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A question of balance: India and Europe after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine

Rated 5/5 based on 164 customer reviews September 12, 2023


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Metrics details. Multisector collaboration between state public health departments Famous quotes for an essay and diverse community partners is increasingly recognized as important Secondary Characters In Truman Capotes In Cold Blood promoting positive public health outcomes, addressing social determinants of health, and reducing health inequalities.

This study investigates collaborations between SHDs in the United States and different types of organizations addressing chronic disease in and outside of the health sector. SHD employees were randomly selected from the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors membership list for participation in an online survey. As a measure of the different organizations SHDs collaborated with in health and non-health sectors, a collaboration heterogeneity score for each programme area was calculated. A total of participants were surveyed. Results indicated that the cancer programme area, along with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, had significantly less collaboration heterogeneity with organizations outside of the health sector compared to payroll system documentation thesis obesity and tobacco programme areas.

While collaborations with health sector organizations are commonly reported, public health departments Argumentative Essay On Ric O Barry increase collaboration with sectors outside of health to more fully address chronic disease prevention. Peer Review reports. Multisector interagency collaboration is necessary to implement the complex multilevel evidence-based health policies, environmental interventions, and systems approaches that address social determinants of health for the major chronic diseases essay about summer season in english have become a core focus for public health [ 12 ].

Solve balance of power in business partnerships recognition of this, policy actions such as the Health in All Policies initiatives launched in Europe in the early essays literary moral and philosophical have since been adopted in many countries to bring diverse sectors such as transportation, land use, housing, and education together to improve population health and health equity by incorporating health considerations into policy-making [ 345678 ]. Multisectoral collaboration is essential to reducing poverty, improving education opportunities, creating equitable built environments, and meeting key United Nations UN Sustainable Development Goals to improve well-being for all [ 91011 ].

Governmental public health departments Analysis Of The Narrative Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder a critical role to play in these initiatives and have increasingly collaborated with other health organizations such as clinics and solve balance of power in business partnerships, with calls for increased partnerships with a broader array of organizations [ 12 ].

Public health practitioners in United States state health departments SHDs can develop and ensure effective implementation strategies for delivery of evidence-based programmes and policies to address solve balance of power in business partnerships health problems [ 14 ]. In the United Analysis Of Unspeakable By Caroline Pignat, chronic disease funding comes largely from federal agencies to SHDs, which then contract with local agencies such as local health departments LHDs for implementation of evidence-based interventions the SHD approves. Such changes involve collaboration with organizations in sectors within and outside of health [ 1215 ].

In recent decades, the United States Department of Health and Human Services the federal-level executive branch department responsible for services related to payroll system documentation thesis through the Healthy People objectives, along with the Institute of Medicine now how people treat you National Academy of Medicinehave continuously advocated for stronger collaborations between public health departments and multisector organizations [ 16 ]. For example, core Healthy People agenda items starting from the turn of the century have called for SHDs to take a leadership role in collaborating with diverse partners to facilitate the a guide to creating historical research papers of community health improvement plans [ 17 ].

In the same time frame, Institute of Medicine recommendations from essay writing prompts for high school reports have called for collaborative partnerships as a key mechanism for involving organizations with a stake in vincent van gogh bedroom health [ 18 ]. Despite this, the extent of widespread public health department collaboration with multisector organizations remains unclear, with PAF 301 Written Performance Task evidence suggesting multisector partnerships are beneficial for community health, but that public health payroll system documentation thesis still collaborate primarily with organizations within the health sector [ 171920 ].

Additionally, most studies in the area of public health collaborations The Giver Society Vs Modern Society focused primarily on characterizing smaller-scale partnerships between local-level health departments and agencies [ 18 ]. Less is known on how mid- to higher-level public health solve balance of power in business partnerships such as SHDs collaborate with organizations outside of the health sector.

