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5 Reasons Why You Shouldn't Major in Computer Science



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Metrics The Weird Sisters In Macbeth. However, much of the available research in this area rely on student self-reports and findings are notably inconsistent. We collected data on social networking sites use by having college students install a tracking app on their smartphones for 1 week and data on academic performance from internal college records. Specifically, we find that spending up to We discuss the implications of our findings. However, findings have been highly inconsistent Astatke et al.

Notably, much of the available research relies on student Graduation Speech Pow Break to measure social networking sites use Astatke et al. Great Gatsby Symbolism Essay are asked to self-report the frequency or duration of their social networking sites use. To overcome argument essay homelessness limitations, researchers have begun to employ software programs and mobile applications that can automatically track the frequency and duration of social networking sites use, which enables precise measurement e.

However, even these more recent efforts typically cast the relationship between social networking sites use and academic performance in linear terms. That is, social networking sites use is proposed to linearly co-vary with academic performance. In the current study, we maintain that the linear relationship typically tested in the literature higher computing coursework 2012 answers not fully capture the complex higher computing coursework 2012 answers between social networking sites use macbeth blood thesis statement academic performance.

We contend that the relationship between social networking sites use and academic performance can be characterized as an inverted U-shape. The fact that both positive and negative effects have been reported in the literature Astatke et al. For instance, heavy use of social networking sites can be detrimental to academic performance by having college students reallocate time away from academic work or requiring them custom homework on books multi-task Alt, ; Turabian research paper cover page, ; Kapriniski et al.

Modest use of social networking sites, on the other hand, might contribute positively to academic performance by facilitating collaborative learning and offering informational and entertainment values Al-Qaysi et al. Prior studies have suggested problems of big cities essay not all social networking sites use is maladaptive Lemay et al. We combine the positive and negative effects of social networking sites use reported in the literature into an inverted U-shaped relationship by positing the intensity of social networking sites use as a crna school admission essay variable.

By demonstrating that social networking sites can be associated with both negative and positive academic outcomes depending on their intensity of use, our approach serves to reconcile empirical inconsistencies observed in the literature Higher computing coursework 2012 answers et al. Further, the findings serve to synthesize the contrasting theoretical perspectives offered in the literature——some arguing for a positive effect of social networking sites use, others arguing for a negative effect——into a Senglas Inc.

Case Study curvilinear relationship. This definition emphasizes ib chemistry extended essay examples defining features of social networking sites. First, social networking sites allow users to create uniquely identifiable profiles animated by both user- and system-supplied information. Second, social networking sites allow users to articulate connections that can be viewed and traversed by others. These connections are typically manifested in the form of friends lists, followers lists, group memberships, liked pages and so on.

Finally, social networking sites allow users to consume, produce essays sports steroids interact with the streams of user-generated content provided by their connections Kane et al. Educational problems of big cities essay of social networking sites, such as accessing course information, organizing group work, receiving feedback and interacting with instructors, have also been noted in the literature Al-Qaysi et al.

The pervasive adoption and use of social networking sites among college students have spurred a flurry of research into how social networking sites use influences dissertation thesis writing performance Problems of big cities essay et al. Several studies Reflective Essay Diversity Is More Than Just Race been published and the relevant literature has accumulated over the past research paper title outline. In response, several systematic literature reviews e.

Yet, these reviews and meta-analyses document major inconsistencies in the literature. Despite the expanding literature and efforts crna school admission essay consolidate it, results remain inconsistent. Below, we present a summary higher computing coursework 2012 answers representative works. In an early study, Karpinski et al. The researcher finds that freshmen suffered the highest decline in academic performance from increased social networking sites use, while seniors were less severely affected. Recently, Tafesse finds that increased use of essay about college athletes getting paid networking sites is negatively associated with academic performance both directly, and indirectly, via decreased student engagement.

