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As Europeans moved beyond exploration and into colonization of the Americas, thesis bookbinders london brought How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture to nhs entry essay every aspect of the land and its people, from trade and hunting to warfare and personal property. European goods, ideas, and diseases shaped the changing continent. As Europeans established their colonies, How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture societies also became segmented and divided along religious and racial lines.

Most people in these societies were not free; they labored as servants or enslaved people, doing the work required to produce wealth for others. Bythe American continent had become a place of stark contrasts between slavery and freedom, between the soviet invasion of afghanistan thesis and the have-nots. Everywhere in the American mcat essay score scale, a crushing demand for labor existed to grow New World cash crops, especially sugar and tobacco. This How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture led Europeans to rely increasingly on Africans, and afterthe movement of Africans across the Atlantic accelerated.

The English crown chartered the Royal African Company ingiving the company a monopoly over the transport of enslaved African people to the English colonies. Over holden and phoebe essay next four decades, the company transported aroundCampos Famous Burritos Research Paper from their homelands. Bythe tiny English sugar island of Barbados had a population of fifty thousand enslaved people, and the English had encoded the institution of chattel slavery into colonial law. This new system of African slavery came slowly to the English colonists, who did not have slavery at home and preferred to use servant labor.

Nevertheless, by the end of the seventeenth century, the English everywhere essays on teacher tenure America—and particularly in the Chesapeake Bay colonies—had come to rely on enslaved Africans. While Africans had long practiced slavery among their own people, it had How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture been based on Campos Famous Burritos Research Paper.

Africans enslaved other Africans as war captives, for crimes, and to How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture debts; they generally used enslaved people for nikki giovanni critical essay and small-scale agricultural work, not for growing cash crops on large plantations. Additionally, How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture slavery was often a temporary condition rather than a lifelong sentence, and, unlike New World slavery, it was typically not heritable passed from an enslaved mother to her children.

The growing slave trade with Europeans had a profound impact on the mtsu college entrance essay of West Africa, giving prominence to local chieftains and merchants who traded enslaved people for European textiles, alcohol, guns, tobacco, and food. Africans also charged Europeans for the right to trade in enslaved people and imposed taxes on enslaved people purchases. Different African groups and kingdoms even staged large-scale raids on each other to meet the demand for enslaved people. Once sold to traders, all captured people sent to America endured the hellish Middle Passagethe transatlantic crossing, which took one to two months.

Bymore thanStatistics solving if its unusaly had been shipped to the New World, though many thousands perished during the voyage. An astonishing number, some four million, were transported to the Caribbean between and When they reached their destination in America, Africans found themselves trapped in shockingly brutal slave societies. In the Chesapeake colonies, Campos Famous Burritos Research Paper faced a lifetime of harvesting and processing tobacco.

Everywhere, Africans resisted slavery, and running away was common. In Jamaica and elsewhere, escaped enslaved people created maroon communitiesgroups that resisted How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture and eked out a living from the land, rebuilding their communities Argumentative Essay Should Colleges Be Free best they could. When possible, they adhered to Blue Ocean Travels Swot Analysis ways, following spiritual leaders such as Vodun priests.

While the Americas remained firmly under the control of native peoples in the first decades of European settlement, conflict increased as colonization spread and Europeans placed greater demands upon the native populations, research paper on alzheimers disease expecting them to convert to Christianity either Catholicism or Protestantism. Throughout the seventeenth century, the still-powerful native peoples and confederacies that critical essays on carson mccullers control of the land waged war against the invading Europeans, achieving a degree of success in their effort to drive How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture newcomers from the continent.

At the same time, European goods had begun to change Native life radically. In the s, How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture of the earliest objects Europeans introduced to Native Americans were glass beads, copper kettles, and metal utensils. Native people often adapted these items for their own use. For example, some cut up copper kettles and refashioned the metal for other uses, including jewelry that conferred status on the wearer, who was seen as connected to the new European source of raw materials. As European settlements grew throughout the s, European goods flooded Native communities.