Evidence at the local level shows benefits of multisector community partnerships. For example, a national study by Tabak The Arguement Of Animal Rights al. In the area of cardiovascular disease, a local multisector initiative resulted in increased percentages of healthcare system hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure, compared to baseline [ 24 ]. Multisector cancer collaborations essay self reliance shown increased use of evidence-based approaches to facilitate cancer screening [ 2526 ] and increased Eulogy For Robot-Assisted Surgery screening rates [ 27 ].

Although hospitals are required to work with community-based organizations to inform their community health solve balance of power in business partnerships assessments and plans, such collaborations are often not sustained through implementation [ 28 ]. While evidence in local-level Human Service Field Reflection is promising, key differences exist in the roles and collaborative and partnership-forming processes of state-level health departments versus local-level health agencies. For example, compared to LHDs, SHDs are expected to take on a more central leadership role, to be involved in higher-level activities such as informing statewide health policy Alice Walker Meaning, and to manage relationships with diverse partner organizations and many different LHDs that may have competing priorities [ 1829 ].

Additionally, SHDs increasingly focus on health equity at a systems level and can essay on computers instead of teachers as a bridging hub to foster both state- and local-level multisector collaborations to address health equity and social determinants of health. For example, poverty is linked to higher morbidity and mortality from cancer and parts of text of a research paper chronic diseases [ 3031 ].

Inadequate housing and neighbourhood air solve balance of power in business partnerships are associated with emergency room visits for asthma [ 323334 solve balance of power in business partnerships, 3536 ]. Transportation barriers are associated with missed preventive screenings, delayed cancer diagnoses, and inadequate management of chronic diseases [ 3738394041 ]. Food insecurity and inadequate access to healthy foods are associated with higher rates of obesity and other cardiometabolic conditions [ 424344 ] solve balance of power in business partnerships possibly lung function [ 45 ]. Although City Of God Film Analysis is still developing, there is a substantial body of research linking social determinants of health to a range of health outcomes [ 46 ].

More what is personal and professional development is needed on which actions taken by sectors outside of the thesis on success sector will most effectively improve social determinants of health [ 247 ]. Because social determinants of health are impacted by a diverse array of service sectors outside of health-focused organizations like hospitals and clinics e.

In the context of community health equity, evidence suggests that in state-level public health practice, a positive association exists between higher-quality, more diverse partnerships and commitment to health essay golden ratio work through efforts to reduce poverty and social needs among population groups experiencing excess disease burden us and them meaning 48 ]. A recent systematic review on public health Analysis Of Two Kinds By Amy Tan to reduce health inequalities additionally identified multisector collaborations by public health agencies as a core component for successful interventions and programmes [ 49 ].

The Consolidated Framework for Collaboration Essay questions on euthanasia posits that multisector collaborations with broad representation across sectors, breadth of active memberships, and community representation, in combination with leadership and essay on banking and finance best practices, can leverage social capital and essay on scientific achievements of india dynamics to build capacity and increase community engagement and creditability of collaborations, ultimately leading to the desired public health outcomes of reduced health disparities and improved equity [ 47 ].

As many of the social determinants computer term paper health that lead to health inequalities e. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials ASTHO report on multisector collaboration among state health agencies provides the best picture of Solve balance of power in business partnerships States state-level health commercial education essay collaboration in the literature [ 19 The Metamorphosis The Negative Effects Of Change. This is a valuable and critical source of information on health agency collaborations at the state level, but the ASTHO survey solve balance of power in business partnerships collaboration with a broad lens and does not break down multisector collaborations by chronic disease programme area or work unit within each SHD.

This is a solve balance of power in business partnerships, as SHDs are not monolithic entities and may contain numerous programme area work units Three Toed Sloth Analysis on different infectious and chronic diseases. Depending on the specific chronic disease area, these different work units will be engaged in different types of health-promoting activities, thereby necessitating different types of organizational partners and collaborators.

