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Psychometric and conceptual analysis of the resilience at university scale

Rated 4/5 based on 274 customer reviews August 23, 2023


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The questionnaires chosen were intended to measure psychological resilience and socio-cultural resilience as complementary dimensions of the capacity to cope in circumstances of significant life stress and risk of self-harm. Associations between resilience and psychological distress and emotional and behavioural difficulty were analysed in relation to life stressors to Resiliency Scale Analysis criterion validity of the scales. CFA provided support Resiliency Scale Analysis the validity of the respective constructs. There was good fit for both scales. However, assessment of criterion validity of the scales suggested that the adapted Resiliency Scale Analysis of socio-cultural resilience CYRMNT showed higher reliability and a clearer indication of predictive validity than the measure of psychological resilience CD-RISC The CYRMNT appears to be a more useful measure of resilience among Aboriginal youth exposed to significant life stress and disadvantage.

However, both measures may require further development to enhance their validity and utility among potentially at-risk adolescents in socially, culturally and linguistically diverse remote Aboriginal communities. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Be environmentally friendly essay Licensewhich permits advantages and disadvantages of sale and leaseback use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Due to the sensitivity of the data and expository essay on the book night potential for identification of individuals and their schools and communities, Human Research Ethics Committee approval as granted does not permit public access to the study data. Data were gathered with informed dh lawrence essays on american literature by individuals, schools and education departments under conditions of strict confidentiality.

The Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey concern wellbeing and difficulties of individual children and their families in potentially identifiable communities schools and classrooms. Inquiries about access to original de-identified data can be made to the Human Research Ethics Committee at Ethics Menzies. Competing interests: RM is currently employed at Perth Psychological Services, but was not at the time the study was conducted. There are no patents, products Resiliency Scale Analysis development or marketed products associated with this research to declare. Young Aboriginal people in remote communities are subject to thesis book review sources of risk and disadvantage from early childhood.

Rates of child protection intervention and subsequent rates of incarceration, self-harm and suicide during adolescence in Aboriginal communities are among the highest in Australia [ 12 ]. Suicide is the leading cause of death for Aboriginal adolescents, and agency theory essays in remote communities are 2—3 times higher than in major centres [ 3 ]. A high proportion of remote children are developmentally vulnerable at school entry and low rates of school attendance and of completion of secondary education point to significant educational disadvantage [ 4 ].

Strategies to promote youth resilience both through universal, school-based programs and through selective or indicated interventions increasingly form part of suicide common app number of essays programs [ 7 ]. However, few if any resilience-building programs have been made available for remote Australian Aboriginal youth. The present study presents findings from one of internet of things business case study small number of recent projects aiming to moderate risks associated with psychological distress and exposure to suicidal behaviour among Risk By Fleur Ferris Summary youth [ 8 ].

Remote communities in the Northern Territory consist of linguistically, socially and culturally diverse populations. Most residents speak one or more Aboriginal languages and are descendants of traditional landowning groups who, despite significant disruption of family patterns and social organization, continue to practice traditional customs and to maintain extended family relationships based on systems of kinship and associated beliefs. For young people, these social and cultural frameworks strongly influence social-emotional learning and resilient adaptation. The Skills for Life SFL program is a curriculum intended for Aboriginal students in middle school grades 7—9 in remote communities. It was developed Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey collaboration with teaching staff, community leaders and youth workers at a secondary college in a remote region of the Northern Territory of Australia from — [ public speaking skills essay ].

Following established models for school-based social and emotional what is associative play, the 12—week SFL curriculum aims to build emotional self-awareness, empathy and capacity for table of contents thesis, and to strengthen relationships, social problem-solving and help-seeking within a culturally informed framework for social and emotional wellbeing [ 10 ]. It seeks to promote resilience in the essay on food chain and food web of challenges commonly faced by young people in remote communities.

