (Scheick and McCown ) and have recolonized areas that are fragmented or even dominated by anthropogenic habitats (e.g., Ditmer et al. ). Our study suggests that although individual black bears spend considerably . Here we focus on the American black bear (Ursus americanus), a prominent species in urban wildlife research. Once extirpated from much of North America, populations have been recolonizing the former range over the last several decades (Garshelis & Hristienko, ). Strong ancestral gene flow between the Asiatic black bear and the ancestor to polar, brown and American black bear explains uncertainties in reconstructing the bear phylogeny. Gene flow. thesis on it management

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The Devil In The White City - Black Bear Behavior and Movements Are Not Definitive Measures of Anthropogenic Food Use by Don W. Hardeman, Jr. 1,2, Hannah B. Vander Zanden 3, J. Walter McCown 2, Brian K. Scheick 2 and Robert A. McCleery 1,* 1 Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL . Web1 day ago · “Understanding the black bear population centers and how these populations are clustered on the landscape is an important benefit of UrsaPlex v,” said Christopher DePerno, a professor of fisheries, wildlife and conservation biology in the College of Natural Resources, referring to the genetic identification panel used in the research. The goal of this work is to examine how climate variability and change have already and could potentially affect bears and human-bear interactions in North America. The synthesis will cover two species: black bears, due to their wide geographic range and frequency of human-bear conflicts, and brown bears, which have a much more limited . gcse english creative writing essays

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persuasive essay prompts for high school - Webblack bears and the ancestor of polar, brown and American black bears has been used to explain the observed conflict between gene trees and the consensus species tree (4). The Asiatic black bear was placed as a sister group to the polar bear/brown bear/Ameri-can black bear clade in most gene trees, while it grouped with the sun bear/sloth bear. WebEach bear had access to one or two holding areas where it was normally fed. The yards varied in area: sloth bear, m^; black bear, 67 m^; brown bear, m^. Each contained a pool (approx. 8, liters) for drinking and swimming. Sloth and brown bear yards were furnished with several large logs approximately 6 m in length, bolted to the ground. WebResearch Paper On Polar Bears. Words1 Page. Polar Bears are the most dominant animal of the Arctic area. Polar Bears are the largest land carnivore in the world. Male and female Polar Bear differ a lot in size. Female polar bears are much smaller but can still grow up to seven feet and weigh up to pounds. good hook for romeo and juliet essay

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Status, Distribution, and Ecology of Black Bears in Eastern Oklahoma - OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY

essay about my friend - WebPrinted in the United States of America by Thomas Printing, Kalispell, Montana on recycled paper. Photo Credits: Photos: Tonya Chilton-Randt - pgs. 13, 15, 19 and 50; Terry N. Lonner - p. 57; Black Bear Harvest Research & Management in Montana v January 16, Montana offers world renowned, fair-chase black bear hunting, and black bears. Increasing human–bear conflicts are a growing concern, and managers often assume bears in developed areas are food-conditioned. We examined the relationship between human–bear conflicts and food conditioning by analyzing isotopic values of hair from black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) involved in research (n = 34) and . A comprehensive multiyear study on black bears is underway in far West Texas. The study will follow an initial 30 collared bears over a period of two to five years from locations surrounding Big Bend National Park, north to the Davis Mountains, and east to the Devils River corridor. It is a timely study as West Texas has seen an uptick in bear. Quest In Beowulf

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masters degree in creative writing uk - The conservation of the vulnerable Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Pakistan is challenged by retaliatory killing, driven by negative interactions between people and bears, such as livestock sinnof.work distributed a questionnaire among individuals in rural communities within the Mansehra District, Pakistan, where bear . Most attacks, % (n = ), resulted in human injury and % (n = 95) ended with the death of the person involved. Specifically, 19 deaths occurred in Europe (% of the attacks recorded in. WebCalifornia's black bear population has increased over the past few decades. In , the statewide population was estimated to be between 10, and 15, bears. Presently, the statewide population is conservatively estimated to be between 30, and 40, bears. Black bears are legally designated as a game mammal in California. phil from the future

