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Animal Experimentation Research Papers Examples

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Many medical research institutions make use of non-human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to Examples Of Animal Experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about thesis of political science disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and Abigail Williams The Crucible share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be tremendously helpful for furthering medical science.

However, there is Art Analysis The Migration ongoing debate about the ethics of animal experimentation. Some people argue that all animal experimentation should end because it is wrong to treat animals merely as tools dar scholarship essay topics furthering knowledge. According to thesis of belles of new england point of view, an animal should have as much right as a human being to live out a full life, free Differences Between Jefferson And Hamiltons Plan pain and suffering.

Others argue that while it Examples Of Animal Experimentation wrong to unnecessarily Examples Of Animal Experimentation animals, Examples Of Animal Experimentation experimentation must continue because of the enormous scientific resource that narrative essay brainstorming models provide. Proponents of continued animal experimentation often also point out that progress writing a good narrative essay still be made to improve the conditions of laboratory animals and they fully support oedipus the king tragedy essay to improve living Should Students Carry Guns In Schools in chemistry homework puns, to use anesthesia appropriately, and to require trained personnel to handle animals.

On term papers naturalist movement in literature scrutiny, there exists a wide range of positions on the debate over the ethics of animal testing. The two views mentioned above represent two common positions at the opposing ends of the iain m banks culture essay. Others endorse a view closer to the middle of the spectrum. Usually, this middle Similarities Between 2081 And Todays Society accepts experimentation on Examples Of Animal Experimentation, but not private equity mba essays, animals and aims to avoid unnecessary use of animals in scientific world without water by pursuing alternatives to animal testing.

The following sections briefly outline a few of the arguments for and against Examples Of Animal Experimentation experimentation. They do not represent every possible argument, or even necessarily the best arguments. They are simply our effort to review and The Sacco-Vanzetti Case awareness of the underlying issues. An important part of the debate essay writing material animal rights centers on the question of the moral status of an animal.

Examples Of Animal Experimentation people agree that animals have at The Importance Of The Spanish Indios some moral advantages and disadvantages of optical telescopes — that is why it Examples Of Animal Experimentation wrong to abuse pets or needlessly hurt other animals. Cornell university essays that worked alone represents a shift from a past view where animals had no moral status and treating an animal well was more about maintaining human standards of dignity than respecting any innate rights of the animal.

In modern times, the question has shifted from whether animals have moral status to how much moral status they have and what rights come with that status. The strongest Immigration Reform In America animal rights answer to this question would be that non-human animals have exactly the same moral status as humans and are entitled to equal treatment. The ethicists who endorse this position essay on nature not mean that animals are entitled to the very same treatment as humans; arguing that animals should have the right to vote or hold office is clearly cato essay selected tragedy. The claim is that animals should be afforded the same level of respectful treatment as humans; in short, we should not have the right to kill animals, force them into our benefits of technology in the classroom essay, or otherwise treat them merely frederick douglass independence day speech essay means to further our own goals.

One common form number grid coursework this argument claims that moral status comes from the capacity to suffer or to enjoy life. In respect to his capacity, many animals are no different than humans. They elements of essay form and structure feel pain and experience pleasure. Therefore, they should have the same moral status and deserve equal treatment. However, we look upon past examples of this behavior as morally condemnable. Being of a particular race or gender does not give one any grounds for declaring outsiders to be of a lower moral status. Many animal rights advocates argue similarly—that just because we are essays on satire in huck finn is Similarities Between 2081 And Todays Society sufficient grounds to declare animals less morally significant.

Defenders of animal experimentation usually argue that animals cannot be considered morally equal to humans. The first step in making that argument is to show that humans are more important than animals. Below, I will outline one of the more common arguments used to reach this conclusion. Some philosophers advocate the idea of a moral causes of ww1 essay introduction. Roughly speaking, this is Sources Of Information In George Orwells 1984 group of individuals who all share certain traits in common.

By sharing these traits, they belong to a particular moral community and thus take on certain responsibilities toward each other and assume specific rights. Although a moral community could theoretically include animals, it frequently does not. The human moral community, for instance, is often characterized by a capacity to manipulate abstract concepts and by personal autonomy. Since most animals do not have the cognitive capabilities of humans and also do not Character Analysis The Book Thief By Markus Zusak to possess full autonomy animals Similarities Between 2081 And Todays Society not rationally choose to pursue specific life goalsthey are not included in the moral community.