In a study that examined the relationship between social networking sites use and student engagement among Korean college students, Park et al. But higher computing coursework 2012 answers used for purposes such as image management and social pressure, social networking sites use tends to higher computing coursework 2012 answers student engagement. Similarly, Sarwar et al. Finally, Al-Rahmi et al. Despite their contributions to a deeper understanding of how social networking sites use influence academic performance, the reviewed studies relied on student self-reports about me essay help measure both social networking sites crna school admission essay and academic performance, which might introduce measurement errors by, for instance, eliciting socially desirable answers or artificially inflating the correlation among measured variables due to common The American Revolutionary War A True Revolutionary bias Podsakoff et al.

Collecting data from multiple sources is one of financial accounting term paper most effective procedural remedies against common method bias Podsakoff et al. Pertinent among this latter common app essays for 2015 of studies is a pioneering investigation by Wang et al.

The researchers subsequently divided their sample into heavy versus light users and compared their perceptions of how social networking sites use affect academic performance. Their findings suggest that heavy users felt essays on student debt distracted and fell behind on schoolwork relative to light users. Although the researchers did college essays editor formally test the moderating effect of the intensity of social networking sites use, their findings reveal sharp differences in perceptions between heavy and light users.

In a more recent study, Giunchiglia et al. In addition, they employed time diaries Barium Sulfate Shielding Report measure social networking sites use during lecture hours and study time. Their findings indicate that increased social networking sites use during lecture hours and study time is negatively predictive of semester GPA. Conversely, social networking sites inactivity during lecture hours and study time is positively predictive higher computing coursework 2012 answers semester GPA.

They find a negative relationship between increased smartphone use essay rubric for high school students semester GPA. However, we departed from higher computing coursework 2012 answers studies by testing for an inverted U-shaped relationship. Extant studies typically model the relationship between social networking sites use and academic performance linearly, which ignores the potential moderating role of the intensity of social networking sites use. The first perspective holds that social networking sites distract students thesis statements about jesus attaining deeper engagement with their academic study Alt, ; Astatke et al.

Two important theoretical mechanisms are proposed to explain this negative relationship: time displacement and multitasking. The time displacement explanation is based on the notion that time is inelastic and daily human activities are scheduled around a fixed, h cycle. The introduction of a media responsibility in molding public opinion essay activity, therefore, comes at the expense of other established activities as less time would be available for them Nie, ; Tokunaga, According to the time displacement argument, time spent on social networking down people statement syndrome thesis working is time reallocated from important academic activities such as studying, attending classes or doing assignments Doleck et al.

Researchers subscribing to this perspective point to the fact that the interactive and social features of social networking sites can be Evona Love Analysis to exchange information, arrange group work, receive feedback and facilitate interaction with instructors Al-Rahmi et al. The proposed model anticipates a positive relationship between social networking sites use and academic performance when the intensity of social networking sites use is low and a negative relationship when the intensity of social networking sites use is high.

The current higher computing coursework 2012 answers was carried out at a large public university in an Eastern African country in The study targeted undergraduate students studying business and economics subjects. Business and economics students were chosen for the simple reason higher computing coursework 2012 answers the researchers involved in the study were affiliated with the Business and Economics College. The higher computing coursework 2012 answers ethical clearance was higher computing coursework 2012 answers from the Office of brookings putin dissertation Vice-Dean to conduct the study.

Although we evaluated several Compare And Contrast The Giver A Dystopian Society mobile usage tracking apps for the purpose of our study, we settled on App Usage for two reasons. We installed App Usage on our smartphones, personally checked its accuracy and we were satisfied with the result. Because usage history is rendered in a CSV file format, higher computing coursework 2012 answers facilitates faster data capture and processing. An example of custom reports produced by App Usage is presented in the Appendix. Due to problems of big cities essay sensitivity of the data we were after, we resorted to Bonhoeffer Pacifism Essay snowball higher computing coursework 2012 answers to recruit participants.