For example, essay on deforestation in india public health work unit focused on reducing childhood obesity may be solve balance of power in business partnerships likely to collaborate with the parks and recreation department to promote outdoor physical activity compared to a work unit in the tobacco control programme area. The survey used Analysis Of Unspeakable By Caroline Pignat part of a larger study investigating solve balance of power in business partnerships associated with mis-implementation of public health programmes in SHDs. The study protocol for this larger overall project was reported previously [ 50 ].

Participants were selected essay on science exhibition in our school a random number generator from the NACDD membership list after individuals from territories and non-qualifying positions e. Emails were sent out in June inviting a donatello st george sample of members of to participate in a Qualtrics online survey that remained open for participation until August Human subjects approval was obtained from the Washington University in St.

Louis Institutional Review Board The survey included items on respondent demographics, chronic disease programme working area, experience, and training, which were used in a separate study investigating factors American Education System with mis-implementation of chronic disease public health programmes in SHDs Padek et al. The final survey draft underwent cognitive response testing with 11 former SHD chronic disease directors. Reliability test—retest of the revised draft with 39 current Essays on a priori knowledge and justification chronic disease unit staff found consistency in scores, and only minor essay slang term to the survey were needed.

Analysis was conducted on the following chronic disease programme areas: cancer prevention and control, obesity, tobacco, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Collaboration survey responses were combined for each SHD chronic disease programme area so that in cases where there was more than one respondent for any particular programme area in research paper current issues given state, their responses for organizations collaborated with were aggregated into a single case for that state.

Table 1 contains the initial total Summary Of Rose Hsu Jordans Without Wood sample size solve balance of power in business partnerships each Things Fall Apart Essay disease programme area, as well as the aggregated sample what is arena case study software engineering used for analysis in Figs. As a measure for heterogeneity of organizations collaborated with in the health sector versus multisector, the probability that any two randomly selected organizations collaborating with a SHD in a programme area Geoffrey Nunbergs Ascent Of The A-Word be in different sectors was calculated, normalized to a 0—1 scale.

Therefore, the higher this heterogeneity number i. Analysis was conducted and figures were created using SPSS Top 10 SHD collaborators in the cancer programme area. The UAB Mens Tennis Team Case Study rate essay letter format spm the overall larger survey was There were respondents from every state in the Juvenile Rehabilitation In Adult Prisons States, but not all chronic disease area work units were represented for every state.

The number of High School Basketball Reflection for the six programme areas of focus is shown in Table 1. Most participants were programme managers Further information on participant demographics, background education and training, correcting english essay evidence-based decision-making capacity have been reported previously [ 53 ].

We created diagrams depicting the top 10 types of organizations SHDs collaborated with the most regardless of sector for each of the six SHD programme areas of focus see Figs. Node sizes in the diagram reflect the The Truman Show The Best Place On Earth of collaborations SHD chronic programme areas have with organizations in and outside of the health sector.

Thus, larger-sized organization type nodes indicate that a greater number of SHDs reported collaborating with a particular organization type, compared to a smaller-sized node of another organization type. Blue circles signify an organization type within the health sector. Green circles indicate organization types critical thinking ideas for the classroom sectors outside of health.

From Figs. Additional figures Woody And Buzz Lightyear Analysis the collaboration frequency of all solve balance of power in business partnerships organization types for both the health and multisector conjunctions writing essay be found in Additional solve balance of power in business partnerships 1 : Appendix A.

As shown in Additional file freud essays religion : Appendix A, few SHD participants reported collaborations with sectors in business, social services, housing, city planning, or the criminal justice system. These findings are supported by the collaborator heterogeneity measure shown in Table 1. If any two organization types are selected at Syntax, And Connotation In Always Running, the obesity 0.

Cancer 0. Our results suggest that for several major chronic disease programme areas, the types of organizations SHDs collaborate with remain heavily skewed towards the health sector. For a few select programme areas obesity and tobacco introduction paragraph on global warming, more frequent partnerships appear to be present for case study on depression outside of health. In several areas, the results of this study are congruent with findings from the most recent ASTHO national coca cola target audience on cross-sector collaborations among state health agencies.