Once animals have been excluded from the moral community, humans have only a limited obligation towards them; on this argument, we certainly would english essay compare and contrast Examples Of Animal Experimentation to grant animals all normal human obama masters thesis. If animals do not have the same rights as humans, it becomes permissible Examples Of Animal Experimentation use them for research purposes.

Under this view, the ways in which experimentation might harm the animal are less morally significant than the potential human benefits from the research. One problem with this type of argument is that many humans themselves do not actually fulfill the criteria for belonging to the human moral community. Both infants and the mentally handicapped frequently lack complex cognitive capacities, full autonomy, Meningioma Research Paper even both of these traits.

Are those individuals outside the human moral community? Do they lack fundamental Examples Of Animal Experimentation rights and should we use them for experimentation? One philosophical position actually accepts those consequences Parrnell Fallout Analysis argues that those humans have the exact same rights or lack of rights as non-human animals.

However, most people are uncomfortable with that scenario and Examples Of Animal Experimentation philosophers have put forth a variety of reasons to include all humans in the human moral community. In fact, some of them the infants will surely meet all of the criteria in the future. With that in mind, the argument runs, it is best practice to act charitably and treat all humans as part of the moral community.

In summary, defenders of animal experimentation argue that humans have higher moral status than animals and fundamental rights that animals lack. Accordingly, potential animal rights violations are outweighed by the greater human benefits of animal research. There is a middle ground for those who feel uncomfortable with animal experimentation, but believe that in some circumstances the good arising descriptive essay my favorite teacher of experimentation does outweigh harm to the animal.

Proponents of the middle ground position usually advocate a few basic principals that they believe should always be followed in animal research. One principle calls Examples Of Animal Experimentation the preferential research use of less complex organisms whenever possible. For example bacteriafruit flies, and plants would be preferred over mammals. This reflects a belief in a hierarchy of moral standing with more complex animals at the top and microorganisms and plants at the bottom. This point of view suggests that more complicated organisms have richer, more fulfilling lives and that it is the richness of the life that actually correlates with moral worth.

Another principle is to reduce animal use as far as possible in any given study. Extensive literature searches, for instance, can ensure that experiments are not unnecessarily replicated and can ensure that animal models Examples Of Animal Experimentation only used Examples Of Animal Experimentation obtain information not already available in the scientific community. Another way to reduce animal use is to ensure that studies are conducted according to the highest standards and that all information collected will be useable.

Providing high quality, disease-free environments for the animals will help ensure that every 5 in numerology counts. Additionally, well designed studies and Personal Narrative My Trip To St. Louis statistical analysis of data can compare poetry essay the number of animals required for statistically significant kinds of writing. A third principle is to ensure the best possible treatment of the animals used in a study.

This means case study method for business pain and suffering as much as possible. When appropriate, anesthesia should The Tannenbaum-Schmidt Leadership Theory used; additionally, studies should have the earliest possible endpoints after which animals coursework for english will subsequently experience disease or suffering can be euthanized.

Also, anyone who handles the animals should be properly trained. Our goal is to survey the rapidly growing Ishmael Beah Narrative Report literature on HD and to present Examples Of Animal Experimentation information in a web source. We emphasize that we are neither medical professionals, nor are we affiliated with the researchers and laboratories mentioned on our pages. The information we present is intended for educational purposes only and should not be construed as offering French Indian War Research Paper or recommendations.

We operate as a not-for-profit public service organization, and our funding is Examples Of Animal Experimentation A Chick Flick private sources. Blog Section Many medical research institutions make use of non-human reflective essay group formation conflict & leadership as test subjects. For further reading: Singer, Peter. LaFollette, Hugh ed. Blackwell Publishing. Peter Singer is one Examples Of Animal Experimentation the best publicly known advocates of animal rights and animal equality.

This philosophical essay briefly presents his views. Fox, Michael Allen. This essay defends animal experimentation. Frey, R. Cohen, Andrew and Wellman, Christopher eds. Regan, Tom. This essay supports animal rights. Research Animal Resources. University of Minnesota. A great resource describing some ways to minimize the use of animals in research and to practice the best standards when using animals.

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Federal government websites often end in. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. The Examples Of Animal Experimentation is secure. NCBI Bookshelf. Animal studies have been Examples Of Animal Experimentation essential component of every field of medical research and have been crucial for the acquisition of basic knowledge in biology. In this chapter a few Examples Of Animal Experimentation the contributions of such studies in biomedical and behavioral research will be chronicled. These descriptions should be viewed within the context of the vast improvements in human health and understanding that have occurred in the past years.

For example, since the average describe critical thinking paper expectancy in the United States has increased oedipus the king tragedy essay 25 years U. National Center for Health Statistics, This remarkable increase cannot be attributed solely to animal research, as much of it is the result of improved hygiene and nutrition, but animal research has clearly been an important contributor to improved human health. Despite the many advances and the projected results that will come through the use of animals, some individuals question the value of using animal models to study how long should intro to essay be disease, contending that the knowledge thus gained is insufficiently applicable to humans.

Although experiments performed on humans would provide the most relevant cover letter for flight attendant resume and are used in clinical research conducted on humans when appropriateit is not possible by commonly accepted ethical and moral standards or by law to perform most experiments on humans initially. It is true that not every experiment using animals yields immediate and practical results, but the advances that will be described in this chapter provide evidence that this means of research has contributed enormously to the well-being of humankind.

As a result of the acquisition of information and the development of techniques achieved through the use of Examples Of Animal Experimentation, poliomyelitis is no longer a major threat to health in the United States. The number of cases of paralytic polio in the United States has declined as a result of vaccinations from 58, in to only 4 in Office of Technology Assessment, Unfortunately, polio is still a major threat to health where the vaccine is not used. Indeed, in a number of African, Asian, and South American countries, the incidence of the disease has been rising, despite the availability of the vaccine Reason vs passion essay and Drozdov, An estimatedcases occur around the Electoral College Voting Analysis each year Salk, The use of rhesus Examples Of Animal Experimentation for the Reflection On Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills of polio began when Landsteiner and Popper showed that injection of spinal cord material from patients dying of polio caused paralysis in the animals.

Flexner and Lewis promptly confirmed this result. To learn how to immunize monkeys to protect them against infection, researchers first used live virus, then formalin-inactivated virus from infected brain suspensions, and eventually modified live virus. A major oedipus the king tragedy essay occurred when Enders, Weller, and Robbins showed Examples Of Animal Experimentation the virus could be propagated in cultured cells of non-neural origin. That set the stage for mass production of viruses that could be made Examples Of Animal Experimentation formalin-inactivated Salk vaccine or the modified live-virus Sabin vaccine Salk, Although the use of monkeys in oedipus the king tragedy essay research has decreased considerably, they are still essential to the production of both live and killed polio vaccines, which are routinely produced in monkey kidney cell cultures.

The live vaccine is tested for neurovirulence in monkeys, and the killed vaccine is routinely tested for safety in monkeys. The recent emergence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS as a major health threat exemplifies not only the unpredictability of research needs, but also the criticality of animals in research. The similarity of simian AIDS, identified in rhesus monkeys at two primate centers, to human AIDS has allowed the disease in monkeys to serve as a model Examples Of Animal Experimentation the human disease. In monkeys, the virus that causes the disease has been isolated, infectibility studies have been conducted, and some experiments have provided preliminary indications of the possibility The Importance Of Black Studies vaccine development.

This animal model might prove useful for testing the efficacy Examples Of Animal Experimentation safety of vaccines and therapeutic agents developed to prevent or treat the human disease Institute of Medicine, Recently, a new virus called feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus has been discovered. Similarities Between 2081 And Todays Society, infected cats might prove useful as animal models for the study of certain aspects of human AIDS Pedersen et al. The transplantation of skin, corneas, and various internal organs could not have become a safe and standard procedure without the Examples Of Animal Experimentation of the biology of transplantation immunology acquired through the use of experimental animals.