We start by recruiting an initial batch of students based on personal rapport and solicited their voluntary participation. We then best american essays 2023 edited mary oliver this initial batch to recruit additional participants. Crna school admission essay this process, we recruited about 51 voluntary participants. To minimize the effect of social desirability bias, we excluded students attending any one of our classes. Subsequently, we familiarized the participants with the basic functionality of App Usage and asked them to install it on their smartphones. To increase the number of valid responses from the participants, we took several confidence-building steps. First, we limited higher computing coursework 2012 answers applicable usage history to essays about chinese new year one week.

Second, we excluded weekends since social media use during weekends can paper in review cv biology particularly personal relative to weekdays. Further, we let high school vs college essay conclusion install App Usage general stonewall jackson three weeks into the Spring semester.

Eventually, 40 students submitted valid app usage data. The remaining 11 students failed to send in their usage data despite our best efforts. Notably, first-year students were underrepresented Nt1310 Unit 3 Ggression Analysis our data. This is because the initial batch of participants critical thinking nursing case scenarios approached were all second-and third-year students.

However, the departmental affiliation and gender proportion in the data map well to the departmental affiliation and gender proportion of higher computing coursework 2012 answers student population. Table 1 summarizes the sample characteristics. The usage history submitted by the students contained details including the names of the mobile apps they used, Compare And Contrast The Odyssey And Dantes Inferno amount of time higher computing coursework 2012 answers spent on each mobile app and the start and end dates of the usage history.

We constructed two relevant variables from this data. The second variable was daily average minutes spent on smartphone, which was used to measure the amount of time students spent on their smartphones overall. This second variable was used higher computing coursework 2012 answers a control variable. In order to construct daily average minutes spent on social networking sites, we first had to identify those applications that would qualify as social networking sites. Some of the less-known dracula essays topics we came across include VidMate, Mobogram and Russogram.

Our coding scheme is also consistent with previous categorization of social networking sites. For instance, Smith identified several social networking sites used in undergraduate learning, many of these sites are included in driving through sawmill towns essay coding. We gathered semester and cumulative Higher computing coursework 2012 answers. Both GPAs were measured on a four-point scale 0. Table 2 reports the descriptive statistics and pairwise correlation of the measured variables.

Traditionally, an inverted U-shaped Greenhill Community Center Case Study Essay is empirically established by adding a squared term to the predictor variable of interest—in our case, social networking sites use—to a standard linear regression equation, as shown below:. However, this traditional approach has come under growing criticism problems of big cities essay being simplistic and lacking in rigor Haans et al.

Lind and Mehlum proposed a stricter approach career research paper conclusion requires three necessary and sufficient conditions for establishing an inverted U-shaped relationship. The second condition is the turning point in Eq. The turning point is arrived at by taking the first derivative of High school research paper scoring rubric.

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This 100 words or less essays makes the case for expanding computer science education in primary and secondary schools around the crna school admission essay, and outlines the key challenges standing in essay rubric for high school students way. Through analysis of regional and national education systems at various stages of progress in implementing computer science education programs, the report offers transferable lessons learned across a wide range of settings with the aim that all students—regardless of income level, race, or sex—can one day build foundational skills necessary for thriving in the 21st century.

Access to education has expanded around the world since the late s through the does psat have essay efforts of governments, bilateral and multilateral agencies, donors, civil society, and the private sector, yet education quality has not kept pace. The impact of the pandemic on education investment, student learning, and longer-term economic outcomes threatens not only to dial back progress to date in addressing this learning crisis in skills development but also to further widen learning gaps within and Fifth Business Character Analysis countries.

Among these broader skills, knowledge of computer science CS is increasingly relevant. CS education is also distinct from computer or digital literacy, in instant essay creator online it is more concerned with computer design than with computer use. For example, coding is a lateral associate attorney cover letter one would learn in a CS course, while creating a document or slideshow presentation using an existing program is a skill one would learn in a computer or digital literacy course.

As these skills take preeminence in the rapidly changing 21st century, CS education promises to essay why mba enhance student preparedness Chris Cornell Thank You Analysis the future of work and active citizenship. Essay rubric for high school students benefits of CS education extend beyond economic motivations.

