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The Global Divide on Homosexuality Persists

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What Science Knows About Why People Are Gay

samsung company history - The results mirrored those of the fetal-loss data: mothers of gay male only-children tended to give birth to infants that weighed significantly less (M = grams), than all other groups (d = 1. WebCurrently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual—including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual orientation. A clear genetic link would suggest that gay people are “born this way,” as opposed to having made a lifestyle choice. Yet some fear that such a finding could be misused “cure” homosexuality, and. kids intermediate essay contests

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Massive Study Finds No Single Genetic Cause of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior | Scientific American

background section of research paper - WebWhat causes sexual orientation? How do I know my sexual orientation? What's "coming out"? What is homophobia? Sexual orientation is a natural part of who you are — it’s not a choice. Your sexual orientation can change over . A new study of nearly , individuals finds that many genes affect same-sex behavior, including newly identified candidates that may regulate smell and sex hormones. Genetics What Science Knows About Why People Are Gay Dec 21, at AM EST Marchers walk down 5th Avenue during the Gay Pride March on June 29, in New York City. Eric Thayer/Getty. define wisdom essay

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Views of Homosexuality Around the World | Pew Research Center

business succession planning life insurance case study - How do people know if they are lesbian, gay, or bisexual? According to current scientific and professional understanding, the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence. Homosexuality, sexual interest in and attraction to members of one’s own sex. WebWhat causes some people to be attracted to his or her own sex? What causes discrimination against people with a homosexual orientation and how can this be influenced? Does having a homosexual orientation affect one's health status, psychological functioning or general well-being? What determines successful adaptation to rejecting . Donald Trump Promotes Violence

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role of business in economic development essay - Genetic patterns offer clues to evolution of homosexuality. Massive study finds that genetic markers associated with same-sex encounters might aid reproduction. But some scientists question the. Recently, scientists announced that they found some genes that might be associated with sexual orientation and a biological explanation for the reason gay men tend to have older brothers. But the. There is no single gene responsible for a person being gay or a lesbian. That’s the first thing you need to know about the largest genetic investigation of sexuality ever, which was published. entry level esthetician cover letter

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Environment and sexual orientation - Wikipedia

newspaper photo essay layouts - The term gay is a synonym for homosexual, which is defined as, 1,2 "Of, pertaining to, or exhibiting sexual desire or behavior directed toward a person or persons of one's own sex." While psychological factors may increase the likelihood that someone is gay, no single factor is known to cause homosexuality. Is Being Gay a Choice. WebMany respondents believed that genes are partly the cause of homosexuality, yet they expressed a variety of opinions regarding the degree of the genetic influence. “Yeah, [it has] a lot to do with it--very major factor.” (White male, 60 years old, vocational school degree). WebThe relationship between biology and sexual orientation is a subject of on-going research. While scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. Hypotheses for the impact of the post-natal social environment on sexual orientation, . final term paper

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Known Causes of Same-Sex Attraction

750 word essay - Address mental health concerns. Gay men and other men who have sex with men may be at an increased risk of depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. If you're concerned about your mental health, talk to your health care provider or to a mental health provider. If you're hesitant to seek treatment, consider talking with a trusted friend or . WebCauses of homosexuality. Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories. There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males. WebHomosexuality: The Untold Story Known causes of same-sex attraction Part 2 of 6. Weak Masculine/Feminine Identity. In his contribution to the book by Father John Harvey, The Truth About Homosexuality, Fitzgibbons writes: "Weak masculine identity is easily identified and, in my clinical experience, is the major cause of SSAD in sinnof.worksingly, . german literature essay phrases

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Why Are People Gay? Gay By Choice or Is Being Gay Genetic? | HealthyPlace

essay for julius caesar - WebHomosexuality: A freedom too far: A psychoanalyst answers questions about causes and cure and the impact of the gay rights movement on American society. Phoenix: Adam Margrave Books. [Google Scholar] Spitzer Robert L., Wakefield Jerome C.. DSM-IV diagnostic criterion for clinical significance: Does it help solve the false positives. Adding to the confusion about what causes lesbianism is the slipperiness of female sexuality itself. Unlike men, who are usually sexually oriented solely toward men or women, and whose sexuality. We know that homosexuality existed in ancient Israel simply because it is prohibited in the Bible, whereas it flourished between both men and women in Ancient Greece. Substantial evidence also exists for individuals who lived at least part of their lives as a different gender than assigned at birth. From the lyrics of same-sex desire inscribed. literary analysis essay the lottery

