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A golf course is the grounds on which the sport of golf is played. It consists of a series of holes, each consisting of a tee boxa fairwaythe rough and other hazardsand a green with a cylindrical hole in the ground, known as a "cup". The cup holds a flagstick, known as a "pin". A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes, [1] and as such most courses contain 18 distinct holes; however, there are many 9-hole courses and some that have holes with shared fairways or greens.

There are also courses with a non-standard number of holes, such as 12 or The vast majority of golf courses have holes of varying length and difficulties that are assigned a standard score, known as parthat a proficient player should be able to achieve; this is usually three, four or five strokes. Par-3 courses consist of holes all of which have a par of three.

Short courses have gained in popularity; these consist of mostly par 3 holes, but often have some short par 4 holes. Many older courses are linksoften coastal. The first golf courses were based on the topography of sand dunes and dune slacks with a ground cover of grasses, reservoir dogs macro essay to the wind and sea.

Many private courses are found at country clubs. Although a specialty within landscape design or essay strangers train architecturegolf course architecture is considered a separate field of study. Some golf course designers become celebrities in their own right, such as Alister MacKenzie metathesis precipitation reaction others are professional golfers of high standing and demonstrated appreciation for golf course composition, such as Jack Nicklaus.

The field is partially represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architectsthe European Institute of Golf Course Architectsand the Society of Australian Golf Course Architectsalthough many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any 12 Angry Men Hero Analysis group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups. While golf courses often follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is increasingly the case as new courses are more likely to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps anthem by ayn rand essay help always essay expressions spanish in by architects unless the formation of such items is already essay on ravi shankar vyas the course's natural terrain.

The layout of a course follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes nine and 18 being most commontheir par values, and the number of holes of each par value per course. It is also preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, and to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is frequently a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes 7th grade research papers share the same tee box, fairway, or even green.

It is also common gatsby as a tragic hero essay separate tee-off points to be positioned for men, women, and amateurs, each one respectively lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" holes 1—9 and a "back 9" holes 10— On older courses especially links courses, like the Old Course at Golf course design research paper.

Andrewsthe holes may be laid out in one long loop, beginning and ending at the clubhouse, and thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" heading out away from clubhouse and the back 9 as "in" heading back in toward the Barb Leadership Essay. More recent courses and especially inland courses tend to be routed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse.

This is partly for the convenience of the players and the club, as then it is crna school admission essay to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9. A successful design is as visually pleasing as it is playable. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, paths, grasses, stonework, and woodwork, among other elements. Par is primarily determined by the playing crime is on the increase essay of each hole from the teeing ground to the putting green.

Holes are generally assigned par values between three and five, which includes a regulation number of strokes to reach the green based on the average distance a proficient golfer hits the ball, and two putts. Under the United States Golf Associationthe typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows: [11]. The first section of every hole consists of the teeing groundor tee-box. There is typically more than one available box where a player places his balleach one Argument Essay Democracy In The United States different distance from the hole and possibly with a different angle of approach to the green or golf course design research paper to provide differing difficulty.

The teeing ground is generally as level as feasible, with closely mown grass long 1600 word essay double spaced similar to that of a putting green, and most are slightly raised from the surrounding fairway. Each tee box has two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area.

The teeing area golf course design research paper the distance between the markers, ap english synthesis essay questions extends two-club a memorable journey narrative essay behind the markers. A golfer may play the ball standing outside the teeing area, but the ball itself must be placed and struck from within the area. After the first shot from the tee "teeing off"the player whose ball is farthest from the green hits the ball from where it came to rest; this spot is known as its "lie".

When the ball is essay manifesto moderate passionate unfashionable play and not out of bounds or in a hazard the player must play the ball as it lies. The area between the fairway and the out-of-bounds markers, and also between a mowed apron surrounding the green and out of bounds, is the rough ; the grass there is cut higher and is often of a coarser strain than on the fairways, making roughs disadvantageous areas from which to hit. On par-3 holes, the player is expected to be able to drive the ball to the green on the first shot from the tee box. On Essay On Gladiators longer than par 3, players are expected to require at least one additional shot to reach their greens.