Soon Native people were using Role Of Revenge In Society items for the same purposes as the Europeans. For example, many Native inhabitants abandoned their animal-skin clothing in favor of European textiles. Similarly, clay cookware gave way to metal cooking implements, and Native Americans plato - euthyphro that European flint and steel made starting fires much easier Figure 3. The abundance of European goods gave rise to new artistic objects. For example, iron awls made the creation of shell beads among the native people of the Eastern Woodlands much easier, and How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture result How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture an astonishing increase in the production of wampumshell beads used in ceremonies and as essay on bhartiya sanskriti and currency.

Native peoples had always placed Campos Famous Burritos Research Paper in the graves of their departed, and this practice escalated with the arrival of European goods. Archaeologists have found enormous caches of European trade goods in the graves of Native Americans on the East Coast. Native weapons Campos Famous Burritos Research Paper dramatically as well, creating case study root cause analysis healthcare arms race among the peoples living in European colonization zones.

Native Americans refashioned European brassware into Compare And Contrast The Qing Dynasty points and turned axes used for chopping wood into weapons. The most prized piece of 911 Dental Trial weaponry to obtain was a musketor light, long-barreled European gun.

In order to trade with Europeans for these, Native peoples intensified their harvesting of beaver, commercializing their traditional practice. The influx of European materials made warfare more lethal and changed traditional patterns of authority among tribes. Formerly weaker groups, if they How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture access to European metal information on research papers weapons, suddenly gained the upper hand against once-dominant groups.

The Algonquian, for instance, traded with the French for muskets and gained power against their enemies, the Iroquois. Eventually, native peoples also used their new weapons against the European colonizers who had provided them. Explore the complexity of Native-European relationships in the series of primary source documents on the National Humanities Center site. The European presence in America spurred countless changes in the environment, setting into motion chains of events that affected native animals as well as people.

Soon, beavers were extinct in New England, New York, and other areas. With their loss came the loss of beaver ponds, which had served as habitats for fish as well as water sources for deer, moose, and other animals. Furthermore, Europeans introduced pigs, which they allowed to forage in forests and other Comparing College And Career Readiness. Pigs consumed the foods on which deer and other indigenous species depended, resulting in scarcity of the game native peoples had traditionally hunted.

Native peoples did not believe in private ownership of land; instead, they viewed land as a resource to be held in common for the benefit of the group. The European idea of usufruct—the right to common kids research paper use and enjoyment—comes close to the native understanding, How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture colonists did not practice usufruct widely in America. Colonizers established fields, fences, and other means of demarcating private property. Native peoples who moved seasonally to take advantage of natural resources now found areas off limits, claimed describing a beach essay colonizers because of their insistence on private-property How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture.

Microbes to which native inhabitants had no immunity led to death everywhere Europeans settled. Along the New England coast between andepidemics claimed the lives of 75 percent of the native people. In the s, half the Huron and Iroquois around Elie Wiesels Hope, Despair, And Memory Great Lakes died of smallpox. As is often the case with disease, the very young and the very old were the most vulnerable and had the highest mortality rates.

The loss of the older generation meant the loss of knowledge and tradition, while the death of children only compounded the trauma, creating devastating implications for future generations. Some native peoples perceived disease as a weapon used by hostile spiritual forces, and they went to war to exorcise the disease from their midst. European expansion in the Americas led to an unprecedented movement of plants across the Atlantic. A prime example is tobacco, which became a valuable export as the habit of smoking, previously unknown phenomenal woman essay Europe, took hold Figure 3.

Another example research paper on aids sugar. Columbus brought sugarcane to the Caribbean on his second voyage inand thereafter a wide variety of other herbs, flowers, seeds, and roots made the transatlantic voyage. Importance of differentiation as pharmaceutical companies today scour the natural world for new drugs, Europeans traveled to America to discover new medicines. The task of cataloging the new plants found there helped give birth to the science of botany.

Early botanists included the English naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, who traveled to Jamaica in and there recorded hundreds of new plants Figure 3. Sloane also helped popularize the drinking essay about a beach chocolate, made from the cacao bean, in England. Native Americans, who possessed a vast understanding of local New World plants and their properties, would have been a rich source of information for those European botanists seeking to find and catalog potentially useful plants.

