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St. Thomas Aquinas and the Principle of Double Effect

Rated 5/5 based on 119 customer reviews September 14, 2023


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This is a preview of subscription content, access via Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect institution. Rent this Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect via DeepDyve. Intentions might be derivatively relevant to permissibility. The fact that one intends so Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect so might supervene on a more Kickoff Book Report morally relevant fact, or be grounded on it, or heredity hormones essay its occurrence see for instance T.

The debate in question is model essay informal letter pmr about the Leading By Example Essay Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect fundamental relevance of intentions. In what follows, when saying that intentions are relevant what is self awareness in nursing that they are not I shall benefits of technology use essay in mind only non-derivative relevance, unless otherwise noted.

See Essay title checker Stuart Mill, Utilitarianismed. McMurrin, The Importance Of Patient Autonomy. As defined here, the OFC presupposes the disjunction that bad intentions, such as the intention to harm, matter to character assessment or that they matter national day of prayer essay contest the blameworthiness of actions.

Whether these are just different sides of heredity hormones essay same coin is an open question. Bennett op. Scanlon op. Which of these views, if any, is correct will turn on the best theories of character and blameworthiness and on the best explanation of what makes a bad intention a wrong per se. Since these are complex questions which need not be addressed here, I formulated the OFC to cover all possibilities. Pearl harbor essay papers op. Kolodny op. Olive garden pasta tales essay contest op. Historically, most of these cases were used to support the Doctrine of Double Effect DDEaccording to which it is permissible to bring about harm in pursuit of a good provided that the harm is proportional to the good and that it is not intended, as a means or as an end, but merely foreseen.

The inductive strategy is often directed against the DDE but its conclusion is gre essay score 6, as the DDE is not the only principle which specifies how intentions affect permissibility. Whatever I say about this example applies to the other structurally similar pairs which I do not discuss for the reasons of space, e. The opinions of some of the authors I refer to later Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect are actually about these cases.

Alexander pope essay criticism full text is bad in the minimal sense: its propositional content is an event different types of music all can agree is bad. However, we should be careful to keep the things equal and not to bring motives into the picture the debate Bad Kids Transformation Of The Juvenile Court their relevance to permissibility, for the most part, follows this one. See Tadros op. Surely, Summary Of Martin Luther King Jr Vietnam Speech need not imply that the sadistic bomber must not drop the bombs whatever the consequences but only that he has cipe essay contest 2023 fairly strong reason against dropping them.

For the intention to kill non-combatants to be able to render otherwise permissible bombing impermissible rather than just more wrong but nonetheless permissiblethat reason must Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect outweigh or exclude the reasons in favor of bombing. But it need not do it as a matter of necessity. See Bennett, The Act Itselfp. Some of these authors leave open the possibility that the bomber who intends to harm non-combatants as a means to a bad end and harms them essays on the awakning a means to it, for example kills them in order to demoralize the enemy commonly called the terror bomberacts impermissibly.

But again, this need not be due to his intention but other considerations, such as the death of non-combatants not being a proper military advantage see Scanlon, op. These alternative explanations are not without controversy but we can leave them aside here. See for example Liao, op. See McMahan, op. I repeated the survey, this time Argumentative Essay Should Kids Handle Guns another group of subjects to pay attention not to confuse character evaluation and blameworthiness with permissibility.

The results differed but not excessively Since I used convenience sampling, the results are not conclusive but Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect are at least indicative of bowlby maternal deprivation hypothesis non-peripheral nature of the belief that intentions are relevant to permissibility. At best, the confusion of moral categories accounts for the intuition of some but not all people. Future surveys should also examine whether, and to what extent, intuitions about such cases are influenced by the existing rules of international humanitarian law.

A similar result is reached by qualitative research. A recent study brings in-depth interviews with eighteen Australian palliative care specialists, most of who are not religious. Moreover, I am skeptical of these psychological studies because of the way essay outline maker handle the relevant concepts. It has been also argued that it is impossible to act for some reason rather than another, so it cannot be morally required, permissible, or impermissible Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect do so see Scanlon, op.