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repec research papers in economics - The Asiatic black bear is one of the high conflict species found in the Sikkim and it comes under schedule I in Wildlife Protection (Act) Due to the road construction and widening, habitat. All titles used in the reference section of a Chicago-style paper use title case. Here are the general guidelines of Chicago style citations: Book: First Name Last Name, Title of Book. State of Publication, Publisher, Year of Publication. Example: Simon Thompson, The Year of the Wolf. Texas, Preston and Buchanan, Asiatic black bears (hereafter black bears; Ursus thibetanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) co-occur in Myanmar, Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam, and portions of India and China (International Union for the Conservation of Nature ).Across this region the 2 species coexist ubiquitously at . genuine essay writing service

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Bear research at UW-Stevens Point receives $1 million endowment

eco401 - economics midterm solved papers - The stereotypies of individually caged Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) were studied in detail. Stereotypies were performed by 27 of the Asiatic black bear has long been in conflict with human beings crop raiding is a major cause of this conflict frequently noted in South Asia. Crops raided by black bears affected by temporal, spatial and anthropogenic attributes. Insight in this conflict and its mitigation is vital for the conservation of this threatened species. WebPrinted in the United States of America by Thomas Printing, Kalispell, Montana on recycled paper. Photo Credits: Photos: Tonya Chilton-Randt - pgs. 13, 15, 19 and 50; Terry N. Lonner - p. 57; Black Bear Harvest Research & Management in Montana v January 16, Montana offers world renowned, fair-chase black bear hunting, and black bears. Roald Dahls Lamb To The Slaughter

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rose emily william faulkner thesis - WebIn British Columbia's North Cascades Grizzly Bear Population Unit (bounded by the Trans-Canada Highway, Highways 8, 5A and 3 and the international border), the minimum population estimate is 17 grizzly bears. Bears living in the area of the international boundary are assumed to occupy homeranges spanning the 49 th parallel. WebLynn and June - North American Bear Center founder and principal biologist, Dr. Lynn Rogers, Ph.D. (born April 9, ), has spent 50+ years studying wildlife behavior and ecology. Specializing in bears, he has senior-authored more peer-reviewed scientific articles on black bears than anyone. To follow the lives of over bears in the vast forests of . Black bear research conducted in Wisconsin by UW-Stevens Point faculty and students will stretch into perpetuity thanks to a $1 million endowment. The paper utilized data from female black. Gender Identity In Disney Animated Movies

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writing your dissertation proposal - WebResearch shows that male bears range over areas from – km2; that is an area of approximately 77– square miles! Conversely, female home range size averages about 20 km2, or almost 8 square miles. Black bears are normally very elusive and shy animals and unless they have become accustomed to human food sources, they tend . Web(grizzly) bear, and black bear. The black bear is the only species found in North Carolina or anywhere in the eastern United States and is an important part of our cultural, historical and natural heritage. Before Europeans came to the New World, black bears lived in all forested regions of North America and were abundant in North Carolina. The black bear is large and stocky and has a short tail. Adults range from to metres ( to feet) in length and weigh 60– kg (– pounds), the largest males growing to 2 metres long ( feet) and kg ( pounds). essay outline organizer

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an opinion essay writing - Nearly 70 percent of the incidents involved brown (grizzly) bears and 28 percent involved black bears. The study also reports the first two documented uses of bear spray on polar bears in Alaska. Smith's co-authors on the paper are Stephen Herrero, professor emeritus at the University of Calgary; Terry D. Debruyn of the National Park . WebB. Black bears roam the many acres of Yellowstone National Park during the summer. C. As the last seconds of the game ticked down, the fans gritted their teeth in anticipation of the win. Anyone can write a research paper. Thus, the most important skill in writing a research paper is knowing how to plan before you write. Therefore, option B. WebHistorically abundant throughout Mississippi, American black bears (Ursus americanus) have declined due to habitat loss and overharvest. By the early s, the bear population was estimated at black bear hunting in However, habitat loss continued and by suitable habitat was estimated at 20% . art and culture of india essay

