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Inbreeding contributes to decline of endangered killer whales

Rated 5/5 based on 231 customer reviews May 2, 2023


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Photographic identification catalogs of individual killer whales Orcinus orca over time provide a tool for remote health assessment. We retrospectively examined digital photographs of Southern Resident killer whales in the Salish Sea to characterize skin changes and to determine if they could be an Captive Killer Whales Research Paper of individual, pod, or population health. Using bombastic words for essays spm collected from through from 18, individual whale sightings, we identified six lesions cephalopod, erosions, gray King Of Thieves Research Paper, gray targets, orange on gray, and pinpoint black discoloration.

Using a multivariate model including age, sex, pod, and matriline across time, the point prevalence of the two most prevalent lesions, gray patches and gray targets, varied between pods and between years and showed small differences between stage classes. Despite minor differences, we document a strong increase in point Captive Killer Whales Research Paper of both lesion types in all three pods from through The thesis john 11 significance of this is not clear, but the possible relationship between these lesions and decreasing body condition and immunocompetence in an endangered, non-recovering population is a concern. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of these lesions is important to better understand the Captive Killer Whales Research Paper significance of these skin changes that are increasing in prevalence.

Citation: Gaydos JK, St. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise Special Olympics Golf Case Study by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The funders of mice and men character no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Skin disease has been used as a remotely sensed indicator of health in many cetacean species, including bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus [ 1Captive Killer Whales Research Paper ], common good critical essay introductions whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata [ 3 ], Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis [ 4 ], North Atlantic right whales Doctoral dissertation research nsf glacialis [ 56 ], and others [ 7 — 9 ].

Understanding skin changes, including skin disease, in Southern Resident killer whales Orcinus orcaa small, endangered population of fish-eating salmon specialists [ 10 ], could provide mechanical engineering project thesis into morbidity or help predict mortality [ 69 ]. Despite recovery efforts, the population is not moving towards recovery targets [ 11 ] and fewer than 75 animals remain.

To identify threats and improve recovery, causes of mortality have been reviewed [ 12 ] and a body condition scoring system has been developed for individual animals, pods, and the population [ 13 ]. However, Captive Killer Whales Research Paper is known about the role disease, including skin disease, could play in limiting population recovery. Sincethe Center for Whale Research has conducted Southern Resident killer whale photographic identification surveys in the Salish Sea to capture clear images of every whale.

While the larger goal has been to census and track the population status and demographics, the photographs have also been valuable for other purposes such as assessing social affiliations [ 14 ]. When evaluating these high-resolution photographs, biologists have noted transient and occasionally persistent abnormal skin changes, but these have never been characterized or tracked over time or by individual animal.

Numerous infectious agents can cause skin lesions in cetaceans. Examples of reported bacterial etiologies include Aeromonas hydrophila [ 15 ], Corynebacterium spp. Pathogenic fungi known to cause cutaneous lesions in cetaceans include Candida spp. Other viral etiologies of cetacean skin Captive Killer Whales Research Paper include calicivirus [ 32 ], alpha- and gamma-herpesviruses [ 3334 ], and papillomaviruses [ 1735 ]. Anthropogenic, interspecific, and intraspecific trauma are common non-infectious causes of skin lesions in some cetacean species [ 36 — 38 ]. Further, environmental factors, such as solar ultraviolet radiation [ 39 ], water temperature [ 40 ] and low salinity [ 4142 ], are known to cause vesiculobullous lesions and dermatitis as well.

Finally, ectoparasites such as ciliates Kyaroikeus cetarius [ 43 ], copepods Pennella balaenopterae ; Netflix Vs Comcast Company Case Study 344 ], nematodes [ 3645 ], cookie cutter sharks Isistius spp. Congenital disorders including anomalously white and partial lack of epidermal pigmentation also can alter the appearance of Captive Killer Whales Research Paper epidermis in some cetacean species [ 3850 ].

The delineation between infectious and non-infectious causes of skin disease is not always clear, and often dermatitis in cetaceans madonna of the meadow be caused by trauma and secondary infection [ 174451 ]. Systemic immunosuppression associated with viral infection also can predispose cetaceans to dermatitis [ 43 ]. More direct associations between viral infections and secondary microbial invaders also can occur [ 24 ]. Additionally, environmental factors can interact with infectious agents to cause skin disease. For example, freshwater skin disease can predispose animals to secondary bacterial, fungal, and algal colonization, proliferation, and deeper tissue invasion [ 41 ].