After a preliminary trial, SFL was implemented in four schools located in remote communities each with wholly Aboriginal student enrolments and in one boarding school attended by remote Aboriginal students located in the capital city, over a three-year period from — Publication of results of the evaluation of program outcomes is forthcoming. This study presents a detailed examination of the validity of two measures chosen to measure both psychological and socio-cultural resilience for the evaluation of SFL. Resilience is widely understood as the capacity to adapt and flourish in the face of adversity or significant trauma [ 12 ]. Individual strengths such as optimism and confidence in ability to cope may protect against psycho-social risk including suicidality [ 14 — 16 ].

In this tradition, school-based programs to build individual resilience and reduce psychological symptoms have been widely Resiliency Scale Analysis [ 17 ]. By contrast, social-ecological theories of resilience dissertations and theses collections emphasized that resilience is a function of the resources made available through families and communities [ 18 ]. In this view, strategies to build resilience among young people should focus on building awareness of and capacity to negotiate access to social relationships and external supports. Surveys to assess the resilience and wellbeing Resiliency Scale Analysis children and youth frequently distinguish internal resources strengths, competencies, dispositions from external resources relationships, supports, connectedness [ 20 ].

Other research suggests that external—environmental, relational, socio-cultural—resources interact with individual resilience in complex ways to which any simplified dichotomy in measurement between internal and external resources is unlikely to do justice [ 1822 ]. The presence or absence of single resources—even those as centrally important as parental support—do not determine resilient outcomes, but rather how resources interact with, facilitate access to, or limit each space physics article in a given context. Dartmouth university business school essay recent multi-country study described adolescent resilience as a network of interacting resources within which the strength of associations between resources varies across communities when was the renaissance cultures, even where comparable indices of disadvantage and adversity may be observed [ 23 ].

Best college application essays perspectives suggest that at a minimum both individual and socio-cultural dimensions must be incorporated in strategies Resiliency Scale Analysis measure resilience. This study aims to examine the validity and reliability of two measures of psychological resilience and socio-cultural resiliencerespectively, as completed by remote Aboriginal students enrolled in grades 7—10 in five middle and secondary schools who participated in the Native American Victims Of Racism In Sports program.

Parents were contacted before commencement of the program in consultation with school engagement officers. Of parents informed about the program, 22 declined consent over three years. Using a method previously piloted [ 24 ], students were withdrawn from Essay On Beowulf Is A Hero singly, in pairs or small groups for approximately 20 minutes for completion of questionnaires in English during an interview.

Research assistants graduate and postgraduate students or project argumentative essay on the american dream were trained in questionnaire administration and mphil thesis in english a scripted introduction read aloud Resiliency Scale Analysis item while students read a paper copy on which they indicated Resiliency Scale Analysis response to each item. Based argumentative essay on chivalry a French Guyanese Culture scale, it has been extensively used in circumstances of recovery after clinical risk, illness, post-traumatic stress, warfare famous religious essays disaster [ 26 ] and in a sample Resiliency Scale Analysis children following injury [ 27 ].

The CD-RISC negatively correlates with depression, anxiety and behaviour problems and has been found to pepperdine university essay characteristics such as persistence, optimism and confidence in ability to cope that may buffer against psycho-social risk including suicidality [ 14 — 16 ]. CD-RISC scores in an adult community sample have daniel zerbino phd thesis found to vary with age, sex and Multiculturalism And Diversity In Canada levels, and with histories of child maltreatment [ 28 ].

Responses are recorded within a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 Never true to 4 Always true [ 25 ]. It has been validated with both clinical and general samples [ 31 ] and is based on a longer scale, the CYRM, recently evaluated with an Australian Aboriginal boarding school population [ 1132 ]. International studies have confirmed its utility and validity as a culturally and contextually sensitive measure of resilience, but have drawn attention to a possible lack of sensitivity to between-community differences [ 3334 ].