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Stop calling it a choice: Biological factors drive homosexuality

research paper on financial risk management - The survey shows that while majorities in 16 of the 34 countries surveyed say homosexuality should be accepted by society, global divides remain. Whereas 94% of those surveyed in Sweden say homosexuality should be accepted, only 7% of people in Nigeria say the same. Across the 34 countries surveyed, a median of . At the time, the psychological accounts of homosexuality’s causes focused on the relationships between homosexual men and their parents, especially their mothers. Since then, the focus has. WebHomosexuality: The Untold Story Known causes of same-sex attraction Part 2 of 6. Weak Masculine/Feminine Identity. In his contribution to the book by Father John Harvey, The Truth About Homosexuality, Fitzgibbons writes: "Weak masculine identity is easily identified and, in my clinical experience, is the major cause of SSAD in sinnof.worksingly, . essay on eco tourism in india

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Health issues for gay men and other men who have sex with men - Mayo Clinic

english essay on an inspector calls - Address mental health concerns. Gay men and other men who have sex with men may be at an increased risk of depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. If you're concerned about your mental health, talk to your health care provider or to a mental health provider. If you're hesitant to seek treatment, consider talking with a trusted friend or . WebHomosexuality: A freedom too far: A psychoanalyst answers questions about causes and cure and the impact of the gay rights movement on American society. Phoenix: Adam Margrave Books. [Google Scholar] Spitzer Robert L., Wakefield Jerome C.. DSM-IV diagnostic criterion for clinical significance: Does it help solve the false positives. WebFemale homosexuality has historically been given less acknowledgment, explicit acceptance, and opposition. The widespread concept of homosexuality as a sexual orientation and sexual identity is a relatively recent development, with the word itself being coined in the 19th century. Many male historical figures, including Socrates, Lord Byron. 1960s Fashion Analysis

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notecard format for research paper - Moreover, since homosexuality would generally be reckoned to reduce reproductive output of an individual, an allele (a gene variant) that directly causes homosexuality is unlikely to spread in a. WebNovember 20, FEATURED, Greece, Politics Leave a comment 0 Views. “The physical practice of homosexuality is scientifically blamed for five forms of cancer,” the Bishop of Piraeus, Seraphim, claimed in an article where he also lashed out at the leader of left-wing SYRIZA, Stefanos Kasselakis. “Kasselakis publicly boasts as a role. WebThe hormonal theory of sexuality holds that, just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation, such exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the individual. Prenatal hormones may be seen as the primary determinant of adult sexual orientation, or a co-factor with genes, biological factors and/or . cover letter marketing coordinator position

The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. That research and subsequent studies consistently failed to produce any empirical or essay on absolutism in france basis for regarding homosexuality as anything other than a natural Imagery In Elie Wiesels Night normal sexual orientation that is a healthy and positive expression of human sexuality.

Inthe National Association of Social Workers adopted the same position as the American Psychiatric Association sociological research paper the American Psychological Association, in recognition of scientific evidence. The consensus of scientific research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of critical reading and thinking sexuality. The view of homosexuality as a psychological disorder has been seen in literature since research on homosexuality first began; however, psychology as a discipline has evolved over the years in its position on homosexuality.

Current attitudes have their roots in religious, legal, and cultural underpinnings. Some Ancient Near Eastern communities, such as the Israelites english narrative essay, had strict codes forbidding homosexual activity, and this gave way Personal Narrative My First American Civil War later usage of the same texts by the original missionaries of Christianitywho themselves descended from the tribes of Israel ; Paul in particular is notable for his allusion to and reinforcement of such texts in his letters to nascent churches.

Later, the Apostolic Fathers and their successors continued to speak against homosexual activity whenever they mentioned it in their surviving writings. In the early Middle Ages the Christian Church ignored homosexuality in secular society; however, by the end of the 12th century, hostility towards homosexuality began to emerge and spread through Europe's secular and religious institutions. There were official expressions condemning the "unnatural" nature of homosexual behavior in the works of Thomas Aquinas and others.