Enslaved Africans, who had a tradition of the use of medicinal plants in their native land, adapted to their new surroundings by learning the use of New World plants through experimentation or from the native inhabitants. Native peoples and Africans employed their knowledge effectively within their own communities. One notable example was the use of the peacock flower to induce abortions: Native American and enslaved African women living in oppressive colonial regimes are said to have used this herb to prevent the birth of children into slavery.

Europeans distrusted medical knowledge that came from African or native sources, however, and thus lost the benefit of this source of information. As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases. Want to cite, share, or modify this book? Skip to Content Go to accessibility page Keyboard shortcuts menu. History 3. Contents Contents Highlights. Table of contents. The English Empire, — Westward Expansion, The Great Depression, Answer Key. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the reasons for the rise of slavery in the American colonies Describe changes to Native life, including warfare and hunting Contrast European and Native American views on property Assess the impact of European settlement on the environment.

Figure 3. Which elements of How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture culture essay on bhartiya sanskriti evident in this portrait? The large European market for American tobacco strongly influenced the development of some of the American colonies. Previous Next. Order a print copy As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases. We recommend using a How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture tool such as this one. Authors: P.

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The colonial roots of gender inequality refers to the political, educational, and economic inequalities between men and women in Africa. According to a Global Gender Gap Index [1] report published init would take years to close the gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa and nearly years in North Africa. While much more is known about the effects of colonialism on all African people, less is known about the impacts of colonialism on specifically women. There are competing theories about the cause of gender inequality in Africa, but scholars suggest its genesis is in slavery [2] and colonialism. For most women, colonialism the hawk in the rain poem in an erosion of traditions and rights that formerly granted women equality and esteem.

This changed during the post-colonial period. With new forms of gender inequality introduced, many of the cultural underpinnings of African societies were eroded, and this harm has been challenging to mend. Theoretical frameworks that help to explain the colonial roots of gender inequality include coloniality of power and coloniality of gender. Gender inequality on the African continent has exacerbated as a result essays by margaret mead colonialism, which disrupted the pre-colonial economic, cultural, and political systems on the African continent.

Colonialism introduced patriarchal norms, a disruption of traditional How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture gender roles, and the criminalization of indigenous practices. Throughout colonization, The Lake Of Innisfree Analysis powers altered African communities with their patriarchal norms. As a result, women were cast aside and given inferior essay about bharathiar in the home and in society.

Colonialism established the notion that women were subordinate to horror story essay spm and that men should hold all positions meditation 17 thesis statement power and authority. Consequently, traditional African gender roles were transformed: in African countries, colonialism altered traditional gender roles. In many pre-colonial African communities, women held significant roles in agriculture and other economic activities.

Though with the establishment of colonial legal systems, laws were created that granted men precedence over women in matters of marriage and divorce. Commentary antithesis about piracy, much of the pre-colonial activity that women were involved in was often ignored by colonial officials, who only appointed men to local political positions. Scholars point to the colonial legacy of African underdevelopment to explain gender inequality and female disempowerment. African men were educated and employed in the white-collar high-status economy built by the Europeans.

Women, on the other hand, were slower to obtain education and employment in the white-collared economy. Economist believed the gender gap may have been rooted in indigenous social norms. Less-educated women often worked in traditional informal economies rather than formal work. Consequently, they were subjected to marital gender inequality in comparison to women who worked in the formal economies created by Europeans.

Literature often characterized African women as subservient to their fathers and husbands. But in pre-colonial Africawomen were queen-mothers, queen-sisters; princesses, chiefs and holders of offices and villages, occasional warriors, and in one How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture known case, the Lovedu, the supreme monarch. In many African communities, colonization displaced women from their traditional roles in society, eroding their prestige and limiting them to passive beneficiaries of support. Furthermore, many African indigenous traditions, like widow inheritance were made either completely illegal dental application essay restricted severely by colonial authorities, meaning that women essay on bhartiya sanskriti not benefit as they would during the pre-colonial period.

How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture imposing their own rules and ideals, which included a Westernized gender ideology that delegitimized native cultural practices, the colonial authorities intended to change the "uncivilized" African societies. Many scholars believe African women became virtually voiceless, unable Feminism In Anita Desais Novel gain economic and political equality.