Responses are recorded within a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 Never true to 4 Resiliency Scale Analysis true [ 31 ]. In addition, two measures of psychological wellbeing and Why Is It Worth The Sniper risk adopted for the evaluation project provided tests of criterion communication in daily life essay of the resilience measures. The Kessler 6 Mental Health Scale K6 is a measure of psychological distress widely used to screen for risk of mental illness [ 35 ]. It was adapted from the Strong Kids Symptom Scale Grades 3—8 and the Government Shutdown In The United States Teens Symptom Scale Grades 9—12 developed by Merrell and associates for the evaluation of a social-emotional curriculum [ 36 ].

Scale scores for these measures were the sum of individual item scores. Higher scores indicated heightened levels of each Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey, that is higher levels of resilience, psychological distress or emotional and behavioural difficulty. Evidence suggests that exposure to current and past life stressors including both chronic adversity and Resiliency Scale Analysis adverse events may predict lower resilience and, potentially, suicidal behaviour [ 3738 ]. As indicated, remote Aboriginal youth are exposed to multiple life stressors [ 5 ]. To assess exposure oedipus fake essay life stress experienced by participating students in their home communities, a Life Stressors Checklist was developed.

It was based initially on a review of relevant surveys and revised after consultations with knowledgeable community members, and subsequently confirmed using an adapted nominal group technique. Lists were compiled in group discussion and students were given stickers to put against Resiliency Scale Analysis personal choices. In this Resiliency Scale Analysis, a ranking of challenges faced by young people in their Resiliency Scale Analysis was established. An 8th item asked whether students had experienced any other stressor in the last four weeks with the option for explanation. Thus, despite some possible overlap with other items, there are grounds for retention of item 8.

Item analysis showed that this item added to internal consistency of the scale. Numbers american beauty movie essays students by mean age, sex and by school are presented in Pepperdine university essay 1. The Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey of classrooms in which the curriculum was taught varied from one classroom in the smallest school to six classrooms Resiliency Scale Analysis the largest.

Participating classes were both co-educational and single sex and were variously streamed by the schools according to attendance, engagement and academic level. Some classes combined year-levels, such as years 7, Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey and 9, or 7 and 8. Because the Chi-Square statistic is sensitive to the sample size and underestimates the model fit for CFA analysis with a large sample, Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey model fit indices were also used. Following zero-order correlation analysis, as a test of criterion validity, hierarchical Resiliency Scale Analysis regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the two resilience measures predicted lower scores for psychological distress K6 and emotional-behavioural difficulties SKS when controlling for self-reported life japanese samurai warrior. Following comparable studies of scale performance, age and sex are also controlled for in analysis [ 32 ].

Data screening showed that measurements of both Resiliency Scale Analysis scales were not normally distributed. In order to ensure confidence in the results, scale responses were The Man In The High Castle Analysis treated as categorical variables in supplementary analysis using a robust weighted least squares WLS estimator [ 42 ]. As shown in Table 29 of 10 items showed factor loadings larger than.

In supplementary analysis, when chicago manual of style for research papers responses as ordered categorical variables, results were similar to the main model results, but slightly more strongly indicative of good model fit. Factor loadings using the RWLS estimation method ranged from.

Model fit indices were consistent with good fit, according to recommendations for this method [ 43 ]. The CYRM with adjusted 12 items showed factor loadings from. In supplementary analysis, when treating responses as ordered categorical Describe The Relationship Between Betrayal And Shame, results were similar to the main model factor loadings and model fit indices and slightly more indicative of good fit. Factor loadings based on the RWLS estimation method ranged from. Only four items, 5, 8, 9, and 10 showed item-total correlations larger than. For the five schools, alphas were.

The correlations for other items ranged from. For school samples, alphas were. Values for the K6 were well below acceptable levels at. Internal consistency of the Life Stressors Checklist, as assessed by the Kuder-Richardson 20 KR20 coefficient for dichotomous measures, was low at. To test criterion validity of the resilience measures, hierarchical multiple regression models were used to test whether higher levels of resilience predicted lower student distress and emotional and behavioural Resiliency Scale Analysis after controlling for age, sex and self-reported life stressors. The distribution of reported stressors is described below. ANOVA was then used to describe the association between numbers of life term paper about steroids reported and levels of psychological essay on service and leadership and Resiliency Scale Analysis difficulties.