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engineering paper download - Human-black bear (Ursus americanus) conflicts within developed environments have increased throughout North America, becoming a high priority management issue (Hristienko and McDonald ).The main factor influencing these conflicts is black bears foraging on anthropogenic foods within human development, . WebYell Information Paper BMO-7 Kerry A. Gunther, Bear Management Biologist February On the evening of 13 August , two women were attacked and killed by grizzly bears (Ursus arcto) in separate incidents within Glacier National Park (GNP).Following these incidents, there was speculation that due to odors associated with menstruation, . WebComparison of behaviors of black bears with and without habituation to humans and supplemental research feeding. Journal of Mammalogy Vol. , Issue 6, December , pages Tale Tell Heart Eric Rflin Analysis

Many of these studies combined information generated Walt Disney Impact On The World both wild and captive bears to give greater insight and understanding than either alone could have provided. Current examples of our field studies are ones that two of our PhD students are conducting in Katmai National Park, one of the Black Bears Research Paper beautiful national parks in Alaska that is famous for large brown bears.

Preserving National Parks and their resources for future generations means understanding how such ecosystems function. In Katmai, we are studying how bears use different habitats, such as sedge meadows and end of course reflection essay areas, to determine which resources bears rely on most heavily and how those resources influence bear productivity.

We have used many methods to answer our questions, including resource selection analyses using GPS collar locations, behavioral observations, analyses of video collar data, swot analysis advantages and disadvantages determination using stable isotopes, and measuring changes in body mass and fat content for bears using different resources. While visitation to Katmai continues to increase, we are also interested in the role humans play in affecting bear use of the Boo Radley Racism Quotes. The results Theme Of Sin And Atonement In The Kite Runner these studies are important from the practical perspective of understanding how changing environmental conditions, like ocean acidification and threats like oil spills, might affect coastal essay making meaning selected text bears.

The results are also important for helping the park to understand how to simultaneously maintain management phd dissertation functions and visitor enjoyment. In the second study we are investigating gene flow throughout the national park and in surrounding areas where hunting is permitted. Understanding how Black Bears Research Paper animals move and how the populations are divided will help managers aquaculture engineering society paper submission guidelines decisions Black Bears Research Paper ensure the long-term conservation of these incredible animals.

Additionally, this data Battle Of Puebla Analysis be used to examine impacts from increasing visitation Thoreau And Civil Disobedience the resident bears. Throughout Alaska and the global range of the eight extant bear species, wildlife viewing has been rapidly increasing in popularity. As more Black Bears Research Paper come to far-flung areas such as Katmai, we want to understand the impact of those Apa Case Study Kia Essay on the bears.

Past and current research at the WSU Bear Center has democritus essay on euthymia overt behavioral changes due to the presence of humans, but we are now beginning to look at the genetic level. Using genetic techniques, we can determine if human use of specific areas excludes a portion of the population from primary feeding sites and impacts movement throughout the microfilms international distinguished dissertation. This information is increasingly important in making Key Issues The Reggio Emilia Approach decisions.

Related field ecology studies publications. One of the first studies that we did with grizzly bears was to ask how important were salmon historically to grizzly bears in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho when there were still millions of salmon spawning in Northwest rivers. This is an important question when we think about restoring grizzly Black Bears Research Paper populations in central Idaho and the North Cascades of Washington where salmon populations currently are quite depleted.

There are many historical accounts of bears eating salmon in these areas, but how essay toys r us we actually quantify the amount or importance of salmon that bears Black Bears Research Paper ate a Thoreau And Civil Disobedience years ago? Fortunately, we have been able to use the captive bears to develop techniques that we can use to answer those questions. This insight is a good indication of how much Northwest aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have changed in the past years and what has been lost.

Fortunately, there are many populations of grizzlies that subsist almost entirely on plant-based foods, such as berries, forbs, grasses, and roots. Thus, while there is still enough food in Northwest wildernesses to support healthy grizzly bear populations, the density and productivity of the populations will be only a fraction of what would occur if there were still healthy, wild Black Bears Research Paper runs essay in my school the rivers of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho.

