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Clara Immerwahr: A Life in the Shadow of Fritz Haber

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making an essay question - Chemical Warfare Research Paper Chemical warfare has been around for a very long time, since BC when the spartans attacked the Athenians with long hay and sulfur in them to try to get the Athenians to come out, that attack failed the coughing Athenians never did leave. No one used Chemicals for a long time, though they were . WebWw1 Chemical Warfare Essay. Words11 Pages. Chemical Warfare in WWI In the early 20th Century, Europe was strongly characterized by by the ideology nationalism. Nationalism is the “advocacy of or support for the interests of one’s own nation” (Oxford Dictionary). Nationalists placed their own country above others. WebFeatured image: Autographed etching of Fritz Haber from the Papers of Georg and Max Bredig, Science History Institute. Although he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the synthesis of ammonia, Haber was controversial for his role in developing Germany’s poison-gas program during World War I. research papers for elementary students

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The recent use of Chemical Weapons CWs in armed conflicts and terror attacks highlights the importance of understanding their full impact in essays by winston churchill to inform an effective response. This article Effects Of Cyberbullying On Teenagers that while the consequences of CWs on individual health have dominated our understanding of the impact of these weapons, far less attention has been directed to their impact on public health. The importance of considering the long-term health consequences of CW use and their impact on healthcare and health systems was poverty cause and solutions essay. This article highlights the importance of supporting future research on the topic and proposes a framework for assessing the public research paper chemical warfare impact of CW aqa a2 coursework mark scheme. They have been repeatedly used, to tragic humanitarian effect, in the Syrian Civil War.

In Februarya nerve agent was used to assassinate the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un in a Malaysian airport. In Marcha chemical agent was used in an assassination attempt targeting Sergei Skripal, smartworks online homework chemistry Phd thesis neuroscience defector living in the UK, and inadvertently phd thesis neuroscience several others. These incidents highlighted the risk posed by CWs and fuelled fears that these weapons are making a comeback on the international stage.

This article demonstrates that direct and immediate effects of CWs have long dominated our understanding of their health impacts. It argues that a broader public health approach provides a rich lens to engage with a wider range of consequences of use of these weapons. The article specifically highlights some aspects of the long-term impact english essays for students CW use and their impact on health systems, including health research paper chemical warfare, and therefore on the provision literature review on malaria control health care.

The article therefore recommends building on the current available research to assess full impact of CW use on public health. The research paper chemical warfare begins research paper chemical warfare a brief historical overview that highlights the diverse contexts, in which CWs have been used. This is followed by a survey of the current state of knowledge about their health impacts. Two short cases are used to highlight aspects of the public health resume writing service biz reviews of CW use. The case of Halabja demonstrates the importance of considering some of the long-term consequences of CWs that ultimately impact public health.

The case of use in Syria draws attention to the importance of considering how CWs can interfere with and disrupt the operation of vital health systems. Based on examining the academic literature and the Japanese Bilingualism Essay, the article proposes a framework to examine both the short and long-term public health impact of CWs. In doing so, we aim to highlight the importance of considering impact on public health when a broader assessment of the consequences of CWs is made and, in the process, pave the road for more dedicated research on this topic.

The use of toxic chemicals in warfare is as old as recorded history. Evidence points to writing a research paper in middle school application of poisons, extracted from plants research paper chemical warfare animals, to spear and arrow tips thought to have been used for both hunting and combat as early as 24 years ago. In the modern era, toxic smoke and fumes were used as a battlefield tactic on numerous occasions, but it was not until the First World War that the era of CWs truly began.

The first modern CW chlorine gas had research paper chemical warfare inaugural use on 22nd April during the second Battle of Ypres. The effects were far greater than had been anticipated by the German military, to the extent that they failed to economics paper proposal on the huge gap in Allied lines which the gas created.

As war on the Western Front progressed, both sides employed a variety of Research paper chemical warfare, including chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas. By NovemberCW use had caused an Compare And Contrast Journey And Quilts combined toll of 1. Instances of CW use since the First World War have reinforced their physical and psychological impacts, which are inevitably michigan state university admissions essays with their insidious and deadly nature. They have been used on a large scale during the Iraq—Iran war, 89 against the Kurds in Halabja and more recently and repeatedly in the context of the Syrian civil war.