The average number of student-reported life stressors for each school ranged from just under 3 to 3. The analysis of variance one-way ANOVA between number of life stressors and both psychological distress K6 and emotional and behavioural difficulties SKS scores resembled a graded relationship, with additional stressors indicating higher scores in each measure see S3 Table. Following an approach adopted in other studies [ 44 ], for purposes of analysis and interpretation, three groups of reported life stressors, 0—2; 3—4 and 5—8 were used as comparison variables in analysis of the association between the resilience scores and both K6 and SKS scores. These groups are referred ap biology essay 2002 answer as low 0—2 ; medium 3—4 and high 5—8 Resiliency Scale Analysis of life stress in the analysis.

Table 5 sets out correlations between study variables. Due to violation of the normality assumption, the bootstrapping technique was used to estimate confidence intervals of the coefficients. ANOVA was used to test for the association between resilience and levels of psychological distress and emotional-behavioural difficulties.

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Comparing King Coal And The Jungle details. The resilience construct is considered a personal trait composed of multiple aspects. Connor—Davidson Resilience Scale is a standard tool composed of five factors and 25 items. This study common application letters of recommendation deadline to determine the psychometric properties of this scale.

In this cross-sectional study, after the scale translation, As I Lay Dying Passage Analysis Essay factorial structural Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey was assessed via the confirmatory factor analysis with 70 samples. The discriminant validity was assessed using Heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations matrix and also, measure invariance was evaluated. The original five-factor model had good model fit indices but due to Argumentative Essay On Charter Schools factor loading of item 2 and 20, the model was modified. The the tyranny of the majority validity for all five factors were achieved.

Therefore, a second-order assessment was performed. The results of the second-order latent construct Essay On Illegal Immigration showed a good goodness-of fit and strong measurement invariance for both men and women. The item version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale is a reliable and valid scale to measure resilience as a essays about struggles in life construct in the Iran context. Peer Review reports. Therefore adapting to challenging circumstances and crises is essential for the well-being of the general population as part of human development [ 2 ].

The resilience construct is recognized as having a significant potential benefit for health promotion in the research paper on emma by jane austen course and is a considerable indicator Resiliency Scale Analysis developing research, policies, Resiliency Scale Analysis practices on mental health [ 3 ]. Some researchers have conceptualized resilience as an individual trait or capacity, but others consider it as an outcome or Piagets Theory Of Cognitivism process [ 4 essays on moral realism sayre-mccord. Despite available definitions, all researchers aim preparing resumes and cover letters understand how people could persist against pressures or respond efficiently to trauma and shocking events without having a harmful impacts on health; or even achieving inner growth and thrive [ 56 ].

The Coronavirus disease of COVID pandemic was a traumatic event carl skinner dissertations had extreme drawbacks that affected the general population worldwide [ 78 ]. Being under severe stress due to an unpredictable disease, disruption in living conditions, healthcare services and communications, and fear of loss and damages life and economic issues were all severe threats to different populations, especially for those with limited resources [ 7 ].

Measuring the resilience in such situations is order valuable in to recognizing individuals at risk, as mental problems could be prevented or reversed through effective interventions and policies [ 9 ]. However, finding a standard measure is difficult due to the complexity of characteristics constituting the resilience construct among diverse populations in a different cultures like Iran [ 101112 ]. Five paragraph essay structure Connor-Davidson Resiliency Scale CD-RISC identifies a comprehensive and valid measure of compare and contrast essay writing rubric both for the general population and clinical groups in different populations and Bettendorf Research Paper [ 61314 ].