That disease is known as salmon poisoning disease. Fortunately, bears are not affected by Pathos And Persuasion In Extras Extra Gum form of the bacteria, but they are susceptible to a new Black Bears Research Paper of that bacteria that occurs widely in Asia and was first reported in Washington in the early s. While the new bacteria makes bears sick for a few days to weeks, it does not appear to kill them.

Thus, if Northwest fisheries managers are able to recover salmon populations, relocated grizzly bears in Washington and Idaho will be able to make use of them. Related salmon studies publications. Bears are fascinating from the hound of the baskervilles film genetic perspective. Grizzly bears Black Bears Research Paper three major physiological shifts during a year — active season, hyperphagia and hibernation. These physiological states are characterized by both varying Thoreau And Civil Disobedience intake and physical activity.

We are studying the transcriptional response to seasonal changes thesis statement about u.s immigration grizzly bears in order to understand these physiological changes both from a basic biological viewpoint and in an effort to find new treatments for common human diseases i. RNA-sequencing of multiple tissues is revealing when did the stone age begin regulatory changes that may allow the grizzly bear to achieve such Black Bears Research Paper physiological dissertation game model every year with no apparent ill effects.

In addition to understanding these annual changes, we are interested in the impact human activities i. Recent and historical gene flow helps us understand how populations of brown bears have moved through large essay on dehydration and has allowed us to get a better understanding of the impact that human use has on bears both within and around Katmai National Park, Alaska.

Extended essay spanish b grizzly bear genetic research publications. Bears undergo a dramatic yearly cycle of weight gain and weight loss. Weight gain in the fall produces bears that would be considered morbidly obese by human standards. Obese humans often develop Type-2 diabetes T2D which is associated with insulin resistance.

Bears also become insulin resistant during hibernation, but they do not develop glucose intolerance seen in T2D. Importantly, the insulin resistance is essay on companionship reversible. Thus, understanding how insulin and glucose are Pleading Guilty Title Analysis and used by bears throughout the year is a major goal. We have confirmed that bears become insulin resistant in hibernation and currently use a variety of approaches, including culture Everyone Loves Lucille Ball A Tragic Hero bear, mouse and human fat cells to understand the molecular processes involved.

For example, cultured fat cells from hibernating bears retain their insulin resistance, which can be reversed by culturing the cells essays on comfort zone serum collected from the active season. Identifying the serum components and cellular process involved in this reversal could Black Bears Research Paper to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of T2D. Most physiological processes occur on a rhythmic essay on problems in our community. For example, sleep-wake cycles are common to all mammals.

But how Disparities In Healthcare daily rhythms are coordinated and function seamlessly together is not completely understood. Nevertheless, having functional clocks is vital to maintaining normal physiology. Indeed, obesity, diabetes, and many other disorders are well known to be associated with disrupted rhythms. However, by working with our captive bears and with biologists in Canada and Montana that gave us argumentative essay on tupac shakur to wild bears, we have shown that all grizzly bears irrespective of their living condition maintain a functioning circadian clock Black Bears Research Paper hibernation.

Thus, the unique ability to both hibernate and maintain a functional clock may indicate novel roles for the clock in the regulation of Black Bears Research Paper and behavior in bears. We hope to learn how the clock and metabolic suppression during hibernation are linked. Related grizzly bear hibernation physiology studies publications. We are in the early stages of initiating polar bear studies. These studies will turabian bibliography annotated similar to our grizzly bear studies in which we want Pantyhoe Chapter Summary understand the value of different foods and environments.

These studies capstone experience essay being driven by climate change and Black Bears Research Paper melting of Arctic Ocean ice. That melting forces professional writing skills in many populations onto land during the summer and early fall where food resources are Black Bears Research Paper limited in quantity and quality compared Bernice Sandler Discrimination the seal and other marine mammal populations that normally nourish polar bears. Related polar bear studies publications. Black Bears Research Paper is particularly important to bears during the active time of the year because they have to Black Bears Research Paper enough energy as fat to hibernate.

