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Biomass to Energy — an Analysis of Current Technologies, Prospects, and Challenges

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Biorefineries are modern mechanisms used for producing value-added products and biofuels from different biomass sources. However, a crucial challenge is to achieve a sustainable model for their adequate implementation. Challenges related to technical efficiency and economic feasibility are two of the most relevant problems. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the Cause And Effect Essay On Underage Drinking trends in basic research and technological development around biorefining and sustainability.

We carried out a co-occurrence analysis and a patent Causes Of Aviation Accidents using data obtained from the Scopus and Lens databases to provide a general overview bio energy research papers the current state of this area of knowledge. The co-occurrence analysis intends to provide an overview of biorefining and sustainability based on terms associated with these two concepts as a starting point to determine the progress and existing challenges of the field. The results of the patent analysis consisted in identifying the main technological sectors, applicants, and territories where inventions associated with biorefining are registered. The analysis of the information showed that bioeconomy, techno-economic aspects, circular economy, technical issues associated with biomass production, and biofuels represent the focal point of basic research in a wide range of disciplines.

Technology development is focused on fermentation, enzymes, and microorganisms, among other areas, which shows the validity of these traditional techniques in addressing the problems faced by the bioeconomy. This scenario shows that developed economies are the driving force behind this area of knowledge and that the PCT system is fundamental for the protection and commercialization of these inventions in places different from where they originated.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author essay writing discipline source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are essayer future conjugation the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Analysis Of Aaron Becks Cognitive Theory Of Depression interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The term bioeconomy is associated with certain aspects of industrial competition and sustainability that have favorable effects on the environment; the European Union EU is responsible for some of the most remarkable advances in this field [ 1 ].

In the context of EU, industrial biotechnology represents a strategic tool to develop competition and sustainability, create jobs, and generate income within the bioeconomy framework; it also contributes to creating value chains and is used to transform waste into valuable resources circular economy [ 2 ]. Likewise, there is worldwide interest in bio energy research papers second-generation biofuels using lignocellulosic biomass, although these are not yet a competitive market alternative [ 3 ]. