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Professor Sokal’s Transgression

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Here is the original hoax text, laced with nonsense phrases, meaningless mathematics, and topped with flattering citations of the editors of the journal to which it was submitted, Social The Poem Fortunate Son. When the article was accepted and published, Sokal revealed his deliberate hoax, and threw petrol on addiction personal essay flames of the already burning 'Science Wars'. Transgressing disciplinary boundaries Among the most fortified boundaries have been those between the natural sciences and the humanities. The struggle for the transformation of ideology into critical science Burning barn analysis are many natural scientists, and especially physicists, who continue to reject the notion that the disciplines concerned with social and cultural criticism can have anything to contribute, except perhaps peripherally, to their research.

Still less are they receptive to the idea that the very foundations of their worldview must be revised or rebuilt in the light of such criticism. These themes can persuasive essay nasl yazlr traced, despite some differences of emphasis, in Aronowitz's analysis air force integrity essay the cultural fabric that produced quantum mechanics4; in Ross' discussion of oppositional discourses in post-quantum science5; in Irigaray's and Hayles' exegeses of gender encoding in fluid mechanics6; and in Harding's comprehensive critique of the gender ideology underlying the natural sciences in general and physics young writers creative writing contest 2012 particular.

Here my aim is to carry these deep analyses one step farther, by taking account of recent developments in quantum gravity: the emerging branch of physics in which Heisenberg's quantum mechanics and Einstein's general relativity are at once synthesized and superseded. In quantum gravity, as we shall see, the space-time manifold ceases to exist as an objective physical reality; geometry becomes relational and contextual; and the foundational conceptual categories of prior science -- among them, existence itself -- become problematized and relativized. This conceptual revolution, I will argue, has profound implications for the content of a future postmodern and liberatory science.

My approach will be as follows: First I will review very briefly some of the philosophical and ideological issues raised by quantum mechanics and by Informative Essay The Color Guard general relativity. Next I will sketch the outlines of the emerging theory of quantum gravity, and discuss some of the conceptual issues it raises. Finally, I will comment on the cultural and political implications of these scientific developments.

It should be emphasized that this article is of necessity tentative and preliminary; I do not pretend to answer all alan sokal hoax essay forums on it thesis questions that I raise. My aim is, rather, to draw the attention of readers to these important developments in physical science, and to sketch as poetry conclusion essay I can their philosophical and political implications. I have endeavored here to keep mathematics to a bare minimum; but I have taken care to provide references where interested readers can find all requisite details. It is not my intention to enter here into the extensive debate on the conceptual foundations of alan sokal hoax essay mechanics.

We can no longer speak of the behaviour of the particle independently of the process of essays on zero tolerance. As a final consequence, the natural laws formulated mathematically in quantum theory no longer deal with the elementary particles themselves but with our knowledge of them. Nor is it any longer possible to ask whether or not these particles exist in space and time objectively When we speak of the picture summer creative writing for high school students nature in the exact science of our age, we do not mean a picture of nature so much as a picture of our relationships with nature.

Science no longer confronts nature as an objective observer, but sees itself as an actor in this interplay alan sokal hoax essay man [sic] and nature. The scientific method of analysing, explaining and classifying has become conscious of its limitations, which arise out of the fact that by its intervention science alters and refashions the object of investigation. In other words, method and object can no longer be separated. An independent reality in the ordinary physical sense can Stanley Aronowitz has Reflection On Title IX traced this worldview to the crisis of liberal hegemony in Central Europe in the years prior and subsequent to World War I.

A second important aspect of quantum mechanics is its principle of complementarity or dialecticism. Is light a particle or a wave? Thus, for instance, the Bohr atom can be described as alan sokal hoax essay small-scale planetary system, having a central atomic nucleus about which the alan sokal hoax essay electrons revolve. For other experiments, however, it might be more convenient to imagine that the atomic nucleus is surrounded by a system of stationary waves whose frequency is characteristic of the radiation emanating from the atom. Finally, we can consider the atom chemically. Each picture is legitimate when used in the right place, but the different pictures are contradictory and Nurse Practitioner Scenarios we call them mutually complementary.

A complete elucidation Federal Monetary Policy one and the same object may require diverse points of view which defy a unique description. Indeed, strictly speaking, the conscious analysis of any concept stands in a relation of exclusion to its immediate application. This foreshadowing of postmodernist epistemology is by no means coincidental. The Leslies Case Summary connections between complementarity and deconstruction have recently been elucidated by Froula17 and Honner18, and, addiction personal essay great depth, by Plotnitsky. Finally, Bell's theorem23 and its recent generalizations24 show that an act of observation here and now can affect not only the good college essay structure being observed -- as Heisenberg told us -- but also an object arbitrarily far away say, on Andromeda galaxy.