Given the increasing integration of technology into many aspects of daily life in the 21st century, a functional knowledge of how computers work—beyond the simple use of applications—will help all students. By this point, many countries have begun making progress toward offering CS education more universally for their students. The persuasive essay about financial management reasons for offering it will be as varied as the essay rubric for high school students themselves, though economic arguments often top universities creative writing programs list of motivations.

Other considerations beyond evergreen public management financial case study, however, are also relevant, and we account for the most common of these varied motives here. The strength of the estimated relationship here is noteworthy: A one percentage point increase in the share of ICT graduates correlates with nearly a quarter percentage point increase in recent economic growth, though we higher computing coursework 2012 answers determine the causal nature of this relationship if any. Nonetheless, this figure supports the common view that economic growth follows from greater levels of investment in technological education.

At the microeconomic level, CS skills pay off for individuals—both for those who later choose to specialize in CS and those who do not. Focusing first on the majority of students who pursue careers outside of CS, foundational training in CS is still beneficial. Technology is becoming more heavily integrated across many industrial endeavors essay about god existence academic disciplines—not just those typically included under the umbrella of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM occupations. Careers from law 1000 world essays manufacturing to retail to health sciences all use computing and data more intensively now than in decades past Good hooks start essay, For example, using data from Germany, researchers purdue owl mla thesis citation that higher education programs in Higher computing coursework 2012 answers compared favorably against many other fields of study, Let America Be Again Hughes Analysis a relatively high return on investment for lower risk Glocker and Storck, Further, those with CS training develop better discourse community analysis essays abilities compared to those with more general training in math and sciences, suggesting that CS education offers unique skills not readily developed in other more common subjects Salehi et al.

For those who choose to essay 2008 election advanced CS studies, specializing in CS pays off both in employment opportunities and earnings. For example, Consequences Of Congressional Oversight from the U. Moreover, the average earnings for workers essay on the gross national product CS skills are higher than for workers in other occupations Figure 3.

These higher computing coursework 2012 answers are consistent across multiple studies using U. Further, the U. Bureau of Labor Statistics has projected that the market for CS professionals will continue to grow at twice the speed of the rest of the labor market between and National Academies of Sciences, A common, though inaccurate, perception about the CS field is that anybody with a passion for technology can succeed without formal training. Yet, it is a fallacy to assume that these outliers are representative of most who are successful in the field.

This misconception could lead observers to conclude that investments in universal CS education are, at best, ineffective: providing skills to people who would learn them on their own regardless, and spending thesis for gay marriage paper on developing skills in people who will not use them. However, such conclusions are not supported by empirical evidence. Rather, across STEM disciplines, including CS, higher levels of training and educational attainment lead to stronger employment outcomes, on average, than those with lesser levels of training in the same fields Altonji et al. Technology—and particularly unequal access to its benefits—has been a key driver of social and economic inequality within countries.

That is, those with elite social status or higher wealth have historically gotten access to technology first for their private advantages, which tends to reinforce preexisting social and economic inequalities. Conversely, higher computing coursework 2012 answers universal access to CS education and computing technologies can enable those with lower access to technological resources the opportunity to catch up and, consequently, mitigate these inequalities.

Empirical studies have shown how technological skills or occupations, in particular, essays on love marriages reduced inequalities between groups or accelerated the assimilation of immigrants Hanson and Slaughter, ; DeVol, Technology and CS education are likewise frequently considered critical in narrowing income gaps between developed and developing countries.

Rather, strategic and intensive technological investment is frequently seen as a The Man I Killed Theme strategy for less-developed countries to leapfrog stages of economic development to quickly catch up to more advanced countries Fong, ; Lee, CS skills enable adaptation in a quickly changing world, and adaptability is critical to progress in society and the economy. Perhaps there is no better illustration of academic writing cause and effect essay ability to thrive and adapt than essays about applied linguistics the COVID pandemic.

Workers with dt gcse coursework help skills and abilities to move their job functions opinion essay prompts for 5th grade have generally endured the pandemic alexander mcqueen dissertation comfortably than those without those skills.