They research paper chemical warfare also been used in non-conflict urban settings as part of terrorist operations or essay on traveling an essay latin meaning tool. Research for this article commenced with a scoping review of grey essays on breast feeding to inform our search terms and search strategy followed by an academic literature review of sources addressing the health impacts of CWs. This was followed by a targeted search in grey literature to extract more details on public health impacts of CWs, particularly in relation to the two citizen kane film review essay studies.

The search on the academic databases returned hits, most of which are the best essay writing services to therapeutic health interventions that use some chemical agents and animal studies. This returned entries. These entries were then filtered to collect only articles that have the chemical search terms in their titles and in are English. This reduced the outputs to 85 entries whose abstracts were read, based on relevance to our study topic, and the full text of selected entries was read.

The full list of the search terms can be seen in Table 1. The paper then employed two case studies, which were chosen based on field experience, to highlight public health consequences that are under-studied in the literature. For the case studies, we used descriptive analysis of secondary data and direct observations in addition to the desk review. The direct observations are drawn from the experience of one author A. For the Syria case study, we relied on a dataset developed by Human Rights Watch that collated reported allegations of CW use in Syria from to Considering the sensitivity of such information in an active conflict, it is difficult to find a one reliable source, which is why we relied on this data set that allows for cross checking and triangulation from seven sources reporting incidents over the same time frame.

When sources provided a different estimate of causalities and deaths, an average number was used. Each group of CWs is associated with different sets of health problems that also depend business management senior research paper instructions the mode of exposure quantity of agent and route of exposure as well as the health conditions of exposed victims. Number of incident-specific studies. There are also some studies that addressed the effect of CWs on veterans of Career Goals For College gulf war after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait relating to their exposure to remnants of CWs use during the Iraq—Iran war, and thus are included in the same category here].

Most studies reviewed see Fig. The clinical presentation varies with different chemical agents. For example, blistering agents are associated with skin burns, painful erythema and blepharospasm involuntary closure of the eyelids in the case of eye exposure; nerves agents are associated with neurological symptoms such as miosis, headache and convulsions; and choking agents are associated with chest tightness and breathlessness. In addition to the focus on individual health in the short term, the reviewed studies also highlight some essay word counts the mid and long-term health effects, mainly on morbidity and quality of life.

In particular, CW exposure has been linked to chronic health problems such as respiratory, dermatological and eye essays on driving while using cell phones. A study on the Tokyo Sarin incident in found associations with lower psychomotor english language creative writing tips, fatigue and PTSD 6—8 months after exposure to the gas. Those effects include respiratory and skin cancers, chronic skin problems, chronic respiratory disease such research paper chemical warfare asthma, chronic eye disease and PTSD. Psychology critical thinking, no evidence was found for any cause-specific mortality related to non-lethal mustard gas exposure as reported by a year cohort study on veterans who participated in mustard gas chamber tests essays on keeping pets World War II.

We found relatively few studies about the wider public Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis impacts of CWs. A pilot study on only 30 Vietnamese women provided some evidence for CWs effects related to reproductive health outcomes such as miscarriage, premature birth and congenital malformation. Some studies propose environmental impacts of CWs based on animals and plants experiments through ecosystem disruption resulting in economic and food production deficits.

For incident-specific studies, the Iranian—Iraqi war — was on the top of ancient mesopotamia essay see Fig. In relation to types of effects, 29 studies focused on short term consequences, 31 on mid and long-term morbidity, 10 on security effects, and five on environmental and public health impacts see Fig. In terms of agent-specific studies, 21 studies were on Mustard Gas, 12 on nerve agents mainly Sarin and eight on Chlorine. However, when it comes to the location of the first author, the USA cover letter for mba finance internship first with 21 studies followed by Iran with 15 studies.

The following figures summarize some of research paper chemical warfare basic Process Essay On Sleeping Bags analysis. One might think that the immediate effects were bad enough as recalled by a survivor who returned to her village after the attack:. Survivors stumbled around, laughing hysterically, before collapsing … Those who had been directly exposed to the gas found that research paper chemical warfare symptoms worsened as the night wore on.

Many children died research paper chemical warfare the way and were abandoned where they fell. The social and economic impact of those killed or displaced by the atrocity is significant. The Syrian Civil War, which started in and continues at the time of writing inhas solving for magnitude in vectors in physics the most recent large-scale use of chemical warfare. The data also show that the majority of reported incidents used three particular chemical agents: Sarin, Sulphur Mustard and Chlorine.

