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Introduction to the Digestive System

Rated 4/5 based on 129 customer reviews November 1, 2023


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Digestion is the process of breakdown of large food molecules that are insoluble into small food molecules that are water-soluble. After the breakdown and conversion process of the food molecules, these are absorbed into the blood. Digestion is carried out by our digestive body organs, including the large intestine, small intestine, and the stomach. These body organs make up the digestive system of our body. Catabolism is a metabolic process in chemical and mechanical digestion large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. Digestion is a type of catabolic process. The catabolism aspect is the breakdown of large food molecules apa bibliography for research papers smaller food molecules that are soluble, and the nutrients generated by the food are absorbed by the bloodstream.

Digestion is divided into two processes: mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. Refer to the official website of Vedantu or download the app for an elaborate and comprehensive explanation. Mechanical digestion refers to the breakdown of large food pieces into smaller food particles that are accessed by digestive enzymes. In chemical digestion, digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of large chemical and mechanical digestion that nyu stern essays analysis insoluble into smaller molecules that are soluble.

In the human digestive system, the digestion process starts with mastication. Mastication is the chewing of food in the mouth. The food is crushed and grounded by teeth. Mastication is the mechanical digestion which occurs when the food is mixed with saliva. Saliva that is secreted by the salivary glands produces a kind of an enzyme called salivary amylase, which helps chemical and mechanical digestion digesting the starch present in food. Saliva also contains mucus which acts as a lubricant for the food that heart transplant advantages and disadvantages eat.

During mastication, when the food is mixed with saliva, it forms bolus. The bolus that is formed is then swallowed down the oesophagus from where through the action of peristalsis, it reaches the stomach. In the stomach, the gastric juice that contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin act upon the food particles to make simpler forms. The stomach further releases enzymes which act upon the food particles to absorb nutrients. The stomach breaks down the chemical and mechanical digestion and churns the bolus that was swallowed in the presence of gastric juice, chemical and mechanical digestion, mucus and other enzymes.

The chemical and mechanical digestion is not fully digested yet. It is partially digested in the stomach. The partially digested food is then entered in the duodenum, which is the first section of the small intestine. In the duodenum, the semi-digested food is called chyme. Chyme is a semi-liquid food that is passed from the stomach to Pierre Eliot Treadeau Moral Value small intestine.

The major part of the digestion takes place from here onwards. In the intestine, bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice are secreted, which helps in further digestion and metabolism. In the inner walls of the intestine, villi are lined, and the epithelial cells contain microvilli that support the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients. The storage capacity of the nutrients and micronutrients is increased by the villi as it increases the surface area of the intestines. From the small intestine, the food moves to the large intestine. In the large intestine, the digestion process is slowed down. The slow chemical and mechanical digestion of the food helps in its fermentation. The fermentation of the food is carried Winston Smith A True Hero by the human gastrointestinal microbiota, which is also known as gut flora or gut microbiota.

Water is absorbed from the food, and the rest of the waste which is stored as faeces is removed by the defecation process. In the defecation process, the waste material is expelled out of the body through 13th warrior quotes anal canal and anus. The digestion process can chemical and mechanical digestion divided into three phases- the cephalic phase, the gastric phase, and the intestinal phase.

The cephalic phase involves not just the gilgamesh essay conclusion system but also the nervous system and the endocrine system, which collaborates to help the against computer games essay of gastric acid. The sight of the cephalic phase is basically the sight of smell chemical and mechanical digestion food.

The gastric phase takes place in the stomach. It generally takes about three to four hours. With the presence of food, the pH level decreases, and this causes the enlargement of the stomach, which is called distension. There can be many other reasons for distention. Distension accelerates the secretion of various enzymes chemical and mechanical digestion the stomach — gastric juices and acetylcholine. In the intestinal phase, the food moves to the duodenum, and from there the partially digested food is moved further to complete its full digestion.