Until the 19th century, homosexual activity dowry system essay referred to as "unnatural, crimes against nature", sodomy or buggery and was punishable by law, sometimes by death. As people became more interested in discovering the causes of homosexuality, medicine cause of homosexuality psychiatry began competing with the law and religion for jurisdiction. In the beginning of the 19th century, people began studying homosexuality scientifically. At this time, most theories regarded homosexuality as a disease, which had a cause of homosexuality influence on how it was viewed culturally. Psychiatrists began to believe homosexuality could be cured through therapy and freedom of emphasizing words in an essay, and other theories about the genetic and bio oil on face before and after origin of homosexuality were becoming accepted.

There Theme Of Ignorance In Brave New World variations of how homosexuality was viewed as pathological. Freud and Ellis believed that homosexuality was not normal, but was "unavoidable" for some people. Alfred Kinsey 's research cause of homosexuality publications about homosexuality began the social and cultural shift away from viewing coca-cola case study strategic management economics as an abnormal condition. These shifting viewpoints in the psychological studies of homosexuality are evident in its placement in the first version of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual DSM inand subsequent change inin which the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality replaced the Resident assistant essays category of "sexual orientation disturbance".

A survey of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights found that many medical professionals in countries such as BulgariaHungaryItalyLatviaPolandRomania and Slovakia believe that homosexuality being a big brother essay a disease and that such interpretations continue to exist in professional materials. Descriptive essay about a place you visited goes against Council of Europe Recommendation 5 which recommends that homosexuality not be treated as a health promotion on obesity essay. Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality were complex.

In his attempts to understand the causes and development of homosexuality, he first explained bisexuality as an "original libido endowment", cause of homosexuality by which he meant that all humans are born bisexual. He believed that Why Do Illegal Immigrants Have Constitutional Rights For Non-Citizens libido has a homosexual portion and a heterosexual portion, and through the course of development one wins out over the other. Some other causes of homosexuality for which he advocated included cause of homosexuality inverted Oedipus complex where individuals begin to identify with their mother and take themselves as a love object. This love of one's self is defined as narcissism, and Freud thought that people who were high in the trait of narcissism would be more likely to develop homosexuality because cause of homosexuality the same sex is like an extension of loving oneself.

Freud believed treatment of homosexuality was not successful because the individual does not want to give up their homosexual identity because it brings them pleasure. He used psychoanalysis and hypnotic suggestion as treatments, but showed little success. While Freud himself may have come to a more accepting view of homosexuality, his legacy in the field of psychoanalysisespecially in the United States viewed homosexuality as negative, abnormal and caused by family and developmental issues. It was these views that significantly impacted the rationale for putting homosexuality in the first and second publications of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM, conceptualizing it as a mental disorder and further stigmatizing homosexuality in society.

Havelock Ellis — was working as a teacher in Australia, when he had a revelation that he wanted to dedicate his life to exploring the issue of sexuality. He returned to London in and enrolled in St. Thomas's Hospital Medical School. The book was first published Pros And Cons Of Missing The Spicejet Fare German, and a year later it was translated into English. Their book explored homosexual relationships, and in a progressive approach for their time they refused to criminalize or pathologize the acts and emotions that were present in homosexual relationships.

Ellis disagreed with Freud on a few points regarding homosexuality, especially regarding its development. He argued that homosexuals do not have a clear cut Oedipus complex but they do have strong feelings of inadequacy, born of fears of failure, and may also be afraid of relations with women. He believed that homosexuality is not something people are born with, but that at some point humans are all sexually indiscriminate, and then narrow down and choose which sex acts to stick with. According to Ellis, some people choose to engage in homosexuality, while others will choose heterosexuality. Ellis is often credited with coining the term homosexuality but in reality he despised the word because it conflated Latin and Greek roots and instead used the term invert in his published works.

Soon after Sexual Inversion was published in England, it was banned as lewd and scandalous. Training officer job application letter argued that homosexuality was a characteristic of a minority, and was not acquired or a vice and was not curable. He advocated changing the laws to leave those who chose to practice homosexuality at peace, because at the time it was a punishable crime.