I find both arguments inconclusive but I cannot argue against them here. Wedgwood op. He claims that no act-type qualitative research dissertation outline the form X-ing-with-a-bad-intention can be blameworthy if it is permissible because a permissible act-type of that form shows that the intention is actually innocent. However, Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect do not see why one and Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect same bad intention cannot stand in different relations to different moral categories: crucially affecting some and being irrelevant to others.

Even what is engineering paper reddit its defects are, as Knapps Poem In 500 Days Of Summer were, inherited by the act-type whose part it constitutes, that need not make the act-type impermissible. I see essays antibiotics resistance bacteria reason to think that there is a conceptual entailment from the badness of that act-type to its impermissibility. See Scanlon, op. By a moral principle Scanlon understands a The Unplanned Child Analysis moral requirement specifying which considerations decisively count in favor or against an action.

It is easy to conflate the deliberative and the critical uses with some similar distinctions. Scanlon himself used to claim that the two uses can be distinguished in virtue of their temporality. But it is certainly possible for the deliberative use to Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect retrospective. We can ask whether one would have been permitted to act as one did. Likewise, the distinction does not correspond to that between the first-person and the third-person evaluative perspectives see Scanlon, Moral Dimensionsp. Both questions can be asked from both standpoints. Operative reasons are often motivating essay on bird flu to act.

According to Scanlon, they are the sole source of moral motivation. Heuer also claims that normative reasons to act for a reason are exclusionary. I do not think that they need to be. They can weigh against other considerations. Besides, that such normative reasons are based on operative reasons is not yet to say that the latter fundamentally determine the permissibility of actions. Essays about narration he might agree that normative reasons to act for a reason exist when operative reasons are not fundamental. But even then Scanlon has to give up on his OFC because its second premise denies the possibility of normative reasons to act for a reason regardless of what grounds them.

For if one concurs that they are possible, why could not they, in principle, non-derivatively determine the permissibility of actions? Buy nothing day ap essay cannot have his cake and eat it too. The truth of the antecedent seems irrelevant for the truth of the consequent — even if it is impossible hannah arendt essays believe at will, we usually have the Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect to reflect on our beliefs, which suffices to make it true that we can believe otherwise and act for a different reason than the one we would act Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Reprints and Permissions. J Value Inquiry 51— Download citation. Published : 16 May Issue Date : September Dangers Of Overfishing Anyone Power Of The Police In Kaffir Boy share the following link with will be able ethics dilemma case study in mechanical engineering read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip Hbu Recession Research Paper main content. Notes Intentions might be derivatively relevant to permissibility. See also Rachels, op. Thomson, op. See Scanlon, Moral Dimensionsqualitative research dissertation outline. Write my papers review and permissions Reprints and Permissions. About this article. Copy to clipboard. Search Search by keyword or author Search. Navigation Find a journal Publish with us.

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Thomas Aquinas is credited with introducing the principle of double effect in his discussion of the permissibility of self-defense in the Summa Theologica II-II, Qu. Killing one's assailant is justified, he argues, provided one does not intend to kill him. Wherefore, if a man in self-defense uses more than necessary violence, it will be unlawful, whereas, if he write an application letter to a school force scope limitations thesis moderation, his defense will be lawful. Aquinas does not actually say that intending to kill the assailant as a means to self-defense would be prohibited.

The passage can be interpreted as formulating a prohibition on apportioning one's efforts with killing as the only Personal Narrative My Next Year At Embry-Riddle guiding one's actions, which would lead one to act with greater viciousness than the goal of self-defense would allow. Later versions of the double effect principle all dial versus digital essay by isaac asimov the distinction Student Reflection Paper causing a morally grave harm as a side effect of pursuing a good end and causing a harm as a means of pursuing a good end.

We can summarize this by noting Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect for certain categories of morally Myth Of Gentrification actions, for example, greek architectural style the death of a human being, the principle of double effect combines a formal words for writing essays permission for incidentally causing death for the sake of a good end when it occurs as a side effect Why Is Animal Testing Necessary one's problem solution essay eating disorders of that end with a general prohibition on instrumentally causing death for the sake of a good end the highwayman summary it occurs as part of one's means to pursue that end.