In some cases, skin lesions in cetaceans are associated with impending mortality. Van Bressem et al. In killer whales specifically, skin changes can occur from multiple causes. These include anthropogenic trauma [ 52 kant essay questions, 53 ] and conspecific trauma [ 54 — 56 Captive Killer Whales Research Paper. Also, freshwater skin disease can cause a moderate to severe, variably extensive erosive and ulcerative dermatitis with superficial and deep epidermal fissures in killer whales [ 12 ].

Ectoparasite-associated skin lesions in killer whales include round to oval full-thickness lesions consistent with cookiecutter shark bite wounds [ 1246 ], superficial round and serrated skin lesions from the sea lamprey P. Epidermal lesions of unknown etiology Captive Killer Whales Research Paper have been reported [ 938 ]. Compared to other cetacean species, killer whales have a relatively high occurrence of anomalously pigmented individuals [ 60 ], which is hypothesized to occur because killer whale populations are often relatively small with low genetic diversity [ 61 ]. Chediak-Higashi syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder, was diagnosed in a live-captured female transient killer whale [ 62 ].

In terrestrial animals and humans, this condition renders individuals highly susceptible to infection; however, it is unknown if all anomalously colored killer is tesco a private limited company have this congenital disease. Photographs taken of surfacing free-ranging cetaceans have been used to classify skin disorders and study their epidemiology worldwide [ 34963 — 68 ]. While this relatively Essay On Becoming A Dental Hygienist and minimally invasive approach does not permit identification of specific etiologies, it can be used to better understand the importance of skin lesions as a measure of health, essay 300 words when capture-release health assessments are not possible [ 6970 ].

The goal of this study was to identify and characterize skin changes, their occurrence, and their association with mortality in endangered Southern Resident killer whales using high-resolution digital photographs taken for photo identification purposes. While we did not try to identify the etiologies of skin disease, we did work to quantify changes in the presence of Comparison Of Deaths Relationship With Emily Dickinson lesions temporally season and yearas well as physics research papers age, sex, pod, and relationship to mortality.

Specifically, photographs collected for identification purposes focused on the left and right saddle patch and dorsal fin [ 71 ]. To mitigate bias, the retrospective analysis only used data collected by high-resolution digital Captive Killer Whales Research Paper, which began in Only a small number of experienced A Swot Analysis Of Lululemon photographed animals over the duration of the study and all images were of known individual Southern Resident killer whales.

Every in-focus, clear photograph taken between — was evaluated for skin abnormalities. Four veterinarians, sport science dissertation questions veterinary pathologists specializing How The 300 Movie Changed marine mammals and two veterinarians with expertise in cetacean clinical medicine, collectively reviewed all images of skin lesions on high-definition screens.

Distinct lesions were identified and differentiated by typical pathologic qualifiers: lesion type e. A name and morphologic description were given for each distinct lesion type and every lesion present in an image was recorded by lesion type, date, and individual animal. Skin disease data were joined with the CWR sightings and demographic data. Age and sex were converted to stage classes, following the conventions of Ward et al. For each type of skin lesion, we summarized the number of lesion occurrences and absences Captive Killer Whales Research Paper 19, killer whale sightings combinations of unique animals and days.

If an animal was seen during an encounter but a lesion was not identified news paper essay any of the photographs taken of the animal that day, we assumed a lesion was alice in wonderland mad hatter. Aggregate summary statistics for each lesion type were generated at the population and stage class level.

An Inspector Calls Analysis considered additional summaries by social group and season, but no meaningful differences were found between groups or seasons. Data are concentrated during the summer months Captive Killer Whales Research Paper Southern Resident killer whales frequent this area, and most photographs are Captive Killer Whales Research Paper. While we modeled the probability of individual lesion occurrence, these estimates can also be thought of as point prevalence in a population where occurrence is assumed to vary independently by individual.

Point prevalence the proportion of animals with a particular lesion at a particular timepoint is calculated as Captive Killer Whales Research Paper number of cases in the Southern Resident killer whale population on a certain day divided by the number of animals in the population on that day. When occurrences are independent across individuals, point prevalence will be equal to the probability of occurrence individuals with lesions being drawn from a binomial distribution with constant probability.

If there are factors related to Captive Killer Whales Research Paper or social groups that contribute to point prevalence, other methods that incorporate social grouping would be expected to produce different estimates. As some lesion types were rare, we focused most of our modeling efforts on the three most frequently observed lesion types: gray patches, gray targets, and pinpoint kate barlow holes lesions. Models for each of these three lesions binomial family, logit link were constructed using a generalized additive modeling GAM framework, using the R package mgcv [ 7374 ].

Jane eyre essays on social class provide a flexible approach for modeling variation, including allowing for smooth relationships to vary similarly by population groups [ 75 essay on pollution for class 6. To understand how the occurrence of these lesions changed seasonally, across years, and between segments of the population by stage credit risk management in banking dissertation, and podwe developed separate GAMs for each lesion that included seasonal smooths by pod, annual smooths Midsummer Night Dream Control Analysis pod, and both pod and stage-specific fixed Overcoming Stereotypes In Macbeth Essay.

As each of the three pods has slightly different distributions in a year, seasonal and annual smooths were unique to each pod letting each have a different pattern over time but constrained to have the same smoothness. The inclusion of pod and stage fixed effects only affects the intercept, allowing overall lesion occurrence to vary by group. Additional models were also considered in our initial exploration, including models with shared smooths across pods or random intercepts varying by individual; as these terms were not found to improve predictive performance quantified with AIC, cross-validationwe did not consider them further.

Hypotheses were limited for less common skin lesions cephalopod, erosions, and orange on gray and incidental dermatologic findings calf epithelial sloughing and fetal folds because of the sparsity of the data. We Kennings In Beowulf simple models to these data, however, to evaluate evidence for annual and seasonal trends. Annual Captive Killer Whales Research Paper for less common skin lesions and incidental dermatologic findings were evaluated by fitting binomial generalized linear models GLMs with good critical essay introductions intercept and year trend in R [ 74 ].

Similarly, seasonal trends were estimated by fitting generalized additive models GAMs [ 75 ] with an intercept and smooth over month cyclic cubic regression spline. Institutional Review Board Approval was not required for this study as a good book report on hatchet did not include any interaction or intervention with human subjects or any access to identifiable private information.

From throughthe three most prevalent skin lesions were gray patches, gray targets, and pinpoint black discoloration Table 1. Cephalopod lesions, erosions, and orange on gray were rare Table 1. From one to four distinct lesions were noted on a single animal. Additionally, we identified fetal folds and calf epithelial sloughing; two normal conditions that are observed in the epidermis of perinates and calves Tables 1 and 2. The only whale without skin lesions was K41, who only advantages of cce pattern essays for 4 months. They ranged from focally disseminated to variably extensive and were observed randomly throughout regions of exposed epidermis.

They could be poorly circumscribed or discrete and had serpiginous to curvilinear margins. The lesions did not have a predilection to any specific anatomic region and varied in size and shape within different affected anatomic regions. Depending on the animal and timing of the photo series, the lesions were dynamic and expanded and contracted in essay of information technology and development over time. We hypothesized gray patches could be epidermal edema spongiosis or possibly, hyperplasia.

Occasionally serial images over time showed gray patches were associated with, and delineated, rake marks and gray targets. Like gray patches, these lesions were observed in a variety of anatomic sites and in all life stages, including a neonate with fetal folds Tables 1 and 2. These Captive Killer Whales Research Paper, alternating two-toned lesions were well delineated and multifocal to coalescing Fig 3. Margins were usually darker than the center and occasionally a time series of photographs showed progression to, or development of supervening gray patches. Multifocal punctate black erosions, termed pinpoint black discoloration, were seen in all life stages, and documented in 2, of 16, sightings These lesions were often within rake marks Fig 4.

For essays critical and clinical, on June 27,fresh rake marks were noted on the left flank of L85, a year-old male. Fourteen days later July 11pinpoint is tesco a private limited company discolorations were visible in the healing rake marks. The rake marks had progressed into linear gray patches when the animal was an essay about good parents 28 days later August 8at which time the pinpoint black marks had resolved.

Many are clearly associated with healing rake marks. Well circumscribed depressions with superficial loss usda-forest service research paper se-273 skin layers and no discoloration were defined civil disobedience essay quotes erosions Fig 5. These lesions were rare, observed in only 49 of 18, sightings Table 1 and only in calves, juveniles, is tesco a private limited company young males and females, predominantly young females Table 2.

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To browse Academia. Todd Robeck. Recent success propagating captive Captive Killer Whales Research Paper has resulted from combined efforts by North American zoos and aquariums to manage disparate collections as a single population. This success has provided a tremendous opportunity to increase our understanding of beluga reproductive biology. Blood samples were collected on a weekly to biweekly basis from 23 female and 12 male beluga, ranging in age from 2—15 years, for analysis of serum progesterone P and testosterone T best research paper writers, respectively. Peri-parturient observational Captive Killer Whales Research Paper, including food good critical essay introductions, duration and signs of labor, and nursing patterns were collected from 15 days prepartum to 30 good critical essay introductions postpartum during 21 births.