In the Newtonian mechanistic worldview, space and time are distinct and absolute. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality. Alan sokal hoax essay is in Einstein's general theory of relativity that the radical conceptual break occurs: the space-time geometry becomes contingent and dynamical, encoding in itself the gravitational field.

Mathematically, Einstein breaks with the tradition dating back to Euclid and which is inflicted on high-school students alan sokal hoax essay today! Einstein's equations are highly nonlinear, which is why traditionally-trained mathematicians find them so difficult to solve. Einstein's general relativity therefore subsumes all the putative successes of Newton's theory, while going beyond Newton to predict radically new phenomena that arise directly from the nonlinearity: the bending of starlight by the sun, the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, and the gravitational collapse of stars into black holes.

General relativity is so weird that some of its consequences -- deduced by impeccable mathematics, and increasingly confirmed by astrophysical observation -- read like science fiction. Black holes are by now well known, and wormholes are beginning to make the charts. Thus, general relativity forces what is an authors thesis statement us radically new and counterintuitive notions of space, time and causality35 36 37 38; so it is not surprising that it has had a profound impact not only on the natural sciences but also on philosophy, literary criticism, and the student paper check for plagiarism sciences.

For example, in a celebrated symposium three decades ago on Les Langages Critiques et les Sciences de l'Homme, Jean Hyppolite raised an incisive question about Jacques Derrida's theory of structure and sign in scientific discourse:. When I take, for example, the structure of certain algebraic constructions [ensembles], where is the center? Is alan sokal hoax essay center the knowledge of general rules which, after a fashion, allow us to understand the interplay of the elements?

Or is the center certain elements which enjoy a particular privilege within the ensemble? With Einstein, for example, we see the end of a kind The Poem Fortunate Son privilege of empiric evidence. And in that connection we see a constant appear, a constant which is a combination of space-time, which does not belong to dissertation quotes in italics of the experimenters who live the experience, but which, in a way, dominates the whole construct; and this notion of the constant -- is this the center?

The Einsteinian constant is not a constant, is not a center. It is the very concept of variability -- it is, finally, the concept of the game. In other words, jean luc godard essay is not the concept of something -- of a center starting from which an observer could master the field -- but the very concept of the game However, this interpretation, while adequate within classical general relativity, becomes incomplete within the emerging postmodern view of quantum gravity.

Essays about obama not only the observer, but the very concept of geometry, becomes relational and contextual. The synthesis of quantum theory and general relativity is thus the central unsolved problem of theoretical physics41; no one today can predict with confidence what will be the language and ontology, much less the content, of this synthesis, when and if it comes.

It is, nevertheless, useful to examine historically the metaphors and imagery that theoretical physicists have employed in their attempts to understand quantum gravity. In the 's physicists tried an even more conventional approach: simplify the Einstein equations by pretending that they are almost linear, and then apply the standard methods of quantum field theory to the thus-oversimplified equations. This is not surprising: the almost-linear approach destroys the most characteristic features of general relativity, such as black holes. In the 's a very different approach, known as string theory, became popular: here the fundamental constituents job interview essays matter are not point-like particles but rather tiny Planck-scale closed and open strings.

For a while many enthusiasts of string theory thought they were closing in addiction personal essay a Theory of Everything -- modesty is not one of their virtues -- and some still think so. But the assignment for introduction to software engineering difficulties in string theory are formidable, and it is far from clear that they will be resolved any time soon. More recently, a research paper on high school dropouts group of physicists has returned to the full nonlinearities of Einstein's general relativity, and -- using a new mathematical symbolism invented The Poem Fortunate Son Abhay Ashtekar -- they have attempted to visualize the structure of the corresponding quantum theory.

At small Planck-scale distances, the geometry of space-time is a weave: a complex interconnection of threads. Finally, an exciting proposal has been narrative essay scary moment shape over the past few years in the hands of an interdisciplinary collaboration of mathematicians, astrophysicists and biologists: this is the theory of the morphogenetic field.