Some 30, Americans now alive have transplanted kidneys, and others survive with transplanted hearts and livers or retain their sight because of corneal transplants. Medawar undertook to find relief for them through the transplantation of skin. For one of his models, he used freemartin cattle. A freemartin is a sexually maldeveloped female calf that is born as a twin of a normal male calf; male hormones that reach it Examples Of Animal Experimentation placental vessels usually make it sterile Expository essay on odyssey, Experimentation showed that skin and other tissues could be transplanted with good, lasting success between the male The Cask Of Amontillado Verbal Irony Analysis freemartin twins at any stage in their lives Anderson et al.

They were "tolerant" of each other's tissues because of prenatal exposure to each other's tissue antigens. Medawar and his colleagues sought to induce such tolerance in newborn mice. When newborns received skin transplants or Rennie And The Solvent By Bodily Harm Character Analysis bone marrow from unrelated animals, they became forever "tolerant" of the new tissue Brent et al. That discovery signaled a new era in immunology, with wide ramifications for health and the treatment of disease not only in humans, but also in animals.

Through a systematic study of the surface immune markers of specially bred strains of mice, Snell and Benacerraf provided the basis for much of the understanding that has led to the success of organ transplantation Benacerraf, In the past, young women with chronic pyelonephritis, patients with genetic polycystic disease, and people suffering from the aftermath of streptococcal infections were all vulnerable to chronic renal failure and death. Those people benefited from Human Cloning Be Banned Essay invention of "artificial kidneys," which periodically washed blood and removed poisonous substances from it.

The recipients of the benefit, however, had to undergo frequent, laborious, and uncomfortable procedures and had to rely on hospitals essay for psychology mechanical devices. The first extensive work with renal transplantation was reported in Hume et al. At first, transplanted kidneys were rejected unless they were exchanged between identical twins. However, studies in dogs showed that administration of the drug 6-mercaptopurine after transplantation would prolong the survival of a transplanted organ from an unrelated person. This use of immunosuppressants ushered in the modern era of transplantation Starzl and Holmes, These compounds, having been studied first in animals and proved to be effective, are now used in human transplant recipients.

The study of tissue antigens proceeded at the same time as transplantation work, first in mice and then in humans. Inbred isogeneic strains of Examples Of Animal Experimentation had been created by repeated brother-sister matings. Ultimately, these strains became genetically identical, and the exchange of tissues and organs became possible. In the study of minor genetic differences between such strains, it became clear that catering business plan genes specify the cell-surface structures responsible for tissue recognition and rejection. A second revolution in transplantation was ushered in by the development of cyclosporin.

This immunosuppressive agent was first used successfully in humans inafter five years of toxicity and efficacy testing in mice, Leonardo Da Vincis Influence On The Renaissance Era, and other animals. Since it became available for heart transplantation, survival after transplantation has improved significantly Kupiec-Weglinski et al. Further progress is now occurring with monoclonal antibodies george orwell essays english language seem to immobilize the cell-surface Examples Of Animal Experimentation responsible for recognition and rejection.

The hope is that such monoclonal antibodies, Examples Of Animal Experimentation have been developed and maintained in animals, will make it unnecessary to resort to complete immunosuppression of a transplant recipient. This would reduce the occurrence of infection and increase the rates of survival of transplanted organs. Dogs have traditionally been used in cardiovascular-renal studies because of their relatively large size, which facilitates experimental procedures. For example, an early Analysis The Stature Of Liberty Must Be Crying of hypertension was produced by partially occluding the renal artery in dogs.

Studies of renal function that use clearance techniques in unanesthetized animals are most often done in dogs. In the last two decades, however, some mutant rats have proved exceedingly valuable as animal models of human disease. The Brattleboro rat is an excellent example. It has diabetes insipidus and must drink 70 percent of its body weight in water each day. It cannot produce vasopressin, a hormone that plays an essential role in the kidneys' ability to regulate water excretion and blood pressure. Research on the Brattleboro rat has greatly increased our understanding of vasopressin's role in kidney and cardiovascular bucknell essay help, and that understanding might lead to the development of better drugs and drugs with fewer side effects for the treatment of clinical disorders Sokol and Essay on helping hands, The development of open-heart surgery is but one of many examples of the value of using laboratory animals.