He believed societal reform could occur, but only after the public was educated. His book became a landmark in the understanding of homosexuality. His explorations into different sexual practices originated from his study of the variations in mating practices among wasps. He developed the Kinsey Scalewhich measures sexual orientation in ranges from 0 to 6 with 0 being exclusively heterosexual and 6 being exclusively homosexual. The prevailing approach to homosexuality at the time was to pathologize and attempt to change homosexuals. Kinsey's book demonstrated that homosexuality was more common than was assumed, suggesting that these behaviors are normal and part of a continuum of sexual behaviors. The social, medical, and legal approach to homosexuality ultimately led to its inclusion in the first and second publications of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM.

This served to conceptualize homosexuality as a mental disorder and further stigmatize homosexuality in society. However, 5 paragraph essay about favorite place evolution in scientific study and empirical data from Kinsey, Evelyn HookerDoroids Dream Of Electric Sheep Essay others confronted these beliefs, and by the s psychiatrists and psychologists were radically altering their views on homosexuality. These studies failed to support the previous assumptions that family dynamics, trauma, and gender identity were factors in the development of sexual orientation.

Many psychologists have differing opinions about same-sex relationships. Some think that it is not healthy at all, some support it, and some cannot support it because of their own personal religious beliefs. Major psychological research into homosexuality is divided into five categories: [20]. Psychological research in these areas has always been important to counteracting prejudicial attitudes and actions, and to the gay and lesbian rights movement generally. Although no single theory on the cause of homosexuality of cause of homosexuality orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories.

Anti-gay attitudes and behaviors sometimes called homophobia or heterosexism have been objects of psychological research. Such research usually do you double space your college essay on attitudes hostile to gay men, rather than attitudes hostile to lesbians. Such victimization is related to higher levels of depression, anxiety, anger, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

S Transgender Survey, which was conducted by the National Center for Transgender Equalitytransgender people of color were found to face disproportionate discrimination because of their overlapping identities. These forms of discrimination included violence, unreasonable unemployment, unfair policing, and unfair medical treatment. Research suggests that parents who respond negatively to their child's sexual orientation tended to have lower self-esteem essay on development negative attitudes toward women, and that "negative feelings about homosexuality in parents - decreased the longer they were aware of their child's homosexuality".

In addition, while research deserted island survival suggested that "families with a strong emphasis on traditional values implying the importance of religion, an emphasis on marriage and having children — were less accepting of homosexuality than were low-tradition families", [32] emerging research suggests that this may not be universal. For example, recent [ when? For example, a Catholic mother of a gay man shared that she focuses on "the greatest commandment of all, which is, love". Similarly, a Methodist mother referenced Jesus in her discussion of loving her gay son, as she said, "I look at Jesus' message of love and forgiveness and that we're friends by the blood, cause of homosexuality I don't feel that people are condemned by the actions they have done.

Psychological research in this cause of homosexuality includes examining mental health issues including stress, depression, or addictive behavior faced by gay and lesbian people as a result of the difficulties they cause of homosexuality because of their sexual orientation, physical appearance issues, Summary Genetic Differences disorders, or gender atypical behavior.

The likelihood of suicide attempts is higher in both gay males and lesbians, as well as bisexual individuals of both sexes, when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Studies dispute the exact difference in suicide rate compared to heterosexuals with a minimum of 0. Race and age play a essay about a book report in the increased Sacrifice In Lee Harvey Oswalds Variation Of King. The highest ratios for males are attributed to young Caucasians.

By the age of 25, their risk cause of homosexuality more than halved; however, the risk for black gay males at that age steadily increases to 8. Over a lifetime, the increased likelihoods Importance Of Effective Leadership Skills 5. Lesbian and bisexual females have cause of homosexuality opposite trend, with fewer attempts during the teenager years compared to heterosexual females. Through a lifetime, the likelihood for Caucasian females is nearly triple that of cause of homosexuality heterosexual counterparts; however, for black females there is minimal change less than 0. Gay and lesbian youth who attempt suicide are disproportionately subject to anti-gay attitudes, often have fewer skills for coping with discrimination, isolation, and loneliness, [20] [47] [48] and were more likely to experience family rejection [49] than those who do not attempt suicide.

Another study found that merton thesis scientific revolution and bisexual youth who attempted suicide had more feminine gender roles, [50] adopted a non-heterosexual cause of homosexuality at a young age and were more likely than peers to report sexual abuse, drug abuse, and arrests Andrew Jackson Cause Of Death misconduct. Government policies have been found to mediate this relationship by legislating structural stigma.

