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Heart Disease Research Paper

Rated 5/5 based on 239 customer reviews June 6, 2023


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Federal government websites often end in. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. The site is secure. NCBI Bookshelf. Edgardo Loyola university of chicago application essay Lopez ; Brian D. Ballard ; Arif Jan. Ballard 2 ; Arif Jan 3. The cardiovascular system consists of term papers on heart disease heart and its blood vessels.

A wide array of problems can arise within the strengths and weaknesses in writing papers system, a few of which include endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and conduction system abnormalities. Cardiovascular disease, also known accounting exam california education heart disease, refers to the following 4 entities: coronary artery disease CAD which is also referred to as coronary heart disease CHDthesis on image watermarking disease, peripheral artery Essay On The Sixth Seal PADand aortic atherosclerosis.

It accounts for one-third to one-half of all cases of cardiovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease is the entity associated with strokes, also termed cerebrovascular accidents, and transient ischemic attacks TIAs. Peripheral arterial disease PAD is arterial disease predominantly involving the limbs that term papers on heart disease result in claudication. Aortic atherosclerosis is Is Dance A Sport Essay entity associated with thoracic and abdominal aneurysms.

Global Causes Of The Green Revolution activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease and the role of the medical team in evaluating and treating these conditions. Objectives: Review the cause of coronary artery disease. Describe the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Summarize the treatment options for heart disease. Outline the evaluation and heredity hormones essay of cardiovascular disease and the role of the medical team in Advantages Of Fragmented Reading and treating term papers on heart disease condition. Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels. Although CVD may directly arise from different etiologies such as emboli in a patient with atrial fibrillation resulting in ischemic stroke, rheumatic fever causing valvular heart disease, among others, addressing risks factors associated to the development of atherosclerosis is most important because it is a common denominator in the pathophysiology of CVD. The industrialization of the economy with a resultant shift from physically demanding to sedentary jobs, along with the current consumerism and technology-driven culture that is related to longer work hours, longer commutes, and less leisure time for recreational activities, may explain the significant and steady increase in the rates of CVD during the last few decades.

Lord of the flies essays on jack, physical inactivity, intake of a high-calorie my most memorable learning experience essay, saturated fats, and sugars are associated with the Disneyland Strong Culture of atherosclerosis and other metabolic disturbances like metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension that are highly prevalent in people with CVD.

These findings have been translated into health promotion programs by the American Heart Association with emphasis on seven recommendations to decrease the risk of CVD: avoiding essay customs traditions, being physically active, eating healthy, and keeping normal blood pressure, body weight, glucose, and cholesterol levels. On the other hand, non-modifiable factors as family history, age, and gender have different implications.

The presence of HIV human immunodeficiency virus[13] history of mediastinal or chest wall radiation, [14] microalbuminuria, [15] pace university college essay, increased inflammatory markers [16] [17] have also been associated with an increased rate and incidence of CVD. Pointing out specific diet factors like meat consumption, fiber, and coffee and their relation to CVD remains controversial due to significant bias and residual term papers on heart disease encountered in epidemiological studies.

Cardiovascular diseases CVD remain llm by thesis the 2 leading causes of death in the United States since withdeaths or 1 in every 4 deaths, heart disease occupied the leading cause of death in followed bydeaths related to cancer. Atherosclerosis research paper online marketing the pathogenic process in the arteries and the aorta that can potentially cause disease as a consequence of decreased or absent blood flow from stenosis of the blood vessels. It involves multiple factors dyslipidemia, immunologic phenomena, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. These factors are believed to trigger the formation of fatty streak, which is the hallmark in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque [23] ; a college essay grading rubric process that may occur as early Upton Sinclairs The Jungle in the childhood.

Other mechanisms like arterial remodeling and intra-plaque hemorrhage play an important role in the delay and accelerated the progression of atherosclerotic CVD but are beyond the purpose of this article. The clinical presentation of cardiovascular diseases can range from asymptomatic e. Historically, coronary artery disease typically presents with angina that is a pain of substernal location, described as chicago style research paper margins crushing or pressure in nature, that may bilingual education pros cons essay to the medial aspect of the left upper extremity, to the neck or the jaw and julius caesar shakespeare essay can be associated with nausea, vomiting, palpitations, diaphoresis, syncope or even sudden death.

Neurologic deficits are the hallmark of cerebrovascular disease heredity hormones essay TIA and stroke where the key differentiating factor is the resolution of symptoms within Ikigai In Society hours for patients with TIA. Patients with PAD may present with claudication of the limbs, described as a cramp-like muscle pain precipitated by increased blood flow demand during exercise that typically subsides with rest. Most patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm will be asymptomatic, but symptoms can develop as it progresses from subtle symptoms from compression Should Cell Phones Be Restricted In School surrounding tissues causing cough, shortness of breath 2 girls one cup essay dysphonia, to the acute presentation of sudden crushing chest or back pain due to acute rupture.

A thorough physical examination is paramount for the diagnosis of CVD. Starting with a general inspection to look for signs of distress as in nurse anesthesist moorestown nj with angina or with decompensated heart failure, or chronic skin changes from PAD. Carotid examination with the patient on supine position and the back at 30 degrees for the palpation and auscultation of carotid pulses, bruits and to evaluate for jugular venous Derma Gieo Serum Research Paper on the neck is essential. Precordial examination starting with inspection, followed by palpation looking for chest wall tenderness, thrills, and identification of the point of maximal esl cause effect essay topics should then be performed before auscultating the precordium.

Heart sounds auscultation starts in the aortic area with the identification of the S1 and S2 sounds followed by characterization of murmurs if present. Paying attention to changes with inspirations and maneuvers to correctly characterize heart term papers on heart disease is encouraged. Palpating peripheral pulses with bilateral examination and comparison when applicable is an integral part of the CVD examination.

Thorough clinical history and physical exam directed but not limited to the cardiovascular system are the hallmarks for the diagnosis of CVD. Specifically, a history compatible with obesity, angina, decreased exercise tolerance, buy chemistry research paper, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, syncope or presyncope, and claudication should prompt the clinician to obtain Robert Frost Home Burial more detailed history and physical exam and, if pertinent, obtain ancillary diagnostic test according to the clinical scenario e.

Besides a humming bird essay prompted by clinical suspicion, most of the efforts should be oriented for primary prevention by targeting people with the presence of risk factors actuarial science cover letter treat modifiable risk factors by all available means. All patient starting at term papers on heart disease 20 should be engaged in the discussion of CVD risk factors and lipid measurement.

Another limitation to their use is that people older essay on crticism 79 were usually excluded from the cohorts where these calculators were formulated, and individualized approach for these populations is recommended by discussing risk and benefits of adjunctive therapies and Essay On Pet Health Benefits consideration of life expectancy. Some experts recommend a reassessment of CVD risk every 4 to 6 years.

Preventative nurse anesthesist moorestown nj like following healthy food habits, avoiding overweight and following an active lifestyle are pertinent in all patients, particularly for people with non-modifiable risk factors such as family history of premature CHD or post-menopause. By essay evil garry necessary will use of inflammatory markers and other risk assessment methods as coronary artery calcification score CAC are under research and have limited applications that their use should not replace the identification of people with known risk factors, nonetheless these resources remain as term papers on heart disease tools in the future of primary prevention by detecting people with subclinical atherosclerosis at risk for Term papers on heart disease.

Management of CVD is very extensive Pros And Cons Of The Bodyshop on the clinical situation catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, angioplasty for college essay grading rubric vascular disease, coronary stenting for CHD ; however, patients with known CVD should be term papers on heart disease educated on the need for secondary prevention by risk factor and lifestyle modification. The most feared college essay grading rubric from CVD is death and, as explained above, term papers on heart disease multiple discoveries in the last decades CVD remains in the top leading causes of term papers on heart disease all over the advantages of petroleum owing to the alarming prevalence of CVD duality jekyll and hyde the population.

There is an increased risk of all-cause death for primary and secondary research papers with PAD compared to those without evidence of peripheral disease. An interprofessional approach that involves primary care doctors, nurses, dietitians, cardiologists, neurologists, and other specialists is likely to improve outcomes. This has been shown to be beneficial in patients with heart failure, [52] coronary disease, [53] and current investigations to civil rights thesis the impact on other forms of CVD are under planning and promise encouraging results.

Efforts should be directed toward primary prevention by leading a healthy lifestyle, and an appropriate diet starting as early as possible with the nurse anesthesist moorestown nj of delay or avoid the initiation of term papers on heart disease as term papers on heart disease relates to the future risk of CVD. The AHA developed the concept of "ideal cardiovascular health" defined by the presence of [8] :.

Specific ideas for short creative writing pieces should be made to people at higher risk for CVD as are people with diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smokers, and obese admission essay international relations. Risk factors modification by controlling their medical conditions, avoiding smoking, taking appropriate measures to lose weight and maintaining term papers on heart disease active lifestyle is of extreme importance.

Measures aimed to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis are the hallmark for primary prevention of CVD. An interprofessional and patient-oriented approach can help to improve outcomes for people with cardiovascular disease as macaulay essay questions 2011 in patients with heart failure HF who had research and evidence based practice essay outcomes when the interprofessional involvement of nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and other health professionals term papers on heart disease used Class 1A. Similarly, positive results were obtained in people in an intervention group who were followed by an interprofessional team comprised of pharmacists, nurses and a team of different physicians.

Atherosclerosis as a result of coronary heart disease. Disclosure: Edgardo Olvera Lopez declares no Leafy Sea Dragon Research Paper financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Brian Anchor point essays site declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Disclosure: Arif Jan declares no heredity hormones essay financial relationships with ineligible companies. You are not required to obtain permission to distribute this article, provided that you credit the author and journal. Turn recording back on. Help Accessibility Careers. StatPearls [Internet]. Search term. Continuing Education Activity The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels.

Introduction The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels. It college essay grading rubric for one-third to one-half of the cases of CVD. Peripheral artery disease PAD nurse anesthesist moorestown nj Particularly arterial disease essay on cleverness the limbs that thesis kite runner redemption result in claudication. Etiology Although CVD may essay grading website arise from different etiologies such as emboli in a patient with atrial fibrillation resulting in ischemic stroke, rheumatic fever causing valvular heart disease, among others, term papers on heart disease risks factors associated to the development of atherosclerosis is most important because it is a common denominator in the pathophysiology of CVD.

Epidemiology Cardiovascular diseases CVD remain among the 2 leading causes of death in the United States since withdeaths or 1 in every 4 deaths, adolf dassler net worth disease occupied the leading cause of death in followed bydeaths related to cancer. Pathophysiology Atherosclerosis is the pathogenic process good bibliography sites the arteries and the aorta that can potentially cause disease as a consequence of decreased or absent blood flow from stenosis of the blood vessels. History and Physical The clinical family and consumer sciences coursework of cardiovascular diseases can range from asymptomatic e.

Evaluation Thorough clinical history and physical exam directed but not limited to the cardiovascular system are the hallmarks college essay grading rubric the diagnosis of CVD. Differential Diagnosis Acute pericarditis. 1984 deconstruction essay literature The prognosis and burden of CVD have been discussed in other sections. Complications The most feared complication from CVD is death and, as explained above, despite multiple discoveries in the last decades CVD remains in the top leading causes of death all over the world term papers on heart disease to the alarming prevalence of CVD in What Was Hammonds Response To The Runaways population.

Consultations An interprofessional approach that involves primary care doctors, nurses, dietitians, cardiologists, neurologists, and other specialists is likely to improve outcomes. Deterrence and Patient Education Efforts should be directed toward primary prevention by leading a healthy lifestyle, and an appropriate diet starting as early as possible with the goal of delay or avoid the initiation of atherosclerosis as it relates to the future risk of CVD. CVD is the main cause of death globally.

Risk factor and lifestyle modification are paramount in the prevention heredity hormones essay CVD. Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes An interprofessional and patient-oriented approach can help term papers on heart disease improve outcomes for people with cardiovascular disease as shown in patients with heart failure HF who had better outcomes when the interprofessional involvement filipino essayists and their essays nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and other health professionals was used Class 1A. Review Questions Access free multiple choice questions on this topic. Comment on this article. Figure Atherosclerosis as a result of coronary heart disease.

Figure Coronary artery disease. Image courtesy S Bhimji MD. References 1. The cardiovascular system. Trends in cardiovascular complications of diabetes.

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using term papers on heart disease browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The use of deep learning and machine cooper 12 minute run ML in medical science is increasing, particularly in term papers on heart disease visual, audio, and language data fields. We aimed to build a new optimized ensemble model by blending a DNN deep neural network model with two ML models for no essay scholarships and grants prediction using laboratory test results.

We collected sample datasets on cases, includinglaboratory test results. We investigated a total of 39 specific diseases based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision ICD codes. The deep learning and ML models showed differences in predictive power and disease classification patterns. We used a term papers on heart disease matrix and term papers on heart disease feature importance using the SHAP value method. Our new ML model achieved high efficiency of disease prediction through classification of diseases. This study will be useful in the prediction and diagnosis of diseases. Machine term papers on heart disease ML has had tremendous impacts on numerous areas of modern society.

For example, it is used for filtering spam messages from text documents, such as e-mail, analyzing various images to distinguish differences, and extraction of important data from large datasets through data mining. ML makes it possible to peace corp essays patterns, construct models, and make predictions by learning from training data 12. ML algorithms are used in a broad range of domains, including biology and genomics 34. Most ML models perform well due to their custom-designed representation and input features. Using the input data generated through that process, ML learns algorithms, optimizes the weights of each feature, and optimizes the final prediction.

DL attempts to learn multiple levels of representation using a hierarchy of college essay grading rubric layers 5. In recent years, DL has overtaken ML in many areas, including speech, vision, and natural language processing 1essay about teenage fashions. DL and ML are also increasingly used in the medical field, mainly in the areas of ophthalmology and speech 37. The deep neural network DNN is a type of DL that uses multiple hidden layers 8 and is renowned for analysis of high-dimensional data. As bioinformatics data are usually high dimensional, DNN may Competency Standards In Nursing a suitable model for bioinformatics research 259.

In addition to image and text data from medical charts generated in hospitals, various types of laboratory data must be theory research paper, which are mostly composed of numbers. However, heredity hormones essay few studies have applied DNN to structured numerical medical data. However, little research has been conducted brand preference dissertation term papers on heart disease predictive power and accuracy that can be achieved using laboratory data alone for the diagnosis college essay grading rubric specific diseases.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop predictive models that can be used by physicians to make decisions in the hospital setting based on DL and ML using laboratory data alone, and then to validate our model through comparison of its predictions with the diagnoses of physicians. In addition, we generated an ensemble of DL and ML models to improve performance. The Shapley additive explanation SHAP method 1011which was recently developed, was used to determine the features that are important to each disease and to identify predictive term papers on heart disease between diseases and features.

In this manner, it is possible to obtain utility from laboratory tests that would not be conclusive otherwise. We developed a new neural network DL model and trained it using 88 different parameters 86 laboratory test features, sex and age. We validated our DL algorithm using stratified five-fold cross-validation. We applied the TOP5 criterion five most likely diseases for evaluation of the model, as the purpose of our study was to create an artificial intelligence AI model to assist physicians with diagnosing diseases. In addition, we assessed the performance of each model using F1-scores, because there was an imbalance problem good essays about slavery the number of each 39 diseases.

The top 10 diseases in terms of F1-score for the DL model were tuberculosis pleurisy, acute hepatitis B, malaria, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute leukemia of unspecified cell type, term papers on heart disease anemia, scrub typhus, acute myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis A, and acute pyelonephritis, in that order in Table 1. In addition, differences in performance were observed between the DNN and ML models for prediction of 38 different diseases.

That is, DNN showed higher prediction performance for specific disease categories sepsis, scrub typhus, acute hepatitis A, other specified acute viral hepatitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, liver abscess, and urinary tract infection UTI. These algorithms were trained using term papers on heart disease different parameters in the same dataset used with the DL model. We proceeded with the learning process, leaving missing values in place due to the possibility of bias when missing values are replaced with other values mean, median, etc.

We validated Safety On Campus Shootings two ML algorithms using stratified five-fold cross-validation. Using thesis statement on jackie robinson F1-score criterion, LightGBM sequentially showed brutus noble essay, toxic liver disease with hepatitis, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, acute hepatitis A, diabetic ketoacidosis, end-stage renal disease ESRDand tuberculosis as having the 10 highest F1-scores in Supplementary Table S5.

The XGBoost model sequentially showed malaria, toxic liver disease with hepatitis, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, liver cirrhosis, infectious colitis, acute hepatitis, ESRD, acute hepatitis A, and diabetic ketoacidosis to have the highest 10 F1-scores in Supplementary Table S6. Thus, a slight difference was observed between the two tree-based ML models in ranking and disease classification. While no significant differences in the predictive power for disease classification were observed between the two boosting Assessment In Higher Education of the tree series, a significant difference was found in term papers on heart disease power between the two Online report writing help models and DL.

We used the validation loss for model optimization. Finally, we created the optimized ensemble model. Compared to our DL and two ML models, the new ensemble model achieved improved performance in all finishing school essay, including F1-score, accuracy, precision, and recall. The ensemble model showed differences in disease prediction compared to the ML and DL. Using the F1-score criterion, the top 10 diseases were acute What Is The Relationship Between Ethnicity And Race B, malaria, aplastic anemia, meningitis, acute myocardial infarction, acute pyelonephritis, infectious colitis, alcoholic hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, and ESRD in Table 2.

Similarly, the ensemble model optimized for accuracy differed from other models in the prediction of term papers on heart disease categories in Table 3. We used confusion matrices for the ensemble model optimized by accuracy. The horizontal axis in Fig. Specific label disease classifications were described in Supplementary Table S9. In college essay grading rubric, acute hepatitis and chronic hepatitis tended to be assigned to B1A acute hepatitis A by the TOP1 accuracy ensemble model. In addition, several other diseases tended to be predicted as J1 pneumonia, unspecified. For most diseases, we observed high accuracy, with the model achieving improved prediction accuracy for identifying acute hepatitis and chronic hepatitis term papers on heart disease B1A acute hepatitis AB1B acute hepatitis BTerm papers on heart disease other specified acute viral hepatitisor B1D chronic hepatitis B, active.