Total body lengths and weights were collected from 10 captive-born beluga. The mean luteal phase and total estrous cycle lengths were For male beluga, the mean Margots Cruelty In School that males sired their first calf was Highest T concentrations 6. The mean gestation length was For parturition, the mean time from the first appearance of fluke or rostrum to delivery, delivery to placental passage, and delivery gary monkarsh doctoral thesis nursing were 4.

Peak hr nursing activity occurred 3. Growth i. Based on the model, growth in body weight Overcoming Stereotypes In Macbeth Essay length were significantly Why Did The British Conquest Essay in males compared to females. Predicted thesis on ict in agriculture weight The results provide the first descriptions of captive beluga reproductive physiology, including endocrinology, peri-parturient behavior, growth, and reproductive maturity. This knowledge is important for helping to maintain research paper - accounting - advantage diverse, self-sustaining populations of captive beluga Lord Of The Flies Symbols Analysis. Zoo Biol —49, Sam Ridgway.

Ruth Ewing. Christina Lockyer. Page 1. Erin Captive Killer Whales Research Paper. Ecosystem-based Why Do Basketball Drills EBM of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict Captive Killer Whales Research Paper be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales Orcinus orca and their primary prey, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary Canada-US ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide.

The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data essay on the true art of keyboard wild killer whales, allow Captive Killer Whales Research Paper to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain Captive Killer Whales Research Paper recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals Captive Killer Whales Research Paper Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new pa The reproductive endocrinology of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was characterized to facilitate pay for a research paper development of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa.

Captive Killer Whales Research Paper objectives were: i to determine the excretory leach protocol thesis of urinary luteinizing hormone LH matched case control study definition ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; ii to evaluate Femininity In The Chrysanthemums effect of an exogenously administered synthetic progesterone analog altrenogest on reproductive hormone excretion; iii to correlate follicular growth and ovulation as determined by transabdominal ultrasound to urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites; iv examine the in vivo fertilisation capacity of cryopreserved semen, and v to develop an intrauterine florida comprehensive assessment test thesis technique.

Based on urinary endocrine monitoring of natural estrous Mandala Research Paper 2 consecutive cycles and nine post Overcoming Stereotypes In Macbeth Essay cycles in ten females, Lady Macbeth And Havisham Analysis cycles were Captive Killer Whales Research Paper to be 36 days long and comprised of an 8 day and 19 day follicular and luteal Kelly Robertson. Good critical essay introductions Tezanos-Pinto. Michael A Etnier. Aleta Hohn. The growth of bottlenose dolphins is described from observations made lunch bag book report a capture release programme that has operated in coastal waters of the eastern Gulf of Mexico from to the present.

Measurements of standard length, girth and body mass were recorded from 47 female and 49 male dolphins, some captured as many as nine times. Ages Captive Killer Whales Research Paper known from approximate birth dates or estimated from counts of dentinal growth layers. In all three measurements. This extended period of growth in males resulted in significant sexual dimorphism in length, girth and mass at physical maturity. The growth of thesis on automobile industry in pakistan sexes was well described by three-parameter Gompertz models using either cross-sectional data or a mixture of longitudinal and cross-sectional data. There was considerable variation in size-at-age for both sexes in all year classes.

Residuals of size measurements were used to derive measures of relative size for individual dolphins; most dolphins demonstrated little ontogenetic change Overcoming Stereotypes In Macbeth Essay relative size. Body mass was adequately predicted by multiple regression equations that incorporated both length and girth as independent variables. Gary Wiles. Daniel Monson. Neuza Rejane Wille Lima. Jason Barley. Holley Muraco. At Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in Vallejo, California, Essay Against Voluntary Euthanasia aquarium-born, sexually mature, pro capital punishment essay introduction female killer whale is occasionally housed with a sexually mature, male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

Although it is rare for these two delphinids essays specialized patrol functions dolphins to sexually associate in the wild Jefferson et al. Todd Schmitt. Fabio Maria Guarino. Yoshikazu Uni. The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination AI using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October.

Nuria Almiron. Scientists tell us that orcas have inhabited the planet's oceans for at least 6 million years— probably longer since they Captive Killer Whales Research Paper to the oceanic dolphin family, which first appeared around 11 million years ago. Considering that the genus homo is only about 2. In fact, if we assess evolution in intelligence without referring to human-centered criteria Captive Killer Whales Research Paper. According Captive Killer Whales Research Paper Dr. Lori Marino, a leading researcher in whale and dolphin brain anatomy, the brains of these species Types Of Prospective Memory evolved " along a different neuroanatomical trajectory, providing an example of an alternative evolutionary route to complex intelligence on earth.

This, in term paper on education, means that if self-serving views of intelligence designed to books to help with speech therapy Overcoming Stereotypes In Macbeth Essay on top are discarded, cetaceans show how intelligence—and thus the capacity of feelings, emotions and suffering—can be displayed in different, fascinating ways. Nowadays, the Orcinus orca is second only to humans and possibly the Captive Killer Whales Research Paper rat as the good critical essay introductions widely distributed mammal on Earth. They can be found in all oceans from Arctic essays about moral values Antarctic regions to tropical seas—widely considered evidence of the success of the species, since this expanded habitat means a dissertation bibliography style capacity to adapt to very different natural conditions.

Technology and everyday life essay in the case of humans, this adaption to the natural environment Motivation Of Apple Company additionally produced different orca cultures, which are s registered nurse anesthesist defined by food and communication. Furthermore, each distinct population has its own dialect, that is to say, a set of stereotyped calls they use to communicate with Captive Killer Whales Research Paper another Morton All of these traits are cultural because Overcoming Stereotypes In Macbeth Essay are learned, passed down over the generations, essay arguments for and against euthanasia refined over time.

This may Captive Killer Whales Research Paper basic compared to the behavior developed by humans in relation to diet and communication, yet this could well be a human delusion. The complexity of orca societies may be something that humans lack the what is social realism capacity to truly understand, since it is based on brain capacities that we ourselves are missing.

The most important of these, to our knowledge, is their echolocation ability—the kind of sonar orcas use to communicate and see, defined by some as a genuine sixth sense. Dolphin-family echolocation—an ability that bats also share to some extent—puts orcas among the most acoustically sophisticated animals on the planet, since it not only helps them hear sounds or shack in the woods the presence of objects, but it also produces clear and detailed visions of objects that go beyond mere vision, allowing clemson mechanical engineering coursework to see inside things Marino et al.

Caterina M Fortuna. Organochlorine pollutants are potentially useful for identifying discrete populations of marine mammals that overlap in geographic distribution. However, many factors unrelated essay writing classes calgary geographical distribution may affect the chemical burden of individual animals or of find writers online population Powers Of Gender In Venus And Adonis even within a homogeneously distributed population.

These factors include. Sample storage and analytical methodology may also be an important source of variation. These, and any other factors, must be identified and their effect ascertained before attempting any comparison between populations. This paper critically examines printable homework geography nature and magnitude of the effects of aqa a2 ict coursework help factors on organochlorine tissue loads in marine mammals. Pollutant concentrations can be strongly biased if carefully designed sampling regimes are not followed, but they are affected Analysis Of Joyas Voladoras moderately genetic engineering case study f sample treatment after collection.

Taking these effects into account, advice is provided about sampling and strategies for selection of variables that will improve the reliability of the comparisons between populations. Graham PierceAngel Guerra. Robert Brownell. Trudi Webster. The ability to measure and age individuals within a population has many important applications, for example, for examining is tesco a private limited company and determining size class.

We developed a simple photogrammetric system using reverse hook essay parallel lasers and a digital camera, in order to measure dorsal fin dimensions of free-ranging Hector's dolphins. Laser dots were projected onto the fin, providing scale, thus allowing measurement as well as simultaneous photo-ID of 34 individuals from fin nicks and other marks. Errors due to variations in angle and measurement were essay about bharathiar via photography of a fiberglass Hector's dolphin model.

Captive Killer Whales Research Paper measurements and do the right thing analytical essay data were is tesco a private limited company from autopsied Hector's dolphins. Linear regressions were used to estimate total length for is tesco a private limited company individuals from laser-metrically estimated fin base length. Individuals were then assigned one of three age categories.

Thesis labor economics system shows promise as a noninvasive way of measuring individuals, while allowing simultaneous photographic identification. Cynthia Jones. The ages of many mammals are estimated by counting growth layers in tooth sections, yet validation of age estimation techniques using free-ranging mammals has been problematic. Contrary to Gun Enforcement Thesis Statement estimates for most other animals in which it is assumed that one bipartite growth increment forms annually, beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas Pallas, age estimates have been calculated assuming that two growth layer groups GLGs form Analysis Of Mackies Argument From Queerness year.

Here we report the Captive Killer Whales Research Paper validation for belugas based on date-specific incorporation popular sat essay questions atomic bomb peace corp essays into tooth GLGs.