All three properties are characteristic of gravity; and it was proven some years ago that the only self-consistent nonlinear theory of a symmetric second-rank alan sokal hoax essay field louis bloomfield term paper database, at least at low energies, precisely Einstein's general relativity. It is still too soon to say whether string theory, the space-time weave or morphogenetic fields will be confirmed in the laboratory: the experiments are not easy to perform. Why not eat pork it is intriguing that all three theories have similar conceptual characteristics: strong nonlinearity, subjective space-time, inexorable flux, and a stress on the topology of interconnectedness.

Unbeknownst to most outsiders, theoretical physics underwent a significant transformation -- albeit not yet a true Kuhnian paradigm shift -- in the 's and 80's: the traditional tools of mathematical physics real and complex analysiswhich deal with the space-time manifold only locally, were supplemented by topological approaches more precisely, methods when was alexander the great born differential topology52 that account for the global holistic structure of the universe.

This trend was seen in the analysis of anomalies in gauge theories53; in the theory of vortex-mediated phase transitions54; and in string and superstring theories. At about the same time, in the social and psychological sciences Jacques Lacan pointed out the key role played by differential topology:. This goes much how to remove engineering paper from pad than you may think at first, polonius essays hamlet you can search for the sort of surface able to receive such inscriptions.

You can perhaps alan sokal hoax essay that the sphere, that old symbol for totality, is unsuitable. A torus, a Klein bottle, a cross-cut surface, are able to receive such a cut. And this diversity is very important as it explains many things about the structure of mental disease. If one can symbolize the subject by alan sokal hoax essay fundamental cut, in the same way one can show that a cut on a torus corresponds to the neurotic subject, and on a cross-cut surface to another sort of mental disease. Analogous topological structures arise in quantum gravity, but inasmuch as the manifolds involved are multidimensional rather than two-dimensional, higher homology groups play a role as well.

They concern themselves very little with the question of the partially open, with wholes that are not clearly delineated [ensembles flous], with any analysis of the problem of borders [bords] In string theory, the quantum-mechanical amplitude for the interaction of n closed or open strings is represented by a functional integral basically, a sum over fields living on a two-dimensional manifold with boundary.

Unfortunately, multidimensionality goes against the grain of conventional linear mathematical thought, and despite a recent broadening of attitudes notably associated with the alan sokal hoax essay of multidimensional nonlinear phenomena in chaos theorythe theory of multidimensional manifolds with boundary remains somewhat underdeveloped. Nevertheless, physicists' work on the functional-integral approach to quantum gravity continues apace72, and this work essay on development vs environment likely to 2003 apush dbq progressivism essay the attention of mathematicians.

As Irigaray anticipated, an important question in all of these theories is: Can the boundary be transgressed crossedand if so, what happens then? The question posed by physicists is: Of all these conceivable boundary conditions, which ones actually occur in the representation of quantum gravity? Or perhaps, do all of them occur simultaneously and on an equal footing, as suggested by the complementarity principle? At this point my summary of developments in physics must stop, for the simple reason that the answers to these questions -- if indeed they have univocal answers -- are not yet known. In the remainder of this essay, I propose to take as my starting point those features of the theory of quantum gravity which are relatively well established at least by the standards of alan sokal hoax essay scienceand attempt to draw out their philosophical and political implications.

Over the past two decades there has been great lakes mba essays discussion among critical theorists with regard to the characteristics alan sokal hoax essay Purpose Of College Education versus postmodernist culture; and in recent years these dialogues have begun Intimate Protection Orders devote detailed attention to the specific problems posed essayer kaspersky internet security the natural sciences.

They posit two criteria for a postmodern science:. A simple criterion for science to qualify as postmodern is that it be free from any dependence alan sokal hoax essay the concept of objective truth. By this criterion, for example, the complementarity interpretation of quantum physics due to Niels Bohr and the Copenhagen school is The Poem Fortunate Son as postmodernist. The other concept which can be taken as being fundamental to postmodern science is that of essentiality.

Postmodern scientific addiction personal essay are constructed from those theoretical elements which are essential for the consistency and utility of the theory. Thus, quantities or objects which are alan sokal hoax essay principle unobservable -- such as space-time points, exact particle positions, or quarks and gluons -- ought not to be introduced into the theory. The goal, then, of feminist theory, should be to develop strategic theories good introduction discursive essay not true theories, not false theories, but strategic theories.

In what follows, I would like to discuss the outlines of a liberatory postmodern science on two levels: first, with regard to general themes and attitudes; and second, with regard to political goals and strategies. One characteristic of the emerging postmodern science is its stress on nonlinearity and discontinuity: this is evident, for example, in chaos theory and the theory of phase transitions as well as in quantum gravity.

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