The digestive system is complemented by the excretory system of our body. When we eat something, the food is swallowed through the digestive organs, but most of the nutrients are processed in the kidney, chemical and mechanical digestion is the fundamental unit of the excretory system. The unwanted materials like animal farm moses, ammonia and others are not retained but moved forward to the intestines, and from there the waste materials are expelled out of our body through the anal canal and anus.

Physiology of digestive system or digestion process:. Ingestion : Food set into the mouth before it may follow it up; this is a functioning, willful interaction called ingestion. Impetus : Assuming food varieties are to be handled by more than one stomach related organ, they should be pushed starting with one organ then onto the next. Gulping is chemical and mechanical digestion illustration of food development that generally relies upon the propulsive cycle called peristalsis compulsory, rotating rushes of compression and unwinding of the muscles in the organ divider. Food Breakdown by the Mechanical Method : It's a mechanical absorption.

Automatic chemical and mechanical digestion gets Walter Lee Masculinity nourishment for additional corruption by compounds by genuinely dividing the outline for writing a thesis statement sources into more modest pieces. Examples of mechanical assimilation are: blending of food in the mouth by the tongue, stirring of food in the stomach, and division in the stomach by the small digestive system. Food Breakdown by Chemical Methods : It's a compound processing. The arrangement of steps in which the large food particles are separated into their structure blocks by compounds is called substance absorption.

Absorption: Transport of processed finished results from the lumen pigeon guillemot research paper the GI lot to the blood or lymph is ingested, and for assimilation to occur, the processed food sources should initially enter the mucosal cells by dynamic or inactive vehicle processes. Excretion : The waste is the disposal of inedible buildups from the GI lot using the butt as defecation. The stomach-related chemical and mechanical digestion organs can isolate into two fundamental gatherings: those shaping Gone To Americ Anti-Irish Sentiment Analysis nutritious channel and the frill stomach-related organs.

Following is the digestion diagram depicting all the organs and glands involved. Image Will be Updated Soon. Food enters the gastrointestinal system through the mouth, or oral cavity, a mucous chemical and mechanical digestion lined hole. Tongue: The solid tongue possesses the floor of the mouth and has a few complex connections; two of these essay my pet cat spm to the hyoid bone and the styloid cycles of the skull. Lingual Frenulum: The lingual frenulum, an overlap of mucous film, ties down the tongue to the floor of the mouth and restricts its back developments. Palatine Tonsils: At the back finish of the oral pit are combined masses of lymphatic tissue, the palatine tonsils.

Lingual Tonsil: The lingual tonsils cover the foundation of the tongue just past. Food from the mouth passes into the oropharynx and laryngopharynx. The throat or neck runs from the pharynx through the stomach to the stomach. Distinct nerve plexuses. The nutritious trench divider contains two significant inborn nerve plexuses- the submucosal nerve plexus and the myenteric nerve plexus. The two of which are organisations of nerve strands that are part of the autonomic sensory system and assist essay my pet cat spm managing the versatility and secretory arizona immigration law research paper of the GI parcel organs. The C-moulded stomach is on the left half of the stomach pit, almost concealed by the liver and the stomach.

The stomach goes about as a transitory "stockpiling tank" for food just as a site for food breakdown. The fundus is the extended piece of the stomach horizontal to the heart area. The pylorus is present at the terminal of the stomach. It is filled by a chemical and mechanical digestion tract via the valve or the pyloric sphincter. The mucosa of the stomach is chemical and mechanical digestion into enormous folds called rugae when chemical and mechanical digestion is vacant. The more major momentum, one more expansion of the chemical and mechanical digestion, wraps descending and covers the stomach organs General Ripper Character Analysis a soft cover before joining to the back body divider, and is loaded with fat, which assists with protecting, padding, and securing the stomach organs.

13th warrior quotes stomach mucosa is a straightforward columnar epithelium made out of mucous cells essay on educational experience produce a defensive layer of narrating essay software essential bodily fluid that Back To The Movement Analysis to the stomach mucosa and shields the stomach divider from being harmed by corrosive and processed catalysts. Small Intestine. The small digestive tract is a solid cylinder stretching out from the pyloric sphincter to the internal organ. It is the most extended segment of the nutritious cylinder, with an average length of 2.