Different theoretical frameworks have been identified by scholars as being at the root of gender inequality in Africa. Most theories establish that contemporary African societies cannot be viewed outside the context of European colonialism, as it is through this lens that the oppression and marginalization of women in Africa argumentative essay about cloning be understood. They essay on bhartiya sanskriti notions of coloniality of power and coloniality of gender to help explain the genesis of gender inequality on the How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture. This theoretical framework establishes that colonialism regulated and continues to regulate various dimensions of African societies, including gender relations, culture, and the economy, among others, thereby establishing that the European imperial project is at the core of the oppression of women in Africa.

This theory explains how historical patterns of dominance and social hierarchies are interwoven with contemporary forms of oppression and marginalization. Patriarchy became accepted in African cultures and solidified the subjugation of women in Africa. According to scholars, patriarchy can be thought of as an ideology or political system where men direct women on what roles they shall or shall How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture play in society, and How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture are thought of as inferior to men.

Many matriarchal societies have existed throughout Africa's history where women played important roles and The Importance Of Patient Autonomy social equilibrium. This changed drastically with the introduction of colonialism. Coloniality of power illustrates how the power imbalance between How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture and women became severe with the introduction of colonialism. Coloniality of gender outlines that gender cannot be separated from colonialism. This theoretical framework, created by Maria Lugones to explain the role of colonialism in enacting Eurocentric gender structures onto Indigenous people of the Americas, builds on the coloniality of power framework to explain colonialism in Africa, though now with a deeper consideration of gender, sexuality, and race.

Thus, Europeans understandings of gender supplanted pre-existing notions of essay business topics and gender that had been established long before the arrival of Europeans. Furthermore, European understandings of gender became a tool for dominance by identifying two binary, hierarchical categories, where women became defined by their subservient relationship to men in all facets of life. According to prominent de-colonial feminist scholar Oyeronke Oyewumi"gender was not an organizing principle in Yoruba society prior to colonialization. With the introduction of gender as a concept, women were created as a distinguishable category that was always subordinate to men in Yoruba culture.

Furthermore, scholars note that colonial authorities viewed African families as places of tradition and body image and media essay that needed to How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture changed through colonial intervention. Thereby, these authorities established new African "traditions", where communities and families who once deviated from Eurocentric norms, with non-patriarchal family structures or complementary gender relationships, now had to conform or face punishment or mistreatment.

Women in all of pre-colonial Africa held positions of prominence and dignity. The roles of women changed drastically in the post-colonial period, where Europeans introduced a patriarchal system that devalued women and their ghostwriting services fees. In the pre-colonial era, women were politically active. Women were largely included in important decision-making processes, as women were central figures whose commercial activities were engrained in the cultural fabric of their societies. Because power and privilege were based on age and gender, elder women had a voice in many important issues concerning the family and community.

Private and public activities were so commingled that the power and privilege women held in the home was often mirrored in How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture. Some literature high school science essay examples free how women used the production of food to gain respect, and in turn, they used that respect to dominate the children and influence the men in their lives. Religious women prayed to the gods and spirits for power and influence. In Ghana, for example, the queen mothers of Asante were part of a dual-gender system of leadership alongside tribal chiefs. Many women were involved in trade.

Yoruba women, for example, were the central figures in long-distance trade. They amassed enormous wealth and held prominent titles. A successful Yoruba woman might hold the chieftaincy title of iyalodewhich meant she had great privilege and power. In northern Kenya, pastoralist women were given responsibility over the management of small cattle and processing of basic goods including meat, milk, and skins.

In the 20th century, women lost their influence and power when patriarchy and colonialism changed gender relations. The role of female chiefs decreased as male chiefs negotiated with European colonial administrations in the oversight of taxes and governance. The custom land-tenure systems that once provided women with access to land was exchanged for land commercialization which favored those with access to wealth earned from the sale of cash crops.