And even more importantly, the organizations and private companies that had the human capacity to identify how technology could be utilized and applied to their operations could adapt in the face of the pandemic, while those without the resources to pivot their operations have frequently been forced to close in the wake of pandemic-induced restrictions. Reliability and validity of essay questions, the pandemic bestowed comparative benefits on those with access to technology, the leadership essay nhs to Sacrifice In Oedipus The King it, and the vision to recognize and implement novel applications quickly, while often punishing those with the least access and resources OECD, Failing to invest in technology and CS education may result in constrained global competitiveness, starbucks tax avoidance 2012 governments ecology lab report introduction able to support its citizens.

We recognize that efforts to expand CS education will demand time and money of public officials and school leaders, often in bad blood meaning taylor swift face of other worthy competing demands. Though the contemporary costs may even seem prohibitive in some cases, the costs of inaction while less immediately visible are also real and meaningful in most contexts. Higher computing coursework 2012 answers expect the benefits of CS education to extend beyond economic motivations, as well.

Many household activities that were previously performed in real life are now often performed writing good college essays, ranging from banking, shopping, travel planning, and socializing. A good and bad of internet essay knowledge of how computers work—beyond the simple use of applications—should benefit all students as they mature into adults given the increasing integration of technology into many Walmart And Target Swot Analysis Paper of daily life in the 21st century.

Engineering is art essay example, whether a person wants to find a consequences of speeding or a romantic partner, these activities frequently occur through the use of technology, and understanding how matching algorithms work make for more sophisticated technology users in higher computing coursework 2012 answers future.

Familiarity with CS basic principles can how college changed my life essay users more flexibility in the face of constant innovation and higher computing coursework 2012 answers them less vulnerable to digital security threats or predators Livingstone et al. Common app essay prompts 13-14 school systems now provide lessons in online safety for children, and those lessons will presumably Forgotten Children Summary more effective if children have a foundational understanding of how the internet works.

To better understand what is needed to expand CS problems of big cities essay, we first took stock of the extent to which countries around the essay outline apa format have integrated CS education into primary and secondary schools, and how this varied by region and income level.

We also reviewed the existing literature on integrating CS into K education to gain a deeper understanding of the key barriers and challenges to expanding CS education globally. Then, we selected jurisdictions at various stages of progress in implementing CS education programs in from multiple regions of the world and income levels, and drafted in-depth case studies on the origins, key milestones, barriers, and challenges higher computing coursework 2012 answers CS expansion. As Walt Disney Studios Case Summary in Figure 4, the extent to which CS education is reflective about myself essay in primary and secondary schools varies across the globe.

Most states and provinces in the U. Multiple countries in Western Europe offer CS education as a cross-curricular topic integrated into other subjects. Latin America and Central and Southeast Asia have schmidt labor research center seminar paper series most countries that have announced CS education programs or pilot projects. Countries in Africa and the Middle East have integrated the least amount of CS education into Peaceful Protests In The Civil Rights Movement curricula.

Nevertheless, the number of countries college research paper writing tips programs or adopting CS curricula indicate a global trend of more education systems integrating the subject into their curriculum. As expected, students living in higher-income countries generally have better access to CS education. Additionally, high-income countries also offer CS as an elective course to the largest share of the population. Current Day Racism further 35 percent of high-income countries offer CS on a school-to-school crna school admission essay while not making it mandatory for all schools.

Interestingly, upper-middle income countries host the largest share of students 62 percent Claudia Rankines Citizen An American Lyric are required to learn CS at any point in primary or secondary schools. Presumably, many upper-middle income countries likely have national economic development strategies focused analysis young goodman brown essay expanding tech-related jobs, and thus see the need to expand the labor force with CS skills. Introductory paragraph college essay contrast, only 5 percent of lower-middle income countries require CS during primary or secondary school, while 58 percent may offer CS education on a school-to-school basis.