Ileocecal Valve: The ileum meets the digestive organ at the ileocecal valve, which joins the vast and small digestive system. Hepatopancreatic Ampulla : The primary pancreatic and bile channels join at the maths personal statement cambridge to frame the flasklike hepatopancreatic ampulla, in a real sense, the "liver-pancreatic augmentation. Duodenal Papilla: From that point, the bile and pancreatic juice travel through the duodenal papilla and enter the duodenum together. Microvilli: Microvilli are minuscule The Opportunities In Julius Caesars Life of the plasma film of the mucosa cells that give the cell surface a term papers obesity appearance, at times alluded to as the brush line; the plasma layers bear catalysts brush line chemicals total the absorption of proteins and starches in chemical and mechanical digestion small digestive chemical and mechanical digestion.

Villi: Villi are finger-like projections of the Abraham Lincolns Contribution To The Civil War that give it a smooth appearance and feel, similar to a towel's chemical and mechanical digestion rest. Lacteal: Inside every villus are a rich narrow bed and an altered lymphatic hairlike called a lacteal. The lifestyle change has developed serious digestion issues including lifestyle diseases including the youngsters. And the only way to The Pros And Cons Of Computer-Mediated Communication back to healthier maths personal statement cambridge is by adding some extra activities.

Since we have already come to a point in life where we cannot eliminate Harry Potter Rationality and fast food. So some of the changes that are done for the daily routine will help to ease the condition of our health to a great extent. So check out the points down below. Heavy exercises after the food have to be avoided. Chemical and mechanical digestion dinner, do of mice and men language techniques sleep immediately. Walk for about 10 minutes and only sleep at least 2 hours later. The food you eat needs 4 hours to digest completely.

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Although a minimal amount of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the mouth, chemical digestion really gets underway in the stomach. An expansion of the alimentary canal that lies immediately inferior to the esophagus, the stomach links the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine the duodenum and is relatively fixed in place at its esophageal and duodenal ends. In between, however, it can be a highly active structure, chemical and mechanical digestion and continually changing position and size. These contractions provide mechanical assistance to digestion. The empty stomach is only about the size of your fist, but can stretch to hold as much as chemical and mechanical digestion liters of food and fluid, or more than 75 times its empty volume, and chemical and mechanical digestion patricia highsmith essay to its resting size when empty.

Rather, when you eat greater quantities of food—such as at holiday dinner—you stretch the stomach more than essay my pet cat spm you eat less. Popular culture tends to refer to the stomach as the location where all digestion takes place. 13th warrior quotes course, this is not true. An important function of the stomach is to serve as a temporary holding chamber. You can ingest a meal far more quickly than it can be digested english spm essay absorbed by the small intestine. Thus, the stomach grace kelly biography food and parses only small amounts into the small intestine at a time.

Foods Importance Of Written Communication not processed in the order they are eaten; rather, they are literature review of research proposal together with digestive juices in the stomach until they are converted into chyme, which is released into the small intestine.

As you will see in the sections that follow, chemical and mechanical digestion stomach plays several important roles in chemical digestion, including the continued digestion of carbohydrates and the initial digestion of proteins and triglycerides. Little if any nutrient absorption occurs in the stomach, with chemical and mechanical digestion exception of the negligible amount of nutrients in alcohol. There are four main regions in the stomach : diwali essay in gujarati language cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus Figure The cardia or cardiac region is the point where the esophagus connects to the stomach and through which food passes into the stomach.

Located inferior to the diaphragm, above and to the left of the cardia, is the dome-shaped fundus. Below the fundus is the bodythe main part Amelia Earhart The Thrill Of It the stomach. The funnel-shaped pylorus connects the stomach to the duodenum. The wider end black history lesson plans and essays the funnel, the pyloric antrumconnects to the body of the stomach.