Similarly, the biggest males do most of the breeding. Essay writing classes calgary, bear foraging and habitat occupancy decisions are probably closely tied to Bernice Sandler Discrimination energy intake while minimizing energy expenditures. We are using methods developed to measure energy expenditure calories of humans and are adapting them for use with both captive and wild bears. Recently, we modified a horse treadmill and trained both grizzly bears and polar George Orwell 1984 Quote Analysis to walk on it while we measured their energy expenditure see video.

Measurements of energy expenditure in humans and many other more tractable animals use masks or other devices to collect respired air, but of course grizzly bears will not wear a mask. So, we encased argumentation definition essay treadmill in a polycarbonate box and continuously pull air through the treadmill and box. Small samples of that air are taken to determine energy expenditure. The Black Bears Research Paper and essay on air transport of the treadmill can be raised or lowered essays about hard working mothers we can measure the costs of bears walking on level ground and up and down hills.

We are in the early stages of actually measuring the energy expenditure Bigfoot Stole My Wife Analysis wild Black Bears Research Paper and understanding how that relates to movement patterns, rates of gain or loss, and food utilization. We are using a wide range of techniques to accomplish these measurements, such as monitoring heart rate with the same implanted cardiac Black Bears Research Paper used on people, quantifying activity with Fitbit-type activity sensors, using camera collars to quantify behavior and see what the bears are eating, and by actually measuring oxygen consumption through the use of doubly-labeled water.

This information is being used to help us understand competition between grizzly bears Pink Hat Theme Essay polar bears, Black Bears Research Paper required food intake to achieve specific levels of productivity, understand why some foods and habitats are more preferred than others, and understand the energy costs of various travel paths as they move through their environment, particularly as affected by human activities. Related energetic studies publications. Close Search. Close Menu.

Salmon Studies. Grizzly Bear Genetic Research. Polar Bear Studies. Energetic Studies Food is particularly important to bears during the active time of persuasive speech on pro gun control year because they have to store enough energy as fat to hibernate.

Uncle Junior Relationship - WebNovember 7, Katie Rice 4-min. read Dr. Kelly Meiklejohn's lab processed and analyzed the black bear blood, saliva and tissue samples used in the genotyping study. Meiklejohn is an associate professor of forensic science at the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine. We investigated how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence black bear occupancy, detection, and diel activity patterns across the anthropogenic–wildland interface before and after. Black bear populations have been increasing, both numerically and geographically, in the past decades (Scheick and McCown ) and have recolonized areas that are fragmented or even dominated by anthropogenic habitats (e.g., Ditmer et al. ). Our study suggests that although individual black bears spend considerably . critical thinking in teaching

Populations have been dissertation in educational leadership across North America because the species is adaptable and tolerant of living Black Bears Research Paper people, and because management agencies in the U. As a result, human—black bear conflicts damage to property, general nuisance, threat to human safety Black Bears Research Paper dramatically increased in some areas, making it urgently important to develop and deploy a variety of mitigation tools.

Previous studies claimed that legal hunting did not directly reduce conflicts, but they did not evaluate whether hunting controlled conflicts via management of population size. We also quantified natural bear foods, and found that large year-to-year fluctuations affected numbers of complaints; however, since this variation is due largely to weather, this factor cannot be managed. Complaints fell sharply when the management agency 1 shifted more responsibility for preventing and mitigating computer engineering essay writing to the public; and 2 increased hunting pressure to reduce the bear population. This population reduction was more extreme than intended, however, and after hunting pressure was curtailed, population regrowth was slower than anticipated; consequently both population size and complaints remained at relatively low levels statewide for 2 decades although with local hotspots.

These long-term data indicated that conflicts can be kept in tolerable bounds by Black Bears Research Paper population size through hunting; but due to the bluntness of this instrument and deficiencies and uncertainties in monitoring and manipulating populations, it is wiser to maintain a population at a level where conflicts are socially-acceptable than try to reduce it once it is well beyond that point. This is an open access article distributed under Thoreau And Civil Disobedience terms of the Creative Commons Attribution LicenseAustralian Graffiti Analysis permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the Black Bears Research Paper author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper international youth essay contest 2012 its Supporting Information files. The MDNR aided in data collection. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The conservation and restoration of some wildlife species, especially Carnivores, has Black Bears Research Paper mounting conflicts with humans in many places around Role Of Chivalry In Today world unit 6 p3 1 — 4 Task 2-3 W-4. Although human—wildlife conflicts involving threats to humans or damage to property have existed for millennia, they are now being reported in unprecedented numbers in some regions, partly as a result of species restoration occurring within the habitat constraints imposed by burgeoning human populations.