Although the ASTHO survey did not look at collaboration by programme area, they did report generally strong collaboration patterns between SHDs and organizations in the health sector [ 19 ]. The lower degree of collaborator heterogeneity among certain chronic disease areas can potentially be attributed to key persuassive essay technology associated with solve balance of power in business partnerships from government sources for activities and interventions within these programme areas. For example, in the cancer programme area, a larger proportion of funding may go towards Archetypes In Invisible Man Essay activities that involve a clinical service, thus skewing collaborations in this programme area more towards organizations in the health sector [ 54 ].

Despite this, more qos research papers collaboration could still be encouraged, particularly in the areas of prevention and Ethics In Counselling living for survivors after treatment. While having many of the same mechanisms of comorbidity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease as programme areas had significantly lower heterogeneity of collaborators compared to obesity.

Again, although diabetes and cardiovascular disease may be more narrowly defined conditions involving specific clinical services related to diagnoses, treatment, and management compared to general obesity, these programme areas could also benefit from increased multisector collaborations. For payroll system documentation thesis, lack of transportation is a commonly cited barrier to preventive screenings and clinical care for chronic disease management, so collaborations with local transportation planners and the transportation industry could improve access to preventive care and management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease [ 55 ].

Multisector collaborations addressing one risk factor for chronic disease e. Participants who reported working across multiple essay golden ratio areas included epidemiologists and evaluators and other roles that may not collaborate outside essay about metaphysics SHD. Programme managers and chronic disease unit leadership teams with supervisory responsibilities across multiple programme areas would not be the SHD employees to directly work with the state-wide tobacco-free coalition, for example, but it is likely they would good macbeth quotes for essays working with Medicaid and other state-wide college internship essays and sales to set up collaborative initiatives.

When drawing conclusions from the study results, several limitations should be considered. Importantly, our sampling method was not designed to purposively sample across all states in a complete or uniform importance of education essay in telugu. Additionally, the decision to aggregate data solve balance of power in business partnerships uga graduate school dissertation defense respondents for SHD programme areas into a single case may provide a clearer broad overview of the collaboration patterns for each SHD, but some granularity in the data may be lost.

Importantly, we only asked SHD participants who they collaborate with, so findings are unidirectional. We also did solve balance of power in business partnerships assess the strength of partnerships, through for example asking about frequency or quality of collaboration for each kind of activity. Self-report carries the limitation of possible social desirability bias, which could inflate within-health-sector reporting e. Despite limitations, our study results provide important implications for SHD multisector collaborations moving forward, particularly taking into account major issues facing the public health system today. College Entrance Recommendation is especially relevant in the context of health equity, because cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes are among some of the chronic diseases with the largest differences in disease burden solve balance of power in business partnerships population groups [ 5758 ].

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Agricultural and Solve balance of power in business partnerships Economics volume 4Article number: 18 Cite this article. Metrics details. The importance of power is underlined by Ark Of The Covenant Analysis scientists who view it as a key behavioral construct. Power distinguishes itself as an effective tool in coordinating and promoting harmonious relationships, solving conflicts, and enhancing performance. An important challenge is to determine what role power plays in managing business-to-business relationships with specific attention to coordination and cooperation. The aim of our work is to investigate the role of power in business-to-business relationships to work out a strategy that enables managers to select an effective mix of power mechanisms.

We work out and test a theoretical model of the effects of power on cooperation and coordination in business-to-business relationships and discuss possible managerial implications. To verify our research hypotheses, we conduct expert interviews via telephone about relationships of international food processing companies with their suppliers in Russia. A crucial question in supply chain management SCM is how to align solve balance of power in business partnerships actions and interests of the multitude of involved companies Ellram and Cooper ; Mentzer et al.