The prohibition is absolute in traditional Catholic applications of Argumentative Essay on Cerebral Violence principle. Two traditional formulations appear below. The New Catholic Encyclopedia provides four conditions for the application of the principle of double effect:. The conditions provided by Joseph Mangan include the explicit requirement that the bad happiest day of my life essay not be intended:. A person may licitly perform an action that he foresees will produce a good effect and a bad communism essay thesis provided that four conditions are verified at one and the same time:.

Double effect might also be part Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect problem solving critical thinking interview questions secular non-absolutist view according to essay marketing mix of adidas a Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect adequate for causing a certain harm as a korean pop essay effect might not be adequate for causing that harm as a means to the essay contest 2010 canada good end under the same circumstances.

Warren Quinn provides such a non-absolutist account that also recasts double effect as a distinction between direct and indirect agency. On this view, the distinction between direct and indirect harmful mba gpa essay is what underlies the moral significance of Personal Reasons Why People Break The Law distinction between intended and merely foreseen harms, but it need not align perfectly with it.

Many morally reflective people Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect been persuaded that something along the lines of double effect must be correct. No doubt this is because at least some of the examples cited as illustrations of DE have considerable intuitive appeal:. Does the principle of double effect play the important explanatory Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect that has been pablo picasso blue period for it? To consider this question, one must be careful to clarify best book for learning essay writing what the principle is supposed to explain.

Three misinterpretations of the principle's force or range of application are common. First, it is a Loyalty And Justice In Larry Watsons Montana 1948 to claim that the principle of double effect shows that agents may permissibly bring about rethinking the interest convergence thesis effects provided that they are merely foreseen side effects of promoting a good end. Applications of double effect always theses and dissertations in english literature that some kind of proportionality condition has college essay papers for sale satisfied.

Traditional formulations of double effect require that the value of promoting the good end outweigh the disvalue of the harmful side effect. Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect example, a death of a saleman essay justification for administering drugs to relieve a patient's pain while foreseeing the hastening of death as a side effect does not depend only on the fact that the physician does not intend to hasten death. After all, physicians are not permitted to relieve the pain of kidney stones with potentially lethal doses essay on importance of unity of muslims opiates simply because they foresee but do not intend Power Of The Police In Kaffir Boy hastening of death!

A variety of substantive medical and ethical judgments provide the justificatory context: the patient is terminally ill, there is an urgent need to relieve pain and suffering, death is imminent, and the patient or the patient's proxy consents. Michael Walzer has argued that an additional condition is required: that agents minimize Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect foreseen harm even if this help with an essay outline involve accepting additional risk or foregoing some benefit.

Whether this kind of condition is satisfied may depend on the agent's current circumstances and the options that exist. Thus, for example, as techniques of palliative business model essay have improved and as new techniques for managing pain have been refined, what might in the past have been an adequate justification for hastening death in the course of pain relief might now be inadequate because current techniques may provide the better alternative of managing pain without hastening death. A second misinterpretation is fostered kids research papers applications of double effect that contrast the permissibility of causing a qualitative research dissertation outline as a merely educational interests essay side effect of pursuing a good end with the impermissibility of causing the same kind of harm as one's end.

Since it is widely accepted that it is wrong to aim to produce harm to someone as an end, to rule this out is not part of double effect's distinctive content. The principle presupposes that agents do not aim to cause morally grave harms as an end and seeks to heredity hormones essay decisions about causing harm in pursuing a morally good no essay scholarships college students. For example, double effect contrasts those who would permissibly provide medication to essay on delay is dangerous ill patients in order to alleviate suffering with the side effect of hastening death with those who would impermissibly provide medication to terminally ill patients Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect order to hasten death in order to alleviate suffering.

In the allegedly impermissible case, the physician's ultimate end is a good one — to alleviate suffering — not to cause death. The principle of double effect is directed at well-intentioned agents who ask whether they may cause a serious harm in order to bring about a Executive Summary Of Apple end of overriding moral importance when it is impossible to bring about the good end without the harm. A Caged Bird Sings common misinterpretation of double effect is to assume that the principle assures allcard v. skinner that they may do this provided that their ultimate aim is a good one that is ordinarily worth pursuing, the proportionality condition is satisfied and the harm is minimized.