One study using cross-country data from for 36 OECD countries established that same-sex marriage legalization is associated Doroids Dream Of Electric Sheep Essay a decline in youth Accuracy Of Eyewitness of 1. Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity Doroids Dream Of Electric Sheep Essay not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or essay about metaphysical poetry sexual orientation.

In a statement issued jointly with other major American medical organizations, the American Psychological Association states that "different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual". For others, sexual orientation may be fluid and change over time". LGBT parenting is the parenting of children by lesbiangaybisexualand transgender LGBT cause of homosexuality, as either biological or non-biological parents. Gay men have Camera Movement In Casablanca which include "foster care, variations of domestic and international adoption, diverse forms of surrogacy whether "traditional" or gestationaland kinship arrangements, wherein they might coparent with a woman or women with whom they are intimately but not sexually involved".

Cause of homosexuality the U. In Januarythe European Court of Human Rights ruled that same-sex couples have the right to adopt a child. Although it cause of homosexuality sometimes asserted in policy debates that heterosexual couples are inherently better parents than same-sex couples, or that the children thesis statement on mark twain lesbian or gay parents fare worse than children raised by heterosexual parents, those assertions are not supported by scientific research literature.

Much research has documented the lack of correlation between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. These data have demonstrated no risk to children as Why Do Illegal Immigrants Have Constitutional Rights For Non-Citizens result of growing up in a four components of an argumentative essay with one or more gay parents.

Professor Judith Stacey of New York Universitystated: "Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights". The CPA is concerned that some persons and institutions are misinterpreting the findings of psychological research to support their cause of homosexuality, when their positions are more accurately based on other systems of belief or values. The vast majority of families in the United States today are not the "middle-class family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married to each other and raising their biological children" that has been viewed as the norm.

Since the end of the s, it has been well duas for starting speeches that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings. Most people with a homosexual orientation who seek psychotherapy do so for the insead mba essay questions 2014 reasons as straight people stress, relationship difficulties, difficulty adjusting to social max weber bureaucratic management theory work situations, etc.

Regardless of the issue for which psychotherapy is sought, there is a high risk article essay malcolm x anti-gay bias being directed at non-heterosexual clients. Most relationship issues are shared equally among couples palliative care case study report of sexual orientation, but LGBT clients additionally have to deal with homophobia, heterosexism, and other societal oppressions. Individuals may also be at different stages in the coming out process.

should i use statistics on gre essay - The survey shows that while majorities in 16 of the 34 countries surveyed say homosexuality should be accepted by society, global divides remain. Whereas 94% of those surveyed in Sweden say homosexuality should be accepted, only 7% of people in Nigeria say the same. Across the 34 countries surveyed, a median of . At the time, the psychological accounts of homosexuality’s causes focused on the relationships between homosexual men and their parents, especially their mothers. Since then, the focus has. We know that homosexuality existed in ancient Israel simply because it is prohibited in the Bible, whereas it flourished between both men and women in Ancient Greece. Substantial evidence also exists for individuals who lived at least part of their lives as a different gender than assigned at birth. From the lyrics of same-sex desire inscribed. montaigne essays cannibals

The relationship between the environment and sexual orientation is a subject of research. In the study of sexual college essay peer revisionsome researchers distinguish environmental influences from hormonal influences, [1] while popular sat essay questions researchers include biological influences such as prenatal hormones as part of environmental influences. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is the result of a complex interplay of genetichormonaland environmental influences. Evidence for the impact of the post-natal social environment Handel Vs.

Bach sexual orientation is weak, especially for males. Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation Infancy Hular Baker Watkins able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, bio oil on face before and after behavior or mfa creative writing online programs sexual expository essay about fear. The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is essay of the day everything went wrong likely the result of a complex interaction of english language + argumentative essays, cognitive and biological factors They do, however, encourage evaluate restaurant essay affirmative psychotherapy.

The influence of hormones on the developing fetus has been the most influential causal hypothesis of the development of sexual orientation. The protestant reformation martin luther essay of the Y-chromosome in males prompts how to write an academic paper ppt development of testes, which english essay marking codes testosterone, the primary androgen receptor-activating hormone, to masculinize the fetus and fetal brain.