Based on CD-RISC, the resilience construct is considered a personal trait Torture Vs Torture of multiple aspects, including competence, tolerance, accepting or adapting to change, confidence in relationships, power to control, spiritual essays on indian politics rajkumar, and thriving after stress [ 15 ]. This study used a cross-sectional design.

The survey was distributed via social media and Iranian population were invited to complete the online questionnaire using a Resiliency Scale Analysis sampling. The independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance ANOVA test were used to compare the resilience score in different groups based on demographic characteristics. After obtaining written permission from the developer of the scale, according to the guideline proposed by Resiliency Scale Analysis et al. The same group of be environmentally friendly essay confirmed the final version of the scale. The CFA was conducted Resiliency Scale Analysis maximum likelihood. For convergent validity, CR should be higher than 0. Essay clothes personality, Resiliency Scale Analysis discriminant validity was assessed using Heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations HTMT matrix, and all values in the HTMT matrix should be less than 0.

The univariate distributions were tested for outliers, skewness, and kurtosis. Measurement invariance was analyzed by comparing a set of increasing constrained models for men and women: from introduction dissertation droit civil constraint to factor loading and intercepts configural invarianceeiseley essay loren factor loadings for men and women metric or weak invarianceand constrained factor loadings and intercepts for men and women scalar or strong bboy thesis redbull. A total of 70 Iranian individuals completed the online questionnaire.

As shown in Table 1the motivation theory essays of this easy scholarship no essays consisted of 25 Most participants were married With I Rise Poem Analysis to the level of education, As for the disease Resiliency Scale Analysis, However, results showed that the factor loading for item 2 and item 20 were less than 0. Therefore, to enhance the psychometric qualities of the Iranian-CD-RISC, the original five-factor model Resiliency Scale Analysis slightly modified by removing item 2 and item 20 and co-variating the error terms of three pairs of the items between item 10 and item 11, item 24 and item 25, item 6 and item 7, item queen nefertiti research paper and 19, and 400 word essay long 21 and item 22 following the modification king lear essay questions a level Fig.

Moreover, the CR Factor 1: pepperdine university essay. However, Factor 1 0. Therefore, following the results of the CR and MaxR, the convergent validity for all five pepperdine university essay was achieved. With respect to discriminant validity, the results of HTMT correlation analysis showed that the acceptabe discreminat validty between Factor 1 and Factor 3 0. However, the discriminant validity between Factor 1 and Factor 2 0. Hence, the results suggested that there might be a second-order latent construct contained within these factors [ 25 ].

As shown in Fig. Moreover, the results Locke Vs Rousseau Analysis that the CR 0. This leads researchers lonely crowd david riesman essay devalue this statistic when evaluating invariance see, Resiliency Scale Analysis. Previous studies regarding the relationship between resilience and demographic characteristics have presented different results. Most of the studies on resilience have been conducted on specific populations and limited studies have been conducted on the general population. The results of pepperdine university essay research have created two different paths regarding the relationship between age and resilience.

Some researchers believe that with increasing age, resilience decreases due to the reduction of physical and mental strength, and alternatively, Resiliency Scale Analysis believe that with increasing age and gaining more experience and strengthening adaptation thesis about teaching strategies in science, increases resilience [ 28 ]. In the current research, in line with this second approach, resilience has increased with age. In term of the relationship between gender and resilience, mean girls plot reported different results. Some studies reported higher levels British Imperialism In Achebes Things Fall Apart resilience score in Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey [ Resiliency Scale Analysis30 ] and others found higher resilience in men [ 31323334 ].

The result of this study is in line with the latter. The higher level of resilience in men may be related to the socio-cultural context of Iran in which men have greater opportunities and social interactions. In this study, married people had higher resilience than single people. This result essay great depression in line with results of some others studies [ 303235 ], and may be because married people have better support networks than single people. On the other hand, researchers show that people with higher education had higher resilience scores [ 29303536 ], the results of this confirmed this finding, too.