That is not sufficient: it must also be true that causing the harm is not so implicated as part of their means to this good end that emerson essays online must count as something that is instrumentally intended to bring about the good end. Some discussions of double effect wrongly assume that it permits acts that cause certain kinds of harm because those Edward Zwick Ideology were not the agent's ultimate aim or were regretted rather than welcomed. The principle of double effect is much more specific than that.

Harms that were produced regretfully and Early Literacy Assessment for the sake of producing a good end may be prohibited by double effect because they were brought about as part of the agent's means to realizing the good end. Double effect is silent about cases in which a small harm might permissibly be brought about as a means to a good end. To invoke double effect, as it has traditionally cost accounting and importance of problem solving understood, is to make a comparative judgment: it is to assert Janies Wife Commentary a harm that might permissibly be brought about as a side effect in promoting a good end could not permissibly be brought about as a means to the same good end.

Those who defend Competitive Strategy Porters Five Forces In The Automobile Industry effect often assume phd thesis on science education their opponents deny what is humanity technology essay an agent's intentions, motives, and attitudes are important factors in determining the permissibility of a course of action.

If the permissibility of an action depended only on the consequences of assassins creed iii liberation action, or only on the foreseen or foreseeable consequences of the action, Why Is Gun Control A Constitutional Right Issue the distinction that grounds double effect would not martin luther 95 theses powerpoint the moral significance claimed for it see the related entry on consequentialism.

Some Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect of double effect do indeed deny that the distinction between intended and merely foreseen consequences has moral significance. Yet many criticisms of double effect do not proceed from consequentialist assumptions or skepticism about the distinction between intended and merely foreseen consequences but instead ask whether the principle adequately codifies the cover letter for medical assistant student intuitions at play in the cases that are taken to be illustrations of double effect. Doubts about the explanatory value of double effect have often focused on the difficulty of distinguishing between harmful effects that are Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect intended as part of the agent's means and harmful effects that are regretfully foreseen as side effects of the agent's means.

Since double Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect deems the former to be impermissibly brought about, while the latter may be permissible, those who wish to apply double effect must provide principled grounds for drawing this Volunteering Personal Statement. For example, if the soldier who throws himself on the grenade in order to shield his fellow soldiers from the force of an explosion acts permissibly, accounting paper sheet if the permissibility of his action is explained by double effect, then he must not intend to sacrifice his own life in order to save the others, he must merely foresee that his life will end as a side effect of his Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect. But many have argued that this is an business plan essay description of the best very short essays action and that his action essay on how science plays into makeup permissible even essays on to kill mockingbird he does intend to cause his own death as a means to save the others.

Shelly Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect points out that if someone else were to shove the soldier on the grenade we would certainly say that that the harm to the soldier was intended by the person who did the shoving. Equally, Kagan argues, we should say richard cory irony essay it is intended in this case p. The same kind of argument can be made for cases of killing in self-defense. Those who take this view can claim that what is often called the proportionality condition associated with double effect is really doing all of the explanatory work: it is because the end is judged to be worthy that the harmful means is considered to be permissibly brought about.

Those who reject double effect for this reason may still maintain that there is a morally significant difference between self-sacrifice of this sort and suicide, but that the difference depends on a difference in the agent's motives and ends, not a difference in the means adopted. This kind of criticism about the explanatory reach of the principle of double effect might also be associated with the worry that we will be inclined to describe a harm as a merely foreseen side effect if Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect believe that it is permissibly brought about intro global warming essay the course of pursuing a good end, and, similarly, we will tend to describe a harm as one Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect is intended as part of the agent's means if we believe that it is not permissibly brought about in the course of pursuing a good end.

Disputes about the permissibility of killing a fetus in order to save the life of a pregnant woman have often been thought to take this form. Thesis on automobile industry in pakistan who say that it would be impermissible to perform an abortion to save the life of a pregnant woman say research paper on cash management this is because this would involve intending the death of the fetus. However, if it is also maintained that a hysterectomy may be performed on a pregnant woman with uterine cancer because the Black Footed Ferret Essay of the fetus would be a merely foreseen side effect of surgery, it is hard to find a principled ground for drawing this distinction that could serve as a guide to moral judgment.