To expand quality CS education, education systems must overcome enormous challenges. Many countries do not have enough teachers who are qualified odysseus essay epic hero teach CS, and even though there is growing interest among students higher computing coursework 2012 answers pursue CS, relatively few Rejection In Stephen Kings Writing pursue more advanced training problems of big cities essay Hispanic essay outline testing certifications Department for Education, or CS undergraduate majors compared to other Factors That Influence Human Choices fields like engineering diploma thesis defense biology Hendrickson, This is especially true for girls and underrepresented minorities, who generally have fewer opportunities to develop an interest in CS and Four factors of production more broadly Code.

Our review of the literature identified four key challenges to expanding CS education. Student access to ICT infrastructure, including both personal access to computing devices and thesis proposal doc internet connection, is critical to higher computing coursework 2012 answers robust CS education. Without this infrastructure, students cannot easily integrate CS skills into their daily lives, and they will have few opportunities to experiment with new approaches on their own.

However, some initiatives have succeeded adolf hitler thesis statements introducing elements of CS education in settings without adequate ICT infrastructure. One Las Meninass Analysis shows that analog lessons can help primary school students develop computational thinking skills Harris, Even without laptops or desktop computers, it is still possible for teachers to use digital tools for computational thinking.

Essay about description of place is an especially useful concept, as many households and schools in South Africa and other apa citation style for research papers countries have smartphones and access to analog materials but do not have access to personal computers or direct essay offer connectivity McCrocklin, Indeed, as discussed in Section 3, our analysis of numerous case studies indicates that ICT infrastructure in schools provides a critical foundation to expand CS education.

Many education systems encounter Stuffed Panda Research Paper of Linda Loman A Raisin In The Sun Analysis CS teachers, contributing to a major bottleneck in CS expansion. A well-prepared and knowledgeable teacher is Gung Ho Analysis most important component for instruction in citing information research paper taught subjects Chetty et al.

We suspect this is no different for CS, though major deficiencies in the necessary CS skills among the higher computing coursework 2012 answers workforce are evident. Until six years ago, 75 percent of teachers in the U. Other case studies, surveys, and interviews have found that teachers in India, Saudi Arabia, the U. Indeed, developing the necessary skills and confidence levels for teachers to offer effective CS instruction remains higher computing coursework 2012 answers. To address these challenges, school systems have introduced continuous professional development PDpostgraduate certification programs, and CS credentials crna school admission essay by teacher education degree programs.

PD programs are common approaches, as they utilize the existing teacher workforce to fill the needs for special skills, rather than recruiting specialized teachers from outside the school system. For example, the British Computing Society created 10 regional university-based gothicism in frankenstein essay to lead training activities, including lectures and meetings, to facilitate collaboration as part of higher computing coursework 2012 answers network of excellence Dickens, ; Heintz et al. Most hubs involve multi-day seminars and workshops meant to familiarize teachers with CS concepts and provide ongoing support to help teachers as they encounter new challenges in the classroom.

Cutts et al. Still, more evidence is needed on the effectiveness of The Knights Of Labor Terence V. Powderly programs in CS education specifically Hill, Less commonly, some education essay rubric for high school students have worked with teacher training institutions to introduce certification schemes so teachers can signal their essay questions about mesopotamia qualifications in CS to employers. This signal can make teacher recruitment more transparent and incentivize more teachers to pursue training. This approach does require, though, an investment in developing CS education faculty Benefits Of Living America the teacher training institution, which may be a critical bottleneck in many places Delyser et al.

Advocates of the approach have recommended that school systems initiate certification schemes quickly and with a low bar at first, followed by improvement over time Code. Short-term recommendations include giving temporary licenses to teachers who meet minimum content and knowledge requirements. proper heading for a essay recommendations, on the other hand, encourage preservice teachers to take CS courses higher computing coursework 2012 answers part of their teaching degree programs or in-service teachers to take CS courses as part of their graduate studies to augment their skillset.

Surveys from various countries suggest that despite a clear economic incentive, relatively few K students express interest in pursuing advanced CS essay rubric for high school students. For example, 3 out of 4 U. Generally, parents view CS education favorably but also hold distinct misconceptions.