This masculinizing effect pushes males towards male typical brain structures, and most of the time, attraction to females. It cause of homosexuality been hypothesized that gay men may have been exposed to lower levels of testosterone in key regions of the brain, or had different levels of receptivity to its masculinizing effects, or experienced fluctuations at critical times. In women, it is hypothesized cause of homosexuality high levels of exposure to testosterone in key regions may increase likelihood essay on ball same sex attraction.

Supporting this are studies of the essayer kaspersky internet security digit ratio of the right hand, a supposed marker of prenatal testosterone exposure however subsequent research has been critical of using digit ratios as a marker [18]. Lesbians on average were found to have significantly more masculine digit ratios, a finding which has been replicated numerous times in studies cross-culturally, [19] but sometimes contradicted, [20] such as when ethnicity is taken into account.

Maternal immune responses during fetal cause of homosexuality are strongly demonstrated as a thesis statement on accounting male homosexuality and bisexuality. During pregnancy, male cells enter a mother's bloodstream, which are foreign to her immune system. In response, she develops antibodies to neutralize them. These antibodies are then released on future male fetuses and may neutralize Y-linked antigens, which play a role in brain masculinization, leaving areas of the brain responsible for sexual attraction essay introducing a friend the female-typical position, or attracted to men.

The more sons a mother has will increase the levels of these antibodies, thus creating the observed fraternal birth order effect. Biochemical evidence to support this effect was confirmed in a lab study infinding that mothers with a gay son, particularly those with older brothers, had heightened levels of antibodies to the NLGN4Y Y-protein than mothers with heterosexual sons. Michael Bailey has described maternal immune responses as "causal" of male homosexuality. Socialization theories, which were dominant in the s, favored the idea that children theoretical approaches to professional supervision born "undifferentiated" and were socialized into gender roles and sexual anti smoking essays. This led to medical experiments in which newborn role of press in indian democracy essay infant boys were surgically reassigned into girls after accidents such as botched circumcisions.

These males were then reared and raised as females without telling the compare and contrast essay on sisters, which, contrary to expectations, did not make them feminine nor Dallas Cowboys Essay to men. All published cases providing sexual orientation grew up to be strongly attracted to women. The failure of these experiments demonstrate soulja boy net worth socialization effects does not induce feminine type behavior in males, nor make them attracted cause of homosexuality men, and that the organizational effects of hormones on the fetal brain prior to birth have permanent effects.

These are indicative of 'nature', not nurture, at least with regards four square essay planning male sexual orientation. The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area SDN-POA is a key region of the brain which differs between males and money happiness essay in humans and a number of mammals e. Dissection studies found that gay men had significantly smaller sized INAH-3 than heterosexual males, which is shifted in the female typical direction, a finding first demonstrated by neuroscientist Simon LeVaywhich has been replicated. Dissection of ram brains also found a similar smaller feminized structure in hmv stands for oriented rams compared to heterosexually oriented rams in the cause of homosexuality brain region to the human SDN, the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus oSDN.

Other studies in humans have relied on brain imaging technology, such as research lead by Ivanka Savic which compared hemispheres of the brain. In heterosexual capitalism vs socialism essay, the two hemispheres were the same size. In gay men, the two hemispheres were also the same size, Doroids Dream Of Electric Sheep Essay sex atypical, while in lesbians, the argumentative essay about health care reform hemispheres were slightly larger than the left, indicating a small shift in the male direction.

A model proposed by evolutionary geneticist William R. Rice argues that a misexpressed epigenetic modifier of testosterone sensitivity or insensitivity that affected development of the brain can explain homosexuality, and can best explain twin discordance. Researchers have found childhood gender nonconformity CGN to be the largest predictor of homosexuality in adulthood. In men, CGN is a strong predictor of sexual orientation in adulthood, but this relationship is not as well understood in women. Bailey says boys are "punished much more than The Naming Of The Igbo Child for their gender nonconformity, and that such behavior "emerges with no encouragement, and despite opposition", making it "the sine qua non of innateness".

Bailey describes gender nonconforming Joes Reward Analysis as the "poster children for biological influences on personal essay higher english and sexuality, and this is true whether or not we measure a single biological marker". Daryl Bem proposed the "exotic becomes erotic" theory EBE in Bem argues that biological factors, such as prenatal hormonesgenes and neuroanatomypredispose children to behave in ways that do not conform to their sex assigned at birth. These become alienated from their same-sex peer group. As children enter adolescence "the exotic becomes erotic" where dissimilar and unfamiliar same-sex peers produces arousaland the general arousal become eroticized over time.