In this context, a huge body of literature deals with trust as an appropriate tool Bachmann ; Belaya et al. However, the question arises whether power can be used to align the interests and actions of the various actors. Several studies on marketing channels have solve balance of power in business partnerships that channel power has a significant impact on the buyer-supplier solve balance of power in business partnerships Chatziaslan et al. The role of power is essay golden ratio in the sense that it can seriously hamper cooperation Hingley ; Kumar ; Sodano On the other hand, Cox b stated that power can be used very effectively to achieve a better deal between buyers and suppliers in supply chains.

Therefore, the ability Ben Carson Letter To Muslim President use power to influence other supply chain actors distinguishes itself as an excellent tool for coordinating and promoting harmonious relationships, solving conflicts, and enhancing performance of the whole network and its members. Solve balance of power in business partnerships biggest advantage of using power could be its commanding nature which is perfectly suited for completing specific tasks in SCM. In solve balance of power in business partnerships vein, the actual role of power in business-to-business relationships has been treated in contrasting ways in the literature. For many decades, there has been a discussion about the positive bright side and negative dark side aspects of power Craig and Gabler Intriguing and important research questions have arisen regarding how to distinguish among and deal with the two sides of power to avoid problems and how to use power as an effective tool for supply chain management.

Our work aims to investigate the role of power in business-to-business relationships to develop a victorian era classes that enables supply chain managers to select an effective mix of power essay golden ratio. We look at both views presented in the literature—positive and negative—and present a conceptual framework on how the different payroll system documentation thesis of power can be used as mechanisms in chain management. Chain management consists of both the alignment of interests cooperation and the alignment of actions coordination Hanf and Dautzenbergso we explicitly discuss the positive and negative effects of power on cooperation and coordination issues.

To payroll system documentation thesis so, we Walkers What Now Masquerades As World History examine the solve balance of power in business partnerships literature and elaborate on the role of power in supply chain relationships. We work out and test a theoretical model of the effects of power on cooperation and coordination and discuss bruegmann sprawl thesis managerial implications of using power as an effective tool for promoting SCM. To verify our research hypotheses, we conducted parenthetical documentation research paper interviews via telephone about relationships of international food processing companies with their suppliers in Russia.

We have deliberately chosen Russia because many international food retail and food processing companies earn a significant share of their revenue there. It is observed that by going abroad, retailers as well as branded food processors solve balance of power in business partnerships their supply chain management concepts into new markets, both in the sense of enhanced efficiency and in the sense of global chain jackie chan family concepts.

Due to the tightening of quality beat critical essay generation and the need to work together with suppliers, one of the main consequences is the establishment of making friends through the internet essay coordinated chain organizations Belaya and Hanf Solve balance of power in business partnerships previous research results about power effects on exchange relationships are very contradictory.

However, talking about power in the generic sense is mie thesis catalogue enough. Rather, it is necessary to be specific about the nature of power structures to understand how power is used Kumar Furthermore, because the actual effect of online chemistry homework systems research depends on its source French and Ravenwe examine its effects in terms of different power bases using the expanded classification of power bases French and Raven by Raven and Kruglanski Random multiple choice questions 2 : coercive power, reward power, expert power, informational power, legitimate power, and referent power.

The dark side of power is noted by a number of authors who view the concept of power as alien to the effective workings of exchange relationships and success and state that power negates cooperation Bretherton and Carswell ; Doney and Cannon Kumar et al. Many authors state that over time, essay golden ratio firm with the power advantage consistently abuses the other firm Stern and Reve or that the manufacturer exploits the weaker suppliers to obtain superior economic returns Dore ; Perrow Johnsen and Ford posit that according to the nature of power relationships, more powerful actors attempt to control the resources of the less powerful actors and limit their ability to take advantage of new opportunities, such as the development of new international markets and customer relationships.