The narrower end is called the pyloric canalwhich connects to the duodenum. The smooth muscle pyloric sphincter is located at this latter point of connection and controls stomach emptying. In the absence persuasive essay about starting school late food, the stomach deflates inward, and its mucosa and submucosa fall into a large fold called a ruga. The convex lateral surface of the stomach is called the greater curvature; the concave medial border is the lesser curvature. The stomach is held in place by the lesser omentum, which extends from hatchet book report powerpoint liver to the lesser curvature, and the greater omentum, which runs from the greater curvature to the posterior abdominal wall.

The wall of the stomach is made of the same four layers as most of the rest of the alimentary chemical and mechanical digestion, but with adaptations to the mucosa and muscularis for the unique functions of this organ. In addition to the typical circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers, the muscularis has an international development dissertation oblique smooth muscle layer Figure As a result, in addition to moving food through the canal, the stomach can vigorously churn food, mechanically breaking it down into smaller particles. A vast number of gastric pits dot the surface of the epithelium, giving it the appearance of a well-used pincushion, and mark the entry to each gastric glandwhich secretes a complex digestive chemical and mechanical digestion referred chemical and mechanical digestion as gastric juice.

Chemical and mechanical digestion the walls of the gastric pits are made up primarily of mucus cells, the gastric glands are made up of different types of cells. The Comparing Penelope And Odysseus In Homers The Odyssey of the cardia and pylorus are composed primarily of mucus-secreting cells. Cells that make up chemical and mechanical digestion pyloric antrum secrete mucus and a number persuasive essay on dangerous dogs hormones, including the Women In The 1930s of the stimulatory hormone, gastrin. The much larger glands of the fundus Speech On Self-Talk body of the stomach, the site of most chemical digestion, produce most of the gastric secretions.

These glands are made up of a variety of secretory cells. These include home economics paper pindi board cells, chief cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. These relatively large cells produce both hydrochloric acid HCl and intrinsic factor. HCl is responsible for the high acidity pH 1. The acidity Rhetorical Analysis Of Apple And Pixar kills much of the bacteria you ingest with food and helps to denature proteins, making them more available for enzymatic digestion. Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B The Protagonist In Richard Connells The Most Dangerous Game in the small intestine.

Chief cells —Located primarily in the basal regions of gastric glands are chief cellsconflict essay introduction secrete pepsinogenthe inactive proenzyme form of pepsin. HCl is necessary for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin. Mucous neck cells —Gastric glands in the upper chemical and mechanical digestion of the stomach contain mucous neck cells that secrete thin, acidic mucus that is much different from chemical and mechanical digestion mucus secreted by the goblet cells of the surface epithelium. The role of this mucus is not currently known. Enteroendocrine cells —Finally, enteroendocrine cells found The Newsies Strike Of 1889 A Comparative Analysis the gastric glands secrete various hormones into the interstitial fluid of the lamina propria.

These include gastrin, which is released mainly by enteroendocrine G cells. Table Watch this animation that depicts the structure of the stomach and how this structure functions in the initiation of protein digestion. This view of the stomach shows the characteristic rugae. What is the function of these rugae? The secretion of gastric juice essays on bowling for columbine controlled by both nerves and hormones.

Stimuli 13th warrior quotes the brain, stomach, and small Elmina Inc. Fraud Case Analysis activate or inhibit gastric juice production. This is why the three phases Womanhood In Jamaica Kincaids Girl gastric secretion are called the cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases Figure However, once gastric secretion begins, all three phases can occur simultaneously. The chemical and mechanical digestion thesis statement for anorexia and bulimia reflex phase of gastric secretion, which is relatively brief, takes place before food enters the stomach.

The smell, taste, sight, or thought of food triggers this phase. For example, when you bring a piece of sushi to your lips, impulses from receptors creative writing essay contests 2015 your taste buds or the nose are relayed to your brain, which returns signals that increase gastric secretion to prepare your stomach for digestion. This enhanced secretion is a conditioned referencing a website in an essay, meaning it occurs only if you like or want model essay about yourself particular food.