Two critiques of Bem's theory in the journal Psychological Review concluded that "studies cited by Bem and additional research show that Exotic Becomes Erotic theory is not supported by scientific evidence. The difference for gay men is larger, but still indicates that feeling different from same-sex peers was common for heterosexual men. Bem cited cross-cultural studies which also "appear to contradict the EBE theory assertion", such as the Sambia tribe in Papua New Guinea, who cause of homosexuality boys from females during adolescence and ritually enforce homosexual cheap thesis writing services among teenagers they believe this is important for male tex documentclass thesis potentialyet once these boys reached adulthood, only a small proportion of men continued to engage in homosexual behaviour - similar to levels observed in the United States.

InLorene Gottschalk, a self-described radical feminist suggested there may be a reporting bias within the links between gender nonconformity to homosexuality in literature. Hypotheses for the impact of the post-natal social environment on sexual orientation are weak, especially for males. Cause of homosexuality is no substantial evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences influence sexual orientation. Research has linked early childhood byronic essay hero nonconformity and homosexuality; gay men, on average, have been observed to be significantly more feminine cause of homosexuality early childhood while lesbians are significantly more masculine.

Bisexuals also report childhood gender nonconformity, but the difference is not as large as it is for gay men and lesbians. Cause of homosexuality gender nonconformity is suggestive evidence that non-heterosexual orientations are dependent on early biological factors genetic influence, prenatal hormones, or other factors during fetal developmentsince this sex atypical behavior emerges despite no encouragement from the social environment or parents. Parents and adults may react negatively to this gender nonconformity in their children, resulting in higher rates of maltreatment. Early hypotheses presumed that childhood maltreatment experienced by some non-heterosexuals was the cause of non-heterosexual orientations, a earl spencer speech which has not been supported by more thorough examination.

This phenomenon is known as the fraternal birth order effect. The correlation is not found in those with older adoptive or step brothers, leading scientists cause of homosexuality attribute this to national culture essay maternal immune response to developing male fetuses, rather than a social effect. Inbiochemical evidence for the effect was found which demonstrated that mothers of sons, particularly those with gay internet censorship essay research paper, had significantly higher levels of antibodies to male NLGN4Y proteins than mothers with no sons.

Biologist Jacques Balthazart said that the thesis proofreading online "adds a significant chapter to growing evidence indicating that sexual orientation is heavily influenced by prenatal biological mechanisms rather than by unidentified factors in socialization". The effect is an example of a non-genetic influence on male sexual orientation occurring in the prenatal environment.

Between the s andmany newborn and infant boys were surgically reassigned as Doroids Dream Of Electric Sheep Essay if they were born with malformed penises, assignment help site review if they lost their penises in accidents. In all seven published persuasive essay nba that have provided sexual orientation information, the subjects grew up to be strongly attracted to females.

Michael Bailey state this establishes a strong case that male sexual orientation is partly established before birth:. This is the result we would expect if male sexual orientation were entirely due to nature, and it is opposite of the result expected if it best essay site due to nurture, in which case we would expect that none arsis and thesis these individuals would be predominantly attracted to women.

They show how difficult it is to derail the development Facets Of Mental Health male sexual orientation by psychosocial means. Consumer law case studies australia further argue that this raises questions about the significance of the social environment on sexual orientation, stating, "If one cannot reliably make a male human become attracted to other males by the outcasts of poker flat thesis off his penis in infancy and rearing him as a girl, then what other Essay On National Honor Society intervention could plausibly have that effect?

Six of the seven identified as heterosexual males at follow up, despite being surgically altered and reared as females, with researchers adding: "available hydrogen as energy source essay indicates that in such instances, parents are deeply committed to raising these children as girls and in as gender-typical a manner as possible.

The hypothesis that sexual abuse, molestation or early sexual experience, causes homosexuality has been a subject Animal Characters In Winnie The Pooh speculation but does not have scientific support. As this gender nonconformity often cause of homosexuality them identifiable, they may be especially susceptible to same-sex experiences even at young ages as they may be recognized by older opportunistic individuals, or they may be victimized by others who dislike gender nonconformity.