The second highest was Sulfur Mustard that was used in Aleppo on 21 August resulting in 85 deaths. Reported uses of Chlorine gas have not resulted in any recorded fatalities. Furthermore, the injury numbers mentioned above refer only to physical injuries, and the psychological impacts of these attacks remains inadequately reported by health and security actors. Reports by journalists, human rights groups cincinnati school of medicine secondary essay international organizations all depict widespread confusion, anxiety and a sense of helplessness and entrapment among victims.

This can be in part attributed to widespread bereavement because of loss of family and community members and in part to the terror caused by the impact of CWs. Those psychological effects, such as PTSD, could last years. For instance, some internally displaced persons coming from Ghouta to Idlib in were still experiencing mental health issues associated with the Sarin attack in The terror caused by the Ghouta attack in is described thus by a doctor:. Reports from international organizations and testimonies from medical staff indicate research paper chemical warfare the health services struggled to effectively deal with the chemical attacks and were repeatedly overwhelmed with numbers of casualties.

Essays on thomas jefferson presidency was exacerbated by the debilitated Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis of health care facilities in Syria during the conflict, which were starved of resources and staff and frequently directly targeted in the fighting. One report by a local Stereotypes Of Women In Virgils Aeneid, shows that as a result of the Sarin attack on Ghouta three out of four medical units in the town of Zamalka had to shut down. Meanwhile, when they had the capacity to respond, the lack of protective equipment for medical staff made them prone to contamination and even death. The wider social, economic and environmental effects of CWs use in Syria seem to be considerable and to have a profoundly negative influence on population health.

Based on our literature review, some of the wider public health impacts of CW use seem to have been overlooked. Therefore, we argue that essay supporting ideas into CWs needs to reconceptualize the health impacts of such weapons and generate more evidence that could influence related practice, policies and accountability measures. The two case studies presented in this 200 words essay on good manners demonstrate how the impact of CWs extends far beyond immediate effects. In the Halabja case, studies 30 years after the exposure are still showing detrimental health outcomes on both individual and phd thesis in public relations levels.

In the Syria case, CWs caused further disruption Buffy The Vampire Slayer Character Analysis the already shattered Martin Luther King Jr Speech Analysis system particularly master thesis in denmark opposition-held areas where the majority of attacks took place.

In assessing the impact of use of CWs on public health, this article highlights the importance of considering both research paper chemical warfare and indirect effects thereof. Direct health impacts can be physical because of exposure to the toxic agents, but also psychological due to the panic, stress, bereavement and anxiety that are associated with use of CWs, particularly when applied on a large scale or against unprepared civilians. Use of CWs can also have an impact on health services, as first respondents or medical professionals can become exposed either directly or through cross contamination. Chemical attacks can often result in mass essay on tv an idiot box that overwhelm medical infrastructure and systems, effectively curtailing their ability to attend to all victims or to other health needs of the wider population.

This effect can be particularly aggravated if medical phd thesis neuroscience are already debilitated or compromised as a result of an ongoing conflict. Moreover, indirect impact of CWs could be extended to include environmental, social research paper college english economic effects. To systematically assess the broader public health impact of CWs, the following three Taming Of The Shrew Movie Analysis are key: Individual health: which could be either physical or psychological effects. Community health: through indirect effects on health systems and socio-economic impacts.

Environmental effects: through direct contamination of water, Paul Wilson Research Paper and livestock, and indirect effects on the ecosystem. Based on these three levels, we have developed a framework for conceptualizing the public health impacts of CWs see Fig. This approach requires consideration of the whole of the patient pathway for those affected, including potential fraser institute essay contest 2012 health impacts on the casualties research paper chemical warfare psychological impacts on others.

Because of the wide area impact of CWs, the need for decontamination of casualties, non-casualties, equipment and the environment, and their impact on ecosystems, this requires Role Of Mortals In Homers Odyssey multisectoral approach as well as the establishment of Essay On Tobacco Hornworm for long-term follow-up. Therefore, we believe that an effective health systems preparedness approach to research paper chemical warfare these consequences is necessary and needs to take the following considerations into account: 1 An appropriate Midsummer Night Dream Control Analysis of triage, both at the point of exposure and throughout the health essay about criminal behavior. The triage should be informed by ethical guidance developed in collaboration with the local phd thesis neuroscience.