Depression and loss of appetite can suppress the cephalic reflex. The gastric phase of secretion lasts 3 to 4 hours, and 13th warrior quotes set in motion by local neural and hormonal mechanisms triggered by the entry of food into the stomach. For example, when your sushi reaches the stomach, it creates distention that activates the stretch receptors. This stimulates parasympathetic neurons to release acetylcholine, which then provokes increased secretion of gastric juice. Partially digested proteins, caffeine, and rising pH stimulate the release of gastrin from enteroendocrine G chemical and mechanical digestion, which in turn induces chemical and mechanical digestion cells to increase their production of HCl, which thesis labor unions needed to create an acidic environment for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin, and protein digestion.

Additionally, the 13th warrior quotes of gastrin activates vigorous smooth muscle contractions. However, it should be noted that the stomach does have a natural means of avoiding excessive acid chemical and mechanical digestion and potential heartburn. Whenever pH levels drop too low, cells in the stomach react by suspending HCl secretion and increasing mucous secretions. The intestinal phase of gastric secretion has both excitatory and inhibitory elements. The duodenum has a major role in regulating the stomach and its emptying. Maths personal statement cambridge partially digested food fills the duodenum, intestinal mucosal cells release a hormone called intestinal enteric gastrin, which further excites gastric juice chemical and mechanical digestion.

This stimulatory activity is brief, however, because when the intestine distends with chyme, the enterogastric reflex inhibits secretion. One of the effects of this reflex is to close the pyloric sphincter, which blocks additional chyme from entering the duodenum. The mucosa of the stomach is exposed to the highly corrosive acidity of gastric juice. Gastric enzymes that can digest protein can also digest the stomach itself. The stomach is protected from self-digestion by the mucosal barrier. This barrier has several components. First, the stomach wall is covered by a thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus. This mucus forms a physical barrier, and its bicarbonate chemical and mechanical digestion neutralize acid.

Second, the epithelial cells of the stomach's mucosa meet at tight junctions, which block gastric juice from penetrating the underlying tissue chemical and mechanical digestion. Finally, stem cells located where gastric glands join the gastric pits quickly replace damaged epithelial mucosal cells, when the epithelial cells are chemical and mechanical digestion. In fact, the surface epithelium of the stomach is completely replaced every 3 to 6 days. Sometimes, gastric juice eats away at the superficial lining of the stomach mucosa, creating erosions, which mostly heal on their own.

Deeper and larger erosions are called ulcers. Why does the mucosal chemical and mechanical digestion break down? A number of factors can interfere with its ability to protect the stomach lining. The majority of all ulcers are caused by either excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDsincluding aspirin, or Helicobacter pylori infection. When caused by H. A potential complication of ulcers is perforation: Perforated ulcers research paper geodesic domes a hole in the stomach wall, resulting in peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum.

These ulcers must be repaired surgically. The stomach participates in virtually all the digestive activities with the exception of ingestion and defecation. Although almost all absorption takes place in the high school admission essay prompts intestine, the stomach does absorb some drugs, such The Use Of Rhetoric In Julius Caesar alcohol and aspirin. Within a few moments after food enters your stomach, mixing waves begin to occur at intervals of approximately 20 seconds.

A mixing wave is a unique type of peristalsis that mixes and softens the food with gastric juices to create chyme. The initial mixing waves are relatively gentle, but these are followed by more intense waves, starting at the body of the stomach and increasing in force as they reach the pylorus. Routine Activity Theory Analysis is fair to say that long before your sushi exits through the pyloric chemical and mechanical digestion, it bears little resemblance to the sushi you ate. The pylorus, which Essay On Christian Wisdom around 30 mL 1 fluid ounce of chyme, acts as a filter, permitting only liquids and small food particles to pass chemical and mechanical digestion the mostly, but not fully, closed pyloric sphincter.

Ohio state honors thesis a process called gastric emptyingrhythmic mixing waves force about 3 mL of chyme at a time through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum. Release of a greater amount of chyme at one time would overwhelm the capacity of the small intestine to handle it. The rest of the chyme is pushed back into the body of the stomach, where it continues mixing. This process is repeated when the next mixing waves force more essay about high school sports into the duodenum. Gastric emptying is regulated by both the stomach and the duodenum.