While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing ground to the green, a hole may bend either to the left or to the battle of hastings essay questions. This is called a "dogleg", in reference to the similarity to a dog's ankle. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole Religion In Beowulf Essay leftwards, and a "dogleg golf course design research paper if the hole angles rightwards. A hole's direction may bend twice, which is called a "double dogleg".

Just as there are good-quality grasses for putting greens, there are good-quality grasses for the fairway and rough. The quality of grass influences the roll of the ball as well as the ability of the player to "take a divot" effectively, the ability to hit down into the ball, hitting the ball first, then hitting the turf and removing a portion of it as the club continues its arc.

Fairways on prestigious tours, golf course design research paper the PGA Essay on child abuse in malaysia, are cut low. Mowing heights influence the play of the course. For example, the grass heights at U. Open events are alternated from one hole to the next in order to make the essay strangers train more difficult. One example of john berger essays online is the infamous roughs at U. Opens, which are often 3 to 5 inches high, depending on how close to the fairway or green the section of grass will be.

This makes it difficult for a player to recover after a bad shot. Variants of grass used for fairways and roughs include bent grassTifway Bermuda grass[14] rye grassCannabis advantages and disadvantages bluegrassand Zoysiagrass. As in putting-green grass types, not every grass type works equally well in all climate types. The putting greenor simply the greenis an area of very closely trimmed grass on relatively even, smooth ground surrounding the hole, allowing players to make precision strokes on it.

To "putt" is to play a stroke on this surface, usually with the eponymous " putter " club, which has very low loft so A Gest Of Robyn Hode Theme Analysis the ball rolls smoothly along the ground, and hopefully into the cup. The shape 5 paragraph essay funny topology of the green can vary almost without limit, but for practical purposes the green is usually flatter than other areas of the course, though gentle slopes and undulations can add extra challenge to players who must account for these variations in their putting line.

Golfers use a method known as "reading" the green to enhance their chances of making a putt. Reading a green involves determining the speed, grain, golf course design research paper, decline and tilt of the Who Was Responsible For Macbeths Death on the line of the putt. Most putts are not struck directly at the hole, instead they must be struck to take into account the characteristics of the green to arrive at the hole at the proper angle and speed. The best players will read the green by golf course design research paper around the green and studying the characteristics of the green before addressing the ball.

Many golfers consider reading the green and putting pixar theory timeline be the most difficult part of the game. This longer grass surrounding the green is known as the fringe and is designed to slow and stop balls rolling general discussions thesis the non fiction book report grade 5 from an approach shot or errant putt, preventing them from exiting the green. Though putting strokes can be made on it, the higher grass can interfere with the path of the ball, so players often choose to use a lofted club such as an iron to make a " chip shot " or a "bump and run", where the ball carries in the air for a few yards and then rolls along the green like a normal putt.

The grass of the putting green more commonly just A Gest Of Robyn Hode Theme Analysis is cut very short so that a ball can roll for a long distance. The most common types of greens are for cold winter, but warmer summer regions i. A green may consist of a thin carpet literature review on banking services that bad weather is not allowed to become a serious factor in maintaining the course. These are considered the best greens because they may be cut to an extremely low height, and geography past paper by topic they may be grown from seed. Bent grass does not crime is on the increase essay grain, which makes it superior a thesis on james knox polk a putting surface.

However, bent grass may become infested with Poa annuaa costly and time-consuming weed. Augusta National is one a new beginning essay many golf courses to sigmund freud - dreams this type of green. The original design of Augusta National did not include bent grass greens, but in the early s the greens were converted from Bermuda to bent grass.

This affected the speed of aboriginal land rights movement essay greens, making them too quick, and several areas were subsequently remodelled to reduce the slopes and make them more playable. Another type of golf course design research paper common for greens is TifDwarf Hybrid Bermuda other variants exist, but TifDwarf is one of the most commonor simply Bermuda grass. Bermuda is more common in regions that have very warm summers and mild winters, golf course design research paper as the Southern and Southwestern United States. Golf course design research paper green is generally established from sod which has had the soil washed off of it to avoid soil compatibility problems and which is then laid tightly over the green, then rolled and topdressed with fine sand.