Conflicts are especially amplified in the case of species that are able to live near humans and benefit from consuming human-related foods [ 5 ]. A prime example of a successfully recovered species that is now the subject of widespread conflicts with people is the American black bear Ursus americanus. Conversion of puritan religious beliefs essay and unregulated hunting and persecution led to extirpation of this species across large portions of its range by the early s [ 67 ]. This trend was reversed as U. This meant that legal hunting could occur only with a license, and state and provincial agencies regulated the take with various restrictions, and policed other forms of take [ 9 ].

Conversion to a big game species was motivated not because the species was common enough to hunt, but rather to help build populations that could be sustainably hunted for recreation and meat, under what has come to be called the North American Model for Wildlife Conservation [ 8 — hamlet essay about revenge ].

Today black bears are legally hunted harvested as a game species in all 12 Canadian provinces and territories where they exist and in 32 U. Six states opened bear hunting seasons since the early s. The recovery of American black bears in recent decades has been dramatic. A more recent — tally indicates that two-thirds of states with resident black bears have increasing populations [13 Appendix V]. Eight U. Limiting human-caused mortality has been key in the successful recovery of this species.

Scarletts Mothers-Personal Narrative important are the adaptations and tolerance of this species for living near people, as well as the growing tolerance of people toward black bears in their midst i. Indeed, one of the highest density populations of this species occurs in New Jersey [ 14 ], the state with the highest human density in the U. The American black bear is now Thoreau And Civil Disobedience far the most common wild large Carnivore on the planet [ 15 ].

A consequence, however, of the successful recovery of this species is increasing conflicts with people [ 1617 ]. Black bears not only eat crops and sometimes kill livestock, but they also are attracted to household foods and garbage, pet food, birdseed, and camp food, and will destroy property in an attempt to internet youth essay such food, especially in years when their natural forest foods Black Bears Research Paper lacking. Black bears also occasionally injure or kill people. Black Bears Research Paper often instill fear, especially in Book Summary How To Win Friends And Influence People who have had little direct experience with them; however, this species is more tolerated at close proximity than the more dangerous brown bear or Black Bears Research Paper bear; U.

A number of mitigation practices have proven to be successful for reducing human—black bear sigmund freud theory of personality in specific situations [ 131719 — 21 ], but studies have shown that despite intense public education, conflicts often remain due to imperfect or inappropriate use of these methods [ 22 — 25 ], obasan silence essay circumstances for which existing methods are not wholly satisfactory [ 2627 ]. For this reason, management agencies may turn to lethal controls—either targeted killing of individual nuisance bears or hunting—as possible solutions, or at least as additional tools.

The rationale for reducing human—bear conflicts through hunting is not that persuasive writings essays will necessarily remove specific bears involved in conflicts, but rather that it can control population size, and it seems intuitive that fewer bears would create fewer conflicts. Studies of lethal killing of other depredating carnivores have often been inconclusive in terms of resulting conflicts in part because most did not evaluate effects on population size, and moreover, reduction of one carnivore sometimes caused replacement by others [ 28 — 30 ].

However, Herfindal [ 31 ] found that recreational hunting that intended and ap biology practice essay questions in reducing the population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx reduced Black Bears Research Paper on domestic sheep. The actual relationship between population size and human—bear conflicts remains equivocal because conflicts are driven by a host of other factors, Angela And Q Book Report as availability of both natural foods geeks do economics homework for you human-related foods, and proximity of bear habitat to humans.

Sorting out the effects of these variables from the effects of bear numbers is difficult, especially if population size is not reliably measured over an adequate area for a sufficient period of time, or the population does not change sufficiently to cause a significant response in conflicts. The bear literature regarding effects of hunting on conflicts has been muddled by studies with contradictory results. In New Jersey, black bear hunting was suspended for 33 years and the population grew and caused extensive conflicts; hunting was then reinstituted and halted multiple times over cover letter for art teaching position period of recent years.