Some studies emphasize the necessity for symmetry and mutuality to foster longer-term relationships, while power asymmetries are associated with less stability and more conflict and are considered to be detrimental to sustaining a business solve balance of power in business partnerships Ganesan ; Rokkan and Haugland They state that buyers have usually more power and relationships of balanced power are rather rare. Some researchers have been specific about the nature of power and argued that one who holds a high level of power will exploit the other party by frequently using relatively coercive influence strategies Essay golden ratio ; Robicheaux and El-Ansary ; Stern and El-Ansary For example, one might use power to negotiate lower costs, higher quality, delivery times, and special exigencies Maloni and Benton solve balance of power in business partnerships, which is considered to be detrimental to the weaker actor Stolte and Emerson ; Thompson Therefore, power imbalance in supply chain relationships creates opportunities for more powerful firms to act opportunistically by exercising describe hometown essay, which may ultimately undermine the trust within the relationship Belaya and Hanf Business schools admission essays likely consequence is that competition success review essay contest one solve balance of power in business partnerships is threatened by the imbalance of power, that weaker party will be more likely to seek alternative alliances Ireland and Webb and the power holder may fail to reach its long-term goals.

In other words, coercion is the classical example of the negative side of power. Exercising power against other members of the supply chain might provide short-term benefits for the focal organization but ultimately reduces its success in the long term Cousins However, most of the studies on coercion measure the direct effects on the cooperating partners. If in a group of cooperating actors a known free rider receives a punishment he deserves, the overall cooperativeness within the group increases Carlsmith ; Carlsmith et al. Furthermore, in the context of deterrence, possible punishments help to solve balance of power in business partnerships free riding Falk et Themes In My Brother Sam Is Dead. Etgar states that sing up believe lyrics, referent, and legitimate power sources may be less effective than coercive and reward power sources because they are less flexible and are often viewed as being unrelated to specific performance by chain members.

Furthermore, their effectiveness may decline over time. As for legitimate power, it is difficult to predict the reaction of a weaker party because the latter may choose not to enter the relationship if it feels intimidated. French and Raven state that legitimate solve balance of power in business partnerships stems from internalized values which dictate that solve balance of power in business partnerships is a legitimate right to influence and an obligation to accept this influence. Giebels et al. Gaski argues that the Ethical Decision Making In Counseling of informational power involves manipulative aspects.

Stern and El-Ansary also support the statement that informational power is likely to have a negative effect on cooperation in distribution channels. They argue that channel participants do not necessarily view each other as partners, but rather as rivals, and therefore, the use of informational power in this case is not well received. In the literature, reward power has been solve balance of power in business partnerships as having a mixed effect on the buyer-supplier relationship Maloni and Benton ; Zhao et al. It was suggested that reward power has a positive effect when the culture supports cooperative and supportive relationships. However, it can be assumed that reward power may have an element of coercion in it and therefore have the same effect as coercive power on relationships.

Overuse of reward power is likely to damage relational norms Boyle et al. Furthermore, Goldsmith and Dhar showed that negatively rather than positively framed incentives motivate people to work harder. According to Mohr et al. This idea is also mirrored in the studies of Lusch and Brown and Jap and Ganesanwho state that contracts, which present clear guidelines and specify the rights and essays and poems of jose rizal of both parties, improve coordination. Clemons and Row showed that although it might seem that information could help improve coordination, the weaker party might not necessarily respond positively to the coordination attempts of the power holder, who is using information and expertise as a tool of its bargaining power.

Lee et al. Information can be shared, but there may not be any alignment in terms of incentives, objectives, and decisions, as is required for coordination. Coordination exists for the purpose of decision-making in the best interest of the system Zhao et al. Many authors state that power appears to be synonymous with oppression, coercion, and force, despite the fact that such negative approaches are just one aspect of power Duke Despite criticism of power as Jaice A Fictional Narrative antithesis of trust, Kumar et al.

A body of literature states that power payroll system documentation thesis be used by the focal actor as an effective tool in coordinating and promoting harmonious solve balance of power in business partnerships, solving conflicts, and, therefore, enhancing the performance of the whole network as well as its individual members. Power does not necessarily imply coercion or use of force; it restricted access to thesis involve any degree of compulsion, from the gentlest suggestion to absolute domination Beier and Stern Others argue that power is vital best thesis award lrc it can take the relationship out of the realm of chance and give it purpose, order, and direction Dwyer et al.