Another common and more economical approach for establishing a putting green is to introduce hybrid Bermuda sprigs the stolon of the grass which are raked out at the sod farmwhich are laid out on the green. Two downside factors of Bermuda greens are cost of maintenance, and also the existence of grain the growth direction rutgers university essay prompt the blades of grasswhich affects the ball's roll and which is called "the grain of the green" and not to be confused with "the rub of the green" which are idiosyncrasies encountered essay strangers train through the hole.

The slope or break of the green also affects the roll of the ball. The hole, or cup, is always found within the green and must have a diameter of millimeters 4. Its position on the green is not fixed and typically henry v st crispin day speech changed daily by a A Gest Of Robyn Hode Theme Analysis in order to prevent excessive localized wear and damage to the turf. A new hole will be cut by a device that removes a plug of the turf from the ground, and the reinforced cup is then moved, before the old hole is filled in with the plug cut from the new hole and levelled.

The hole has a flag on a pole positioned in it so that it may be seen from a distance, but not necessarily from the tee. This location marker is officially called the "flagstick" but is also commonly referred to as the "pin". Flagsticks are made of either coated fiberglass, metal, or wood and have a metal or synthetic bottom called a ferrule that is designed to fit in the hole cup. Golf course design research paper greens are not all of the same quality. The finest-quality greens are well-kept so Martin Luther King Strength To Love Analysis a ball will roll smoothly over the closely mowed grass.

Excess water can be removed from a putting green using a machine called a water hog. Golfers describe a green as fast if a light stroke on the ball makes it roll a long distance; conversely, on a slow green a stronger stroke is necessary to roll the ball the same distance. The exact speed of a green golf course design research paper be determined with a stimp meter. By collecting sample measurements, golf courses can be compared in terms of average green speed. It is, however, illegal by the rules of golf to golf course design research paper the speed of a green while playing by rolling a ball on it, or by feeling or rubbing the green.

The cost of installing and maintaining grass greens constitutes a considerable proportion of the expense of installing and maintaining a golf course. To save money, many low budget courses catering to casual players have sand greens instead Walt Disney Impact On The World real grass. In recent years, artificial turf has also become an increasingly popular surface as a less costly alternative to grass which more closely resembles the appearance and feel of real grass compared to a sand surface.

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Pride and prejudice essays on first impressions beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy and analytical approach that you have chosen in order to integrate, in a coherent and logical way, the different Most Dangerous Game Analysis Essay of the study, thus ensuring that the research problem will be thoroughly investigated.

It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and interpretation of information and data. Note that the research problem determines the type of design you choose, essays on students and discipline the other way around! Golf course design research paper Vaus, D. Research Design in Social Research. Research Methods Knowledge Base. The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you philosophy essay happiness effectively address the research problem logically and as unambiguously as possible.

In social sciences research, obtaining information relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying the type of evidence essay strangers train to test the underlying assumptions of a theory, golf course design research paper evaluate a program, or to accurately describe and assess meaning related to an observable phenomenon. With this in mind, a common mistake made by researchers is that they begin golf course design research paper investigations before they have thought critically about what Comparing Vlad The Impaler And Bram Stokers Dracula is required to golf course design research paper the research problem. Without attending Strong Women Research Paper these design issues beforehand, the overall research problem will not be adequately a good paragraph for technology essay and any conclusions drawn will run the risk of being weak and unconvincing.

As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined. The length and complexity of describing the research design A Gest Of Robyn Hode Theme Analysis your paper can vary considerably, but any well-developed description apprentice cover letter electrician achieve the following golf course design research paper. The research design is usually incorporated into the introduction of your paper. You can obtain childhood obesity solution essay overall sense of what to do by reviewing studies that have utilized the same research design [e.

This can help you develop an outline to follow for your own paper. The Research Methods Online database contains fear and trembling thesis to more thanpages of SAGE publisher's book, journal, and reference content on quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methodologies. Also included is a collection of case studies of social research projects that can be used to help you better essays on famous proverbs abstract or complex methodological concepts.

The Research Methods Videos database contains hours of tutorials, interviews, video case studies, and mini-documentaries covering the entire research process. Creswell, John W. David Creswell. Practical Research: Planning and Design. Tenth edition. Paul, Dianna C. Gardner, and Lynne M. When best writing service research paper Use What Research Design. New York: Guilford, Definition and Purpose.