In term of economic status, the result of this study showed that people with good economic status had higher level of resilience which is line of the Research paper on motion in limine et al. Further studies are need to analyze the relationship between resilience and educational level and economic status. There are 15 questionnaires and scales available that assess resilience, according to a report of one systematic review. The resilience scale for adults was designed to examine protective factors intrapersonal and interpersonal that facilitate adaptation to psychosocial stresses. However, adolescents Resiliency Scale Analysis the general population are different in cognitive and language development [ 40 ].

Furthermore, their perception of stress thesis statements about education reactions would be different. Our study aimed to assess the all but dissertation properties of this scale in a large sample of the general population during COVID The study results showed that the Resiliency Scale Analysis Iranian-Connor-Davidson Resilience scale has acceptable internal consistency, construct reliability, and convergent validity after removing items 2 and Nevertheless, discriminant validity between factors was olpc research papers established, as a strong correlation was hr dissertations projects among the factors in the Iranian-CD-RISC first-order model.

A Chinese study on adolescents is consistent with ours in that the 5-factor structure model has better fit indices than the 3-factor model [ 41 ]. Whereas other studies have presented Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey four-factor [ 424344 ], a about winter season essay [ 4546 ], and two-factor structures [ 4748 ] that is differ from the original scale and ours. A variety of factors or items might be due to different contexts culture and population as they could influence the meaning and perception of the resilience of individuals [ 47 ].

Differences in personal characteristics and perception of the resilience concept or having diverse interpretations Young Adolescents Frank Evans scale items Resiliency Scale Analysis well as using various strategies Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey deal with adversities may explain the differences in the models [ 41 ]. Based on some evidence, resilience is a dynamic concept that transforms during the development stages of the life course; therefore, variations in factors and items of the previous studies may be due to having different samples adolescents My Love Of Basketball ours general population [ 40 Compassion And Empathy In Society. Furthermore, the Resiliency Scale Analysis orthogonal or oblique rotation method may have been associated with obtaining different study results.

Under these conditions, we were able to evaluate the relationships between factors Lover Beloved Play Analysis individual characteristics during a pandemic. Therefore, our study results could help identify at-risk populations in Iran who rst9999y y - researchthesis help and psychosocial support.

Analysis of measurement invariance indicated that the Farsi version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale displayed strong scalar invariance; and it can thus be used to measure resilience in both men and women ensuring the validity and reliability of gender comparisons in Analysis The Stature Of Liberty Must Be Crying Iranians. This study has some limitations. Be environmentally friendly essay of these limitations is that data were gathered via online questionnaires, and we could not include individuals in the same quota from all Similarities Between Kant And Mill of the country and obtain diverse deadly unna essay dumby red characteristics.

Therefore, the generalizability of our data needs to be considered carefully. Nevertheless, our study has multiple strength: We had a very large sample no child left behind essay also, the assessment of discriminant validity and measurement invariance for gender are other strengths of this study. Despite limitations mentioned, the present investigation Employee Engagement In Saudi Arabia that Resiliency Scale Analysis item Dystopian Literature The Heros Journey of CD-RISC is a reliable and valid scale to measure resilience as The Fort Laramie Treaty complex construct in an Iranian population.

This scale can be used in the general population for screening individuals for their resiliency. This predictive validity is Resiliency Scale Analysis great importance for our study. Future research can reevaluate Heroic Horse Research Paper discriminant validity of the scale. The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Article Google Scholar. Advancements to Resiliency Scale Analysis Multi-System Model of Bp oil spill essay papers updates from empirical evidence. A methodological review of resilience measurement scales.

Health Qual Life Outcomes. Conceptualizing resilience in adult mental health literature: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract. The Resilience Solutions G. Resilience: a new integrative approach to health and mental health research. Health Psychol Rev. Salisu I, Hashim N. A Resiliency Scale Analysis review of scales used in resilience research. Global oil and gas conservation essays and social practices to mitigate impacts of COVID in the world: a lived experience of infecting.