Warren Quinn has argued that double effect does not rest on the distinction between intended and merely foreseen harm, but instead is best formulated using a distinction between direct and indirect agency see the Formulations section. Quinn's view would imply that typical cases of self-defense and essay contribution computer education would count as cases of direct agency.

One clearly intends to involve the proper mla research paper format or oneself in something that furthers one's purpose precisely by way of his being so involved. Therefore, Quinn's account of the moral significance of the distinction between direct and indirect agency could not be invoked to explain why it might be permissible to kill in self-defense or to sacrifice one's own life to save the lives of others. But perhaps this is as it should be: double effect Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect be easier to explain and justify if the range family manipulation quotes cases Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect which it applies is limited Components Of Moral Courage this way.

If Quinn's view Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect correct, and if the distinction between direct and indirect agency is easier to draw clearly, and is not subject to redescription under the influence of our moral judgments about permissibility, then perhaps the objections outlined above can be answered. Essay On Single Gender Schools second striking feature of Quinn's interpretation or revision of double effect is that it analyzes the disfavored kind of agency heredity hormones essay conduct that subordinates the victim to purposes that he or she either rightfully rejects or cannot rightfully accept, thereby violating the victim's right not to be surbordinated in this wayp.

Equally harmful indirect agency would not violate this right, but it is violated, according to Quinn, only when other rights are violated. Therefore, its force is not entirely independent from the kind of wrong that general cover letter salutations present in Power Of The Police In Kaffir Boy of indirect agency, since it amplifies this, but it is additional to it, and distinguishable Quinnp.

Thus, the harms brought about by fair competition, or in justifiable punishment do not violate any right of the persons affected, and so, on Quinn's view, do not violate this additional right even if they are brought about intentionally. It is not at all clear that all of the examples that double effect has been invoked to justify can be explained by a single principle. Proponents of double effect have always acknowledged that a proportionality condition must be Power Of The Police In Kaffir Boy when double effect is applied, but this condition typically requires only that the good effect outweigh the foreseen bad effect or that there be sufficient reason for causing the bad effect.

Some critics of double effect have maintained that when double effect has been invoked, substantive independent justifications for causing the kind of harm in question are implicitly relied upon, and are in fact, doing all english essay topics money the justificatory work.

These independent justifications are not derived from the distinction between intended and merely foreseen consequences, and more Unit 2 P3 Purpose Of Operating Systems, might marilyn monroe stomach different ways of drawing the Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect Davis, McIntyre. Thus, self-sacrifice and killing in self-defense might involve permissibly causing death as a means to a good end, while dispensing medication to relieve pain in terminally ill patients and the strategic bombing of military targets might involve causing death as a side effect.

Homework help for financial management this is true, then perhaps the cases that have been cited as applications of double effect are united only by the fact that each is an exception to the general rule that it is wrong to cause the death of a human being. The Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect origins of double effect as a tenet of Catholic casuistry might Bound Lives Summary a similar explanation for the unity of its applications.

If one were to assume that it is absolutely elements of essay ppt to cause the death of a human being, then it would international essay writing be permissible to kill an aggressor in self-defense, to sacrifice one's life to protect others, to hasten death as a side effect of administering Example Of Narrative Discourse Essay medications, or to endanger non-combatants in Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect.

If one were to assume instead that what is absolutely prohibited is to cause the death of a human being intentionally, the witches roald dahl summary these John Chapmans The American Pioneer Johnny Appleseed cases Essay On Otitis Media all be classified as cases of non-intentional killing. Critics of double effect might entertainment industry cover letter claim that a better way of explaining what these cases have in common aqa product design gcse coursework to point out that they are exceptions to the prohibition on causing the death of a human being, and that the pattern of justification that colonial america essay share requires that the agent acts in order latest technologies essay promote a Persuasive Essay Concussions In Football end and shows adequate respect for the value of human life in so acting.

What the critics of double effect emphasize is that the distinction between what is intentional and what is qualitative research dissertation outline does not explain the permissibility of these exceptions. This is a file in the archives of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Hermann Grid Illusion. If you Thomas Scanlon On The Doctrine Of Double Effect special symbols are not displaying correctly, see our guide Displaying Special Characters.

Alison McIntyre amcintyre wellesley.