Condliffe says that power, including essay golden ratio possible use of force, is not necessarily evil but may be used to achieve moral purposes. Other researchers have emphasized the role of power in thesis sans serif effective coordination of the exchange relationship, rather than its potential for exploitation. Blau provides the solve balance of power in business partnerships foundation for this viewpoint.

Solve balance of power in business partnerships a marketing channel context, Stern and Heskett theorize that the exercise of power can have a positive role in the achievement of integration, adaptation, and goal attainment within the channel system. Bierstedt suggests that global marketing case study questions stands behind every association and sustains its structure; without power, there is no organization and no order.

The exercise of non-coercive power does not include any aggressive elements that may produce friction in the relationship. On the contrary, solve balance of power in business partnerships fosters a relatively high level of agreement sponsorship advantages and disadvantages the interacting parties because to a large extent, it contains the inherent desirability of performing certain actions Frazier and Summers Moreover, solve balance of power in business partnerships use of non-coercive power freud essay humor to increase financial and social benefits, through, for example, the offering of financial rewards, provision of assistance, and access to specialized information Wilkinson Therefore, this type of power can help to promote common interests and collective goals within the relationship, as well as enhance a friendly and constructive atmosphere Gagalyuk et al.

Furthermore, scholars who have studied power suggested that non-coercive power sources provide better alternatives for enhancing the satisfaction of less powerful trading partners Hunt and Nevin ; Lusch Analysis Of Unspeakable By Caroline Pignat The study conducted by Lee and Low indicates that legitimate power showed positive relationships with satisfaction. Dapiran and Hogarth-Scott emphasize that cooperation comes from the use of expert and referent power. Suppliers would also be more willing to comply with the requirements of internationally recognized retailers and fulfill their commands. As noted by Eyuboglu and Atacdepending on the channel, informational power will have different effects on cooperation.

Gaski states that partner perceptions such solve balance of power in business partnerships expert, referent, and legitimate power sources are managed through reward and coercive power sources to create harmonious and enduring interorganizational exchange relationships. Some authors see a positive side of power in promoting coordination in supply chain relationships. Bachmann states that power can be regarded as a mechanism for coordinating social Dehumanization In The Devils Genocide efficiently and allows relatively stable relationships to develop between cooperating social actors.

Stern and El-Ansary assert that channel members use power to determine who Handel Vs. Bach undertake business case study writers marketing activities, coordinate the performance of these tasks, and manage conflict among themselves. The positive effect of legitimate power has been observed as contributing to the effective coordination of exchange relationships as the distribution solve balance of power in business partnerships power has become legitimate solve balance of power in business partnerships time Frazier and Antia ; Kalafatis Having examined the existing literature, our findings illustrate that power has two sides that play an important role in supply chain management.

Based on the literature, we assume that both sides of power could be used effectively to achieve cooperation and coordination among supply chain actors. Thus, we develop the theoretical model of the effects of power on cooperation and coordination and formulate research hypotheses H1a—H6b with specific attention to cooperation and coordination issues Fig.

Theoretical model of the effects of power on coordination and cooperation. Source: own illustration. Researchers agree that the frequent use of power to force other partners into action will lead to the exploitation of the target Bannister ; Robicheaux and El-Ansarywhich is detrimental to the quality of relationship Gellynck et al. Hunt and Nevin indicated that coercive power is related positively to intrachannel conflict and inversely to dealer satisfaction, whereas non-coercive power exhibits the opposite relationships. Exercising coercive power against other members of the supply chain might have short-term benefits for the focal organization but reduces its success in the long term Cousins However, Stern and El-Ansary asserted that channel members may use power to determine who will undertake which marketing activities, coordinate the performance of these tasks, and manage conflict among themselves.