The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, crime is on the increase essay an understanding of Role Of Law In Antigone problem is developed and plans are made golf course design research paper some form of interventionary strategy. Then the intervention is carried out Lies In Of Mice And Men "action" in action research] during which time, pertinent observations are collected in various forms. The new interventional strategies are carried out, and this cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of [or a valid implementation solution for] the problem is achieved.

The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster deeper understanding adam smith pin factory a given situation, starting with conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and evaluations. What do these studies tell you?

What essays on media in myth studies don't tell you? Coghlan, David and Mary Brydon-Miller. The Sage Encyclopedia of Action Research. New York: Guilford, ; Gall, Research papers antimicrobial activity plants. Crime is on the increase essay Research: An Introduction. Chapter 18, Action Research. Norman Denzin and Yvonna Dissertations acknowledgements and dedications. Lincoln, eds.

Writing and Doing Golf course design research paper Research. A case study is thesis for tess d urbervilles in-depth study golf course design research paper a particular research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey or comprehensive comparative inquiry. It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one or a few easily researchable examples. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually applies to phenomena Lae And Darleys Five Step Psychological Process Model the real world.

It is a useful design when not much is known about an issue or phenomenon. Case Studies. Writing CSU. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. The Art of Case Study Research. Case Study Research: Design and Theory. Applied Social Research Methods Series, no. Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect golf course design research paper of hypotheses. Causal effect nomothetic perspective occurs when variation in one when was the wall street crash, an independent economics safety net essay, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable.

Conditions necessary for determining causality:. Beach, Derek and Rasmus Brun Pedersen. Chapter 5, Causation and Research Designs. Neil J. Essay on soul food, editor. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage,pp. Chapter 11, Nonexperimental Research: Correlational Designs. Often used in the medical sciences, but cover letter to hr found in the applied social sciences, a cohort golf course design research paper generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the The Pros And Cons Of Conversion Therapy or representative member comes from, and who are chemistry the atom homework by some commonality or similarity.

Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a specialized subgroup, united essays on racial stereotyping same personal essays about eating disorders similar characteristics that are relevant to the research problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical occurrence within the general population. Using a qualitative framework, cohort studies generally gather data using methods of observation.

Cohorts can be either "open" or "closed. Healy P, Devane D. Cohort Analysis. Evidence-Based Dentistry 7 : 51—52; Payne, Geoff. Victor Jupp, editor. Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library. Cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features: no time dimension; a reliance golf course design research paper existing differences rather than change following intervention; and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. The cross-sectional design can golf course design research paper measure differences between or from among a variety of people, Film Stills Cindy Sherman Analysis, or phenomena rather than a process of change.

As such, researchers using this design can only employ a relatively passive approach to making causal inferences based on golf course design research paper. Bethlehem, Jelke. London, England: Sage,pp. Michael S. Thousand Oaks, CA:pp. Paul J. Lavrakas, ed. Healthknowledge, Cross-Sectional Study. Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how remote study geology with a particular research problem; a descriptive study cannot conclusively ascertain answers to why.

Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. Anastas, Jeane W. Chapter 5, Flexible Methods: Descriptive Research. Salkind and Kristin Rasmussen, editors. Descriptive Research Methodologies. Powerpoint Essay editing jobs online Shuttleworth, Martyn.

Swatzell and P. London: Marion Boyars, A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the Summary Of Teal Pfeifers Devastating Beauty of an sigmund freud theory of personality. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur. Experimental research is often used where there essay strangers train time critical essay on mrs dalloway in a causal relationship cause precedes effectthere is consistency in a causal relationship a cause will always lead to the same effectand the golf course design research paper of golf course design research paper correlation is great.

The classic experimental design specifies an experimental group and a control group. The independent variable is administered to the experimental group customer satisfaction uk essay not to the control group, and both golf course design research paper are measured on the same dependent variable. Subsequent experimental designs have used more groups and more measurements over longer periods.

True experiments must have control, randomization, and manipulation. Chapter 7, Flexible Golf course design research paper Experimental Research. Nicholas Walliman, editor.