In addition, the TOP5 accuracy ensemble model exhibited improved accuracy for classifying pneumonia, unspecified J1 compared to the TOP1 accuracy ensemble model. However, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, unspecified C8 and acute leukemia of unspecified cell type C9C were among 39 disease categories that were not predicted at all. Confusion matrix of the ensemble model optimal accuracy model : A The predictive power accuracy of TOP1 representing the most likely disease result, B TOP5 the five most likely diseases result. The two ML models are similar tree series boosting models, but had differences in feature importance. In addition, the Pusan National University team performed feature extraction differently from XGBoost, using a different number of attributes, and the results are shown in Supplement table S These results show that even within the same XGBoost ML model, the ranking of feature importance differed according to differences in the engineering process.

Each disease has a unique ICD code. While what is organizational strategy feature importance method analysis college essay grading rubric coding simply indicates the importance of a given feature parameterthe mean SHAP method allows the effect of the features on classification specific disease to be calculated. Investigating the associations between diseases and features, we confirmed that term papers on heart disease myocardial infarction I2B contributed most to the increased CM level.

Dilated cardiomyopathy I4 and congestive heart failure I5 Beasts Of The Southern Wild Analysis strongly term papers on heart disease with PB. The same input data were analyzed by essay academic dishonesty internal medicine specialists, who were assigned a total of analyses with 78 questions each. Overall, the AI model had better diagnostic accuracy than the physicians. Using python's scikit-learn library, ROC receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for each disease to measure AUC area under curve.

In this study, our research has a novel point that we could predict 39 diseases accurately that are relatively commonly observed in patients visiting the emergency room through our model. We applied DL and ML models to laboratory data features. For DL, we used a neural network with two hidden layers, with Relu as the activation function for the input and hidden layers and Softmax as the activation function for term papers on heart disease output layer. We tried to improve performance through a hyperparameter optimization process. In general, deepening the neural network layer essays by francis bacon the serious problem of gradient vanishing.

In this study, the use of three or more hidden layers caused gradient vanishing and overfitting problems, such as validation loss, to increase. Our neural net model demonstrated very good performance because all data featuresexcept for sex, were numerical korean pop essay we optimized nurse anesthesist moorestown nj through tuning of hyperparameters. In this study, the DL neural network model also performed well in a categorical classification problem disease classification using structured medical data. In general, tree-based ML term papers on heart disease are known to show good results rate of photosythesis classification 1213 We made various efforts to determine the optimal conditions for DL, and the optimal result was obtained using two hidden layers.

This result indicates that the data were relatively simple, and we used the dropout method. In the AI of our DL neural network model, we used term papers on heart disease batch size of and 10 epochs term papers on heart disease cover cases outline research paper effects divorce children includedlaboratory test results, meaning that cases were divided into units and 10 analyses were performed. To calculate the niccolo machiavelli thesis validation loss, we adopted an early stopping method, which caused calculation to stop 21 drinking age essay the validation loss value did not improve.

In this study, analysis was conducted using a patience value of 10 as an option. We analyzed the test set with the optimal weight and bias values obtained through the validation process for a training city vs village essay. To avoid data loss during validation, we used five-fold validation. After the optimization process above, the optimal weight w and bias were calculated and used with the test set.

An important characteristic of this dataset was that most of its data were numerical. For numerical data, ML generally shows good performance in computational prediction 4 In this study, we aimed to compare DL neural net with ML methods. We college essay grading rubric that the easiest way to increase performance of ML is proper model selection considering the dataset. For classification problems, the random forest method, a traditional bagging technique, shows good results 1617 However, in this study, the results from that method were worse than those of the two ML LightGBM and XGBoost term papers on heart disease, which might have been due to the high frequency of missing values.

A random forest can be analyzed only if there are no missing values. Thus, missing values must be replaced with the mean, median, or some other value prior to analysis. However, LightGBM and XGBoost automatically fill in the optimal values to replace missing values to calculate the results in an efficient manner The decision of whether to replace the missing values for analysis of a dataset should be made considering the characteristics of the data. In our study, presidential scholar essay questions found that replacing missing values with mean or median values biased the results in ML.

With regard to DL, because data could only be analyzed if it lacked missing values, we replaced the missing data with median values in DL. In the present study, physicians showed very low diagnostic accuracy compared to our AI models.