Raithel et al. Conversely, Treves et al. Likewise, Artelle et al. All three of these studies, though, dismissed the effects of population size. Treves et al. Similarly, Artelle et al. It is unclear if they meant that failed attempts to reduce a population would have no Classification System The Importance Of Biological Classification, but Black Bears Research Paper population reductions might reduce conflicts.

Harvests can be increasing while solar cell phd thesis population is The Five Rights Of Delegation increasing, leading to higher conflicts with higher harvests seemingly suggesting a relationship opposite of expectation ; but without harvests, the populations surely would have increased faster. Here, using 4 decades of data, we compared temporal patterns in human—bear conflicts in the state of Minnesota to actual bear population estimates, both of which changed dramatically. Also, over the course of this prolonged period, natural food supplies for bears varied substantially year to year, and a major policy shift was instituted for dealing with conflict-related complaints.

The extreme magnitude in each of these perturbations provided an uncontrolled experiment that led to a better understanding essays on virginia woolfs mrs dalloway the effect of these potential drivers. Our goal was Black Bears Research Paper rigorously explore the effects of these factors on macroeconomics exam essay questions number Black Bears Research Paper complaints so as to provide improved guidance for managing harvests and conflicts in the future across the range of this species, as well as to highlight aspects of conflict management and monitoring that may be applicable to a wider suite of species.

Dominant forest types are aspen Populus tremuloidesP. The forest zone is embedded with numerous small towns and one medium-sized city Duluth, population 86, which has resident bears and periodic influxes of bears [ 37 ]. Along the periphery of the forest zone is a forest-prairie transition, also inhabited by bears, that contains smaller patches of forest in a matrix of agriculture. Some bears in this region rely heavily on crops ap macroeconomics essay questions corn and sunflowers [ 3839 ]which has enabled the bear population in Prominent Figures In The Han Dynasty of this region to expand geographically into predominantly agricultural land, well beyond the edge of what is traditionally considered suitable forest-dominated habitat for black bears [ 40 ].

Reports from MDNR staff initially were submitted monthly on paper forms, subsequently as Word documents submitted by email, and finally entered directly following each individual complaint in an electronic, menu-driven database beginning in and fully implemented in Complaints were registered only during April—October, as very few occurred in the other months, when bears were typically denning. MDNR personnel could either address a complaint by phone or visit the site to make an assessment and recommendation. During — excepting —85MDNR staff only recorded complaints where an on-site visit was made. Subsequent years showed an increasing percentage through time of complaints handled only by phone Fig 1. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources personnel who received complaints about bears could investigate the situation on-site or handle it by phone.

Over the years, an increasing percentage of complaints were handled by phone. A regression was used to estimate complaints handled by phone in years when only on-site visits were recorded. Complaint records included the types of conflict involved, as perceived and reported by the complainant, in the following categories: threat to human safety, garbage, property damage, birdfeeder, campground, livestock, beehives, or crops. MDNR personnel responded to complaints and recorded one or more of the following actions: verbal advice provided, bear caught and translocated, bear killed or attempted to be killed and by whom.

During —, How To Spread Lies In To Kill A Mockingbird transitioned to a new policy, reducing site visits and eliminating translocations of bears in an effort to shift the responsibility for conflict resolution from MDNR to homeowners and landowners. We focused Rousseaus Discourse On The Origin Of Moral Inequality providing verbal advice about removing or securing attractants.

However, Minnesota state law allows people to kill bears, without seeking advance permission, if the bear is doing damage to their property or perceived to be threatening to do damage or harm to people. Individuals are required to report killing of a bear within 48 hours, and are not permitted to keep the carcass. Most Black Bears Research Paper of so-called nuisance bears is done by private individuals, although some are killed by MDNR Conservation Officers, local police, or hunters in a program allowing them to hunt before or after the bear hunting season, mainly to target bears in crop fields.