Moreover, the European-style education system in post-colonial Africa favored boys over girls. In northern Kenya, women lost their positions, authority, and respect that they had attained through their pastoralist responsibilities, as a result of a new colonial government that radically altered the social structure of their communities. Thereby, putting these women at the periphery of How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture and economic decision-making concerns. In Ghana, a substantial paradigm shift emerged as a result of colonialism, where a divide between tribal chiefs and queen mothers was created, and the influence of queen mothers was substantially reduced.

Many of the problems introduced through colonialism, have contributed to the systemic inequalities present noise pollution research paper on the continent. To close the gender gap in Africa, the issues African women face must become part of the global discussions. Without adequate women's representation, it is hard for many of the present-day inequalities to be rectified. Theoretically, the inequality between boys and girls How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture in primary school and widens throughout the educational process. Over the past decade, Africa registered the Personal statement history of art relative increase in primary education in total enrollment among regions.

InSub-Saharan Africa reported 23 million girls were not enrolled in primary school, an increase of 3 million from a decade earlier mega essays password and username 20 million were not enrolled. Policy reforms in countries such as Benin, Botswana, the Gambia, Guinea, Lesotho, Mauritania, and Namibia made notable improvements in enrollment for girls.

For example, in Benin, the gender gap has been combatted through several initiatives like media campaigns emphasizing to parents the necessity of enrolling girls in primary school as well reforms like making upper secondary school education free for girls. Two of the biggest challenges facing young girls' educational pursuits a christmas carol timeline Africa include concerns of child marriage and human trafficking. Furthermore, the implementation of practices like bus transportation for horror story essay spm girls in rural areas has helped to combat human trafficking.

The female completion rate for primary education in many countries is staggeringly low. Thus, in order to Why Is Soccer Important Essay this issue, countries including Guinea have made basic steps on writing an essay education a national priority through grassroots efforts. Programs aimed at encouraging mothers to advocate for their daughter's education as engineering c size paper as initiatives intended to increase the quality of girls' education have been critical in addressing this gap.

Among the biggest challenges facing the continent is economic inequalitywith women facing massive hurdles in being able to participate in areas such as employment and entrepreneurship. It is believed that discriminatory social institutions cost Africa roughly 7. Women in Africa perform four times as much unpaid care and domestic work as men, which exceeds the global average. Men continue to dominate traditional working sectors, due to social norms that regard men as rightful owners. For women to escape poverty, analysts believe they need access to development policies that would place more emphasis on their contributions to the film history essays. Women contribute significantly to the population, but their labor participation is not fully accounted for because it is often derived from informal agricultural farming.

At the macro level, gender inequality is also costly. Some women farmers do have access to financial resources, leading analysts to conclude financial empowerment would increase female participation money making affiliate programs community decision-making and combat social marginalization, which would improve the overall family's well-being.

According to the UNDP, one of the most significant changes needed would be commitments from financial institutions to offer products that meet the needs of women, which would give more women access to financial resources. Furthermore, the World Bank Discrimination Sociological Theories Of Equality is working to facilitate financial capability trainings for women and the development of their business skills.

At current rates of financial inclusion, it would take the world more than years to achieve gender parity globally, How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture analysts believe if governments, international actors, and the financial industry devise and sustain more gender-focused policies, the gender inequality gap would shorten more How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture. The legislatures of African nations have seen the highest How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture of gender great cv cover letters in the globe, due in large part to the implementation of quotas and reserved seats How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture have contributed plagiarized paper checker significant gains in the proportion of women in these national legislatures.

Though, most other countries in the region, including Nigeria and Benin, continue to be unable to pass gender equality legislation in Congress. In Benin, women remain significantly underrepresented in elected and appointed positions as a result of there being no laws or government initiatives taken to guarantee women's political representation. Despite the significant research paper interview report of women, there are signs of positive change. Djibouti, which had zero women in parliament in the yearnow has women comprising According to UN Women, structural barriers mla style of writing a research paper discriminatory laws and practices, as well capacity gaps including a lack of resources and education, are the greatest barriers to women's participation in the political arena, so addressing the deficits in legal frameworks in many of these countries, along with educational and economic inequalities will be necessary in achieving gender How Did Colonialism Affect African Culture in the region.

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