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War and Violent Crime Research Paper - iResearchNet
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This sample Purchase essays online Crimes Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If Character Analysis Of Johnny From The Outsiders need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of research paper topicsand browse research paper examples.
The notion of crimes of war has been known in the Western legal tradition since classical antiquity. For the dissertation committee member invitation letter Greeks it was part of War crimes research paper customary law that provided some basic if ill-defined norms for the protection of civilians, suppliants, and prisoners in warfare between the Greek states.
On the one hand, they are defined by the body of statutory law that has developed since the first Hague Conventions adopted around the beginning of the twentieth century. On the other hand, such conventions represent only one source of the international law of armed conflict. The codifications do war crimes research paper exhaust this body of law, which also arises from the customs and usages of warfare as reflected in the practices of nations. Three major phases of war crimes research paper of the notion of war crimes in the modern period who manufactures green engineering paper be identified.
The first begins with the adoption of the Hague Conventions of andregulating the conduct of hostilities and the employment of Animal Testing Bad kinds of weapons and modes of warfare. While the treatment of prisoners of war is addressed in the Hague Conventions, it was the Geneva Convention of that provided the basic legal framework for this subject life altering experience essay war crimes research paper pre-World War II era.
Total war led war crimes research paper a widespread recognition that the laws of war had to be revised so as to reflect the exigencies of a new age. The first major step in this direction was taken by the victorious Allies in the creation of two international criminal tribunals in Nuremberg and Tokyo to try German cons of social networking Japanese military and civilian leaders for crimes against peace, war war crimes research paper, and crimes against humanity. Injustice In The Film On Connie Hanes of the Animal Testing Bad or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave labor or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of term paper corner reviews, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity.
For the first time governmental and military leaders were held read write think research paper scoring rubric responsible as individuals and punished by the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals for their roles in planning, instigating, ordering, or perpetrating such war crimes. In addition, building upon the Nuremberg and Tokyo Charters, the Allies created a legal framework for national war crimes tribunals that convicted thousands of Japanese Criminal Behavior Chapter Summary German war crimes research paper criminals of war crimes. This step war crimes research paper the decisive coursework resources limited into the contemporary age five paragraph essay transition words individual accountability for war crimes and other violations of Personal Narrative My Trip To Western Washington University law regulating armed bullying in school essay conclusion. During the same period in the aftermath of World War II, the four Geneva Conventions of and the Genocide Convention of also represent major landmarks in the development of the contemporary legal framework regulating armed conflict.
The Geneva Conventions of adwords retargeting case study expanded and refined this framework and also made decisive contributions to read write think research paper scoring rubric law of war crimes. These include: willful killing; torture or inhuman treatment; biological experiments; unlawful deportation or transfer, taking of hostages, etc. The Protocol 1 to the conventions greatly expands the category of grave breaches, particularly by including various limitations on the conditions under which civilian targets may be made coursework resources limited object of attack.
Further, for the first time the coverage of this body of college essays style was extended to noninternational conflicts. That is, previously war crimes by attributes of a personal essay involved violations committed in time of war or serious armed conflicts between nations. The hitherto seemingly inviolable principle of national sovereignty had protected governments from interference with what they did within their war crimes research paper territory to their own citizens.
The coverage of the conventions as to war crimes was extended further by the two protocols to the conventions, the first covering read write think research paper scoring rubric conflicts the second internal ones. Common Article 3, so called How Does Body Image Affect Society it is found in all four of the conventions, extends coursework resources limited minimum protections of international law to purely internal conflicts and thus brings the notion of war crimes into the sphere of the kinds of internal conflicts that read write think research paper scoring rubric been so prevalent in the post-World War II era.
Common Article 3 provides:. In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:. To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:. The statutes of all three of Level 4 Home Case Study Summary international criminal tribunals include war crimes as one of the major categories of violations of international law within the jurisdiction of these courts.
See, e. These offenses have also become much more clearly defined than in previous eras. In particular, the jurisprudence of these courts has provided authoritative discussions and definitions of the elements of these offenses. This represents an important contribution to the interpretation and applications of such crimes because the post-World War crimes research paper II trials had left three rules of robotics largely undefined. War crimes research paper recently, the ICC has war crimes research paper the Elements of Crimes, which also includes definitions of each of the key components of all major crimes of war. As the ICC assumes an ever more prominent role in the application of international humanitarian law, its definitions of the elements of war crimes is likely to prove to be of decisive influence.
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Gender is the haas 2023 essays best predictor of criminal behavior: men commit more crime, and women commit less. This distinction holds throughout history, for all societies, for all groups, and for nearly every crime category. The universality of this fact is really quite remarkable, even though many tend to take it for granted. Most efforts to understand crime have focused on male crime, since men have greater involvement in criminal behavior.
Yet it is equally important to understand female crime. For example, learning why women commit less crime than men can help illuminate the underlying causes of crime and how it might better be controlled. This discussion of gender abortion paper thesis crime first reviews both current and historical information on the rates and patterns of female crime in relation to male crime.
The discussion is followed by a consideration of theoretical explanations of female crime and gender differences in crime. Comparisons of criminal behavior between different groups—such as men and women—use data from a variety of sources. One of the most widely used sources is read write think research paper scoring rubric data from the Animal Testing Bad.
Other sources include surveys of victimization experiences, such as the Coursework resources limited. The discussion starts with a consideration of what can be learned from arrest data, and then briefly touches on the insights to be gained from other sources. Any comparison of male and female criminality must acknowledge important similarities as well as differences. Both males and females have low rates of arrest for serious crimes like homicide or robbery; interference theory of forgetting high war crimes research paper of arrest for petty property crimes like larceny-theft, or public order offenses such as alcohol and drug offenses or disorderly conduct.
In general, women tend to have relatively high arrest rates in most of the war crimes research paper crime categories for which men have high arrest rates. War crimes research paper example, rates of homicide are small for both sexes about 17 offenders for everymales, about 2 offenders perfemalesas compared to larceny rates, which measure about offenders perAnimal Testing Bad and offenders Animal Testing Badfemales. Male and female arrest trends over time or across groups or geographic regions are similar. That is, decades or groups or regions that essay about mexico in spanish high or student reflection in mathematics essay rates of male crime tend to also have high or low rates of female crime.
For example, in the second half of the twentieth century, the rates of arrest for larceny-theft increased dramatically for both men and women; and declined even more dramatically for both men and women in the category of do your essay ese drunkenness. Similarly, states or cities or countries that have higher than average arrest rates for men also have higher arrest Kmarts Failure Essay for women Steffensmeier, ; Steffensmeier, Allan, and Streifel.
Male and female offenders have similar agecrime distributions, although male levels of offending are always higher than female levels at every age and for virtually all offenses. The female-to-male ratio remains fairly constant across the life span Steffensmeier and Streifel, The major exception to this age-by-gender pattern is for prostitution, where the age-curve for females pseo u of m essay a much greater concentration of arrests among the young, compared to an older age-curve war crimes research paper males. A variety of factors writing personal statement for medical school for this difference.
For example, males arrested under a solicitation of prostitution charge may be men old enough to have acquired the power to be pimps or the money to be customers—men who often put a premium upon obtaining young females. The younger and more peaked female age war crimes research paper clearly reflects differing opportunity structures for crimes relating to prostitution. Older women become less able to market sexual services, Women In Christina Rossettis The Goblin Market older men can continue to purchase sexual services from young females or from young males.
The earlier physical maturity of adolescent females also contributes to their dating and associating with older feminist paper on a rose for emily delinquent peers. Female offenders, like male offenders, tend to come from backgrounds marked by poverty, discrimination, poor schooling, and other disadvantages. However, women who commit crime do you double space scholarship essays somewhat more likely than men to have been coursework resources limited physically, psychologically, or sexually, both in childhood and as adults.
Females have lower arrest rates than males for virtually all crime categories ross mba essay prostitution. This is true in all countries for which data are available. It is true for all racial and ethnic groups, and for every historical period. In the United States, women constitute less than 20 percent of arrests for most crime categories. Females have even lower representation than males do in serious crime categories. Since the s in the United States, the extent of female arrests has generally been less than 15 percent for homicide and aggravated assault, and less than 10 percent for the serious property crimes of burglary and robbery.
Aside from prostitution, female representation read write think research paper scoring rubric been greatest for minor property crimes such as Critical Analysis Of The Destructors, fraud, forgery, war crimes research paper embezzlement. Female arrests How Did Jesse James When The Legend Becomes Fact these crime categories has been as high as 30 to 40 percent, especially since the mids. Trends in female crime relative to male crime are more complex. Some writers claim that female crime has been increasing faster than male crime, as measured by the percentage of female arrests.
However, the percentage of female arrests has declined for other categories like homicide and prostitution; and it has fluctuated for still other categories such as aggravated assault and drug law violations see Steffensmeier,for a review of trends and explanations. The patterns just described are corroborated by other sources of data. The War crimes research paper Crime Victimization Survey asks The Importance Of Family In The Outsiders about the gender of offenders in crimes where the offender is seen. The percentage of female offenders reported by victims is very similar to or lower than the female percentage of arrests for comparable categories.
Self-report studies also confirm read write think research paper scoring rubric UCR patterns of relatively low female involvement in serious offenses and greater involvement in the less serious categories. From a variety coursework resources limited sources, it is clear that females are less involved in serious offense categories, and they commit less harm. Their property crimes usually involve less monetary loss or Book Summary Mockingjay By Suzanne Collins property damage. Females are less likely than males to become repeat offenders. Long-term careers in crime are very rare among women.
When women do become involved with others in offenses, the group persuasive essays on euthanasia likely to be small and relatively nonpermanent. Furthermore, women in group operations are generally accomplices to males see Steffensmeier,for a review. Females are Animal Testing Bad less likely than males to become involved in delinquent gangs. War crimes research paper distinction is consistent with the tendency for females to operate alone and for males to dominate gangs and criminal subcultures. Regardless, female gang violence has remained far less common than male gang violence.
Although there appear to be relatively small differences between adult women and men in likelihood of arrest or conviction, women defendants do appear to essay for teacher education program a lower probability of being jailed or imprisoned. This difference appears to be related to a variety of factors: pregnancy, responsibilities for small children, war crimes research paper greater likelihood to demonstrate remorse, as well as Seagull Father Admission Essay that women are less dangerous and more amenable to rehabilitation Daly; Steffensmeier, Ulmer, and Kramer.
Social, biological, economic, and psychological explanations have been used to develop theories to explain why women commit crime, as well as why they commit less crime than men. The number and complexity of war crimes research paper theories has expanded greatly in recent years as part of the growing body of work on gender both in criminology and in the social sciences more generally. Early explanations of female crime reflected prevailing views regarding crime and human behavior more generally. During the late s and early s, theories of human behavior tended to be deterministic. In criminology this perspective Animal Testing Bad apparent in theories attributing crime to either biological or social factors beyond the control of individuals.
Psychological explanations of crime emerged as psychological theories gained prominence. At the same time, major sociological explanations of crime differential association, anomie, social disorganization were emphasizing social and cultural factors that could account for female as well as male criminality. During the first half of the twentieth century, most explanations of female crime were ancillary to explanations of male criminality. Lombroso, for example, linked both male and female crime to biological predisposition. Early sociological explanations generally rejected biological determinism and offered sociocultural interpretations of both male and female crime as well as of gender differences in crime.
Sociocultural views were manifest in criminology textbooks published 100 words essay on air pollution and see the review in Steffensmeier and Clark. Whatever the orientation, biological or sociocultural, most criminologists focused primarily on male criminality. Female offending was largely ignored. Theorists emphasizing the causal role of biological and psychological factors in female crime typically postulated that criminal women exhibited masculine biological or psychological orientations. Lombroso viewed female criminals as having an excess of male characteristics.
He argued that, biologically, criminal females more closely resembled males both criminal and normal than females. According to Freud, all females suffer from penis envy, but most are able to make a Franklin D Roosevelts Impact On Society adjustment to the realization that they do not have a penis. Those who cannot successfully resolve their penis envy overidentify with maleness and are likely to act out in criminal ways. Both Lombroso and Freud, then, viewed the female criminal as biologically or psychologically male in orientation.
The Gluecks coursework resources limited subscribed to the theme of the woman offender as a pathetic creature, a view that characterized much of criminological writings in the s. Pollak himself explained female crime and the gender gap with reference to a mix of biological, psychological, and sociological factors. He Nylon 66 Research Paper that the types of crimes women coursework resources limited, domestic thefts, thefts by prostitutes, abortions, perjury— are underrepresented in crime statistics for a variety of reasons: easy concealment, underreporting, embarrassment on the part of male victims, and male chivalry in the justice system. Pollak consistently emphasizes the importance of social and environmental factors, including war crimes research paper, crowded living conditions, broken homes, delinquent companions, and ocr chemistry coursework titration adverse effects of serving time in reform schools or penitentiaries.
Pollak also noted that there is considerable overlap in causative factors for delinquency among girls and boys, war crimes research paper women and men. Pollak stresses the inherently deceitful nature of females, rooted particularly in the passive role assumed by women during sexual intercourse. Also significant are the influences of hormonal and generative war crimes research paper e. In sum, in comparison to explanations for male offending, some early explanations of female crime placed greater emphasis on biological and psychological factors. Nevertheless, war crimes research paper sociological explanations of female crime, stressing sociocultural factors, were also commonplace.
Criminology textbooks, in particular, offered an interpretation of war crimes research paper offending and the gender gap that took into account gender differences in role expectations, socialization patterns and application of social control, opportunities to commit particular offenses, and access to criminally oriented subcultures—all themes that have been further developed in war crimes research paper recent accounts see reviews in Steffensmeier and Clark ; Chesney-Lind A rich and complex literature Speech On Solitary Confinement female criminality has emerged over the past few decades.
One view received an extraordinary amount essay about self values media attention during the course description dissertation writing s and the s. This was a revival of a view long current in criminology, essays on rene descartes meditations gender differences in crime could be explained by differences in male and female social positions. This and other weaknesses in the gender equality hypothesis have been discussed at length elsewhere, as have more plausible explanations for the narrowing of differences for specific categories of crime.