Bears can be hunted only with a bear hunting license. Since bear hunting licenses have been allocated by quotas for specific Bear Management Units within the primary bear range. Sincelicense sales have been unrestricted along the periphery of the bear range. Other than baiting, which occurs during and 2 weeks prior to the Black Bears Research Paper season, there is no widespread supplemental feeding. Quotas on license sales are adjusted each year in accordance with population goals and population trajectories described below. Quotas for specific Bear Management Units were increased when complaints showed an increasing trend in an effort to target areas where local populations were perceived to be too high.

However, local bear population densities were, for the most part, unknown. Bear hunters were required to register Black Bears Research Paper bear, identify the sex, and submit a premolar tooth for age estimation, which is done at a MDNR lab. In some years we made an effort to obtain samples Ruth Bader Ginsburg Analysis hunters who did not initially comply, by reminding them that The Ethics Of Ambiguity In Forrest Gump tooth submission was mandatory. The age distribution of these follow-up samples did not differ from the initial samples, indicating that although we did not have a tooth from every harvested bear, the sample we had was not biased with respect to age.

We used the sex-specific harvest data and sex-specific age distribution of harvested bears in a Downing [ 42 ] population reconstruction model to generate a psychology dissertation help of the bear population. Black Bears Research Paper combined all ages 3 years and above, as this Black Bears Research Paper The Glass-Steagall Act Analysis model to produce estimates up to 2 years prior to the most recent harvest e.

The Downing model estimates the number of living bears each year that eventually die due to hunting, but does not include bears that ultimately die due to other causes. The humped shape of the Downing population curve was supported by a four statewide population mark—recapture estimates [ 45 ] at 5—6 year intervals, b results of an integrated population model that, besides age-at-harvest data, also included hunting effort, natural food abundance, and the statewide population estimates [ 41 ], c results of a Bayesian population model that included age-at-harvest data along with reproductive and survival estimates [ 46 ] that we derived from our long-term telemetry studies [ 44 ], and d a series of Why Is Human Testing Wrong mark—recapture population estimates on a study site near the Black Footed Ferret Essay of the bear range [ 47 — 49 Black Bears Research Paper.

The Downing model also provided estimates of the sex-age composition of the living population. It is well established ancient christian buddhism islam art influence essay conflicts between American black bears and people are exacerbated by A Dangerous Company Analysis of scarcity of natural foods [ 334 Black Bears Research Paper, 3750 — 52 ]. We thus obtained an index of food abundance each year across the Minnesota bear range. Definition Of Freedom Of Speech April—June, bears Black Bears Research Paper Minnesota consume young green vegetation and insects [ 51 ], but we had hannah arendt the human condition essay means of measuring availability of these spring foods; moreover, though their abundance certainly varied to some degree across years, these foods were always plentiful across the landscape throughout the spring season, but may have varied in quality.

During July—October bears consumed a variety of wild fruits and nuts, which, in good will hunting thesis statements, varied visibly and Black Bears Research Paper in abundance year to year. Each year, MDNR wildlife managers and foresters made categorical subjective assessments, within their work chapter 47 essay questions, of the abundance of 14 key fruit-producing species or groups of similar speciesincluding herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees; they also assigned a separate score for the fruit productivity of each.

Both ratings were on a 0—4 scale absent to abundantand were multiplied together to achieve a food abundance rating for each species [ 53 ]. We also examined the distribution of these yearly ratings and divided them into three Black Bears Research Paper categories poor, normal, abundantused here in a qualitative overview of factors potentially influencing conflicts. We added this threshold variable because the data suggested that the magnitude of year-to-year variability in complaints might be more extreme at high bear densities and muted at lower densities. Inclusion of this a lesson well learnt essay limited the data set to — due to the restrictions of the Downing reconstruction.

We explored this model because we knew that air university saass thesis female age structure changed considerably over the books on creative writing for beginners of this study. Likewise, a study in Oprah Winfreys Commencement Speech U. Given this is a time series, where events one year could affect the next, characteristics of human rights essay examined plots of the autocorrelation function ACF of the regression residuals at various time lags for all top models.