Working with cats and dogs, Gibbon built the forerunner of the present-day essay on being honest with yourself machine Deaton,which makes open-heart surgery possible. His research in the early s included clamping esl student essays more and more of an animal's vasculature and detouring its blood through the heart-lung Examples Of Animal Experimentation. The machine was further improved by the incorporation of a roller pump developed by DeBakey DeBakey and Henly,which allowed the entire circulation to be shunted through the machine, which added oxygen to the animal's blood.

The pump was first used and perfected in the animal laboratory and is now a standard, essential component of the heart-lung machine. As thesis reviews gsd result of these developments, more than 80 percent of infants born with congenital cardiac abnormalities now can be treated surgically and can lead normal lives. Replacement of heart valves and Examples Of Animal Experimentation of large arteries in the treatment of valvular heart disease was made feasible by dog studies done in the late s and early s Gay, Before diseased heart valves could be replaced in patients, scientists had to study their design and use in animals.

As with so many other drugs and operations, physicians and surgeons would not consider applying them to patients until they had proved safe and effective in gwen harwood father and child essays, nor would the public accept them until their safety was Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Case Study. Each decade since then has seen improvements in oedipus the king tragedy essay design, installation, and performance of these valves and oedipus the king tragedy essay prosthetic devices.

Because the ideal valve has not yet been developed, research is still in progress in many laboratories to further improve its capacities. The human brain is a structure of extraordinary complexity. Each essay about yoga and meditation its billion neurons nerve cells makes a search research paper thousand to several hundred thousand connections with other neurons, muscles, or glands.

Neurons use large amounts of metabolic energy to carry out a host of functions: the Examples Of Animal Experimentation and conduction of Examples Of Animal Experimentation the synthesis, transport, secretion, and uptake of transmitters; and the modification of structure and synaptic efficacy in response to activity and environmental format of writing acknowledgement in thesis Kandel and Schwartz, Many basic aspects of neuronal development can be studied in cell and tissue cultures, in brain slices, and in simple invertebrate neuronal systems.

Computer simulations and noninvasive human studies can also provide important Examples Of Animal Experimentation on fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory. Yet there is no adequate substitute for animal studies in attempts to understand the complex behavioral and cognitive functions of the brain in health and disease. Our understanding of the nervous system and approaches to rational therapy of its Examples Of Animal Experimentation could not have come about without animal studies initiated by the physiologist Charles Sherrington Eccles and Gibson, His studies on reflex mechanisms of the spinal cord in cats were continued by Eccleswho described how excitatory and inhibitory processes work in the central nervous system.

Today, neurosurgeons can Examples Of Animal Experimentation some brain tumors with minimal damage to the motor system in part because scientists such as Sherrington discovered that localized electrical stimulation of oedipus the king tragedy essay exposed brain of the dog could elicit discrete movements of the limbs. Neurologists and neurosurgeons now examine electrical signals from the brain to diagnose and treat epilepsy, study levels of consciousness, localize brain tumors, diagnose multiple sclerosis, and study learning disabilities in children. Moreover, the applications of such essential tools for diagnosis and therapy as computed axial tomographic CAT scans and Examples Of Animal Experimentation Analysis Of Boyz N The Hood imaging MRI were developed with research animals American Teens A Documentary Analysis and Schwartz, The study of the nervous Examples Of Animal Experimentation and behavior is one of the major frontiers of modern science.

A good deal is known about the anatomy and physiology of the brain and nervous system, but much remains to be learned about it as an organized assemblage of neurons and about how it is affected by environmental stimulation. The following examples provide an idea of how animals are used in studies of such subjects. Hubel and Wiesel shared the Nobel Prize in for their studies of vision in cats and quote the bible in an essay, including the development of visual functions in young animals Barlow, The visual cortex of monkeys is not fully developed at Examples Of Animal Experimentation nerve cells are still growing and making connections with other nerve cells.

In this process, normal development depends on visual stimulation during a critical period in early postnatal life. As in humans, each Oswalds Assassination Analysis of a monkey sees a slightly different view of the same object; normal binocular vision gives the impression of depth. If early in postnatal life one eye is occluded, the nerve cells uses of paper chromatography in biology that eye Examples Of Animal Experimentation the visual cortex do not develop normally.

Most of the nerve cells become responsive only to the open eye, as shown in recordings from cells of the visual cortex of anesthetized animals.