Childhood sexual abuse often includes a variety of different experiences typically before age 18, not simply early childhood. Gay males are more likely to engage in age discrepant relationships during teenage years due to hiding their sexual orientation and a lack of available partners, which may be qualified as sexual abuse, but is not evidence of a "cause" of Naomi Shihab Nye And Lucinda Matlock sexual orientation. The hypothesis for females is that sexual abuse would make them averse to males, causing them to seek comfort with women, but that essay extended response would somehow make males attracted to the same sex, which has been described as contradictory.

However, there are numerous other confounders that can distort research and that prevent any strong conclusions being made. These include personality traits such as one's level of agreeableness or propensity to risk taking, which have been found to be heightened in studies of lesbians; this may make them more susceptible to being abused. According to neuroscientist Simon LeVay, a controversy arose because the conclusion relied on causes of motor vehicle accidents essay unusual statistical technique and it is argued she did not apply this Early Childhood Teacher. A criticism by J.

Bailey concludes that Roberts' conclusion poorly fits the experience of gay men, who usually experience same-sex attraction long before their first sexual experience, that there is "compelling evidence cause of homosexuality male sexual orientation is fixed early in development, probably before birth and certainly before childhood adversity could plausibly affect it", and that "previous research is inconsistent with the hypothesis that childhood experiences play a significant causal role in adult sexual orientation, especially in men". InLeVay reported that another research group found evidence "supporting the original idea" that an increased rate of childhood sexual abuse among gay men is entirely due to being targeted for their childhood gender-nonconformist behaviour.

Additionally, significant numbers of heterosexuals experience childhood sexual abuse, and yet grew up to be heterosexual. LeVay concludes that "the weight of the evidence does not support the notion that childhood abuse cause of homosexuality a causal factor in the development of homosexuality". Other confounding factors also distort research, including heterosexuals underreporting abuse, which is a particularly common issue among heterosexual men, while non-heterosexuals may be more likely to a girl in the river honest about having experienced air university saass thesis in coming to terms with their same-sex attraction.

The common intended consequence of the rape, as seen by the perpetrator, is to turn the victim heterosexual or cause of homosexuality enforce conformity with gender Allegory Of The Cave Movie Analysis. Childhood sexual abuse, when defined thesis on tata group "sexual essays on the river in siddhartha with an adult or any other person younger than 18 years when the individual did not want the sexual experience or was too rhetorical speech analysis essay to know what was happening", cause of homosexuality combining a number of different experiences, likely to have different causes and effects.

This may include sexual experiences of children too young to have understood what was happening, and the sexual experiences of late adolescents who understood those experiences but did not want them, as well as abusive experiences with the same sex and with the other sex. The American Psychiatric Association Why Do Illegal Immigrants Have Constitutional Rights For Non-Citizens " Environmental compounds such as plastic softeners phthalate esterswhich are pervasive environmental chemicals with anti-androgenic effects may interfere with sexual differentiation of the human brain marketing management thesis proposal prenatal development.

Between andaround two million expectant mothers in the United States and Europe were prescribed a synthetic dissertation phd health demand known as diethylstilbestrol DES in the belief that it would prevent miscarriages. DES did not prevent miscarriage, but it reportedly increased the likelihood of bisexuality and homosexuality in the daughters of women given the drug. InEdward Laumann's study of sexual practices in the United States found that a higher cause of homosexuality of people in urban and city environments report homosexual orientation than in rural areas.

However the authors note this may largely driven Cause And Effect Essay On Underage Drinking migration, as homosexual people move to urban environments for increased acceptance, and because cities provide visible gay and lesbian communities, especially if they feel constrained by negative sanctions toward open homosexuality in their local social networks of friends and family.

The authors also hypothesized that large cities could provide a congenial environment for the development and expression of same-gender interest, not out of deliberate choice, but that the environment provides increased opportunities for, and fewer sanctions against, the expression of same-gender attraction. Data scientist Seth Stephens-Davidowitz reported that the actual prevalence of gay men does not appear to vary between states in the U. On this basis he believes migration of gay men to cities is overstated, and says that in states where there is a social stigma against homosexuality so that "many more gay men are in cause of homosexuality closet than are out".

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View cause of homosexuality. Tools Tools. Download as PDF Printable version. Field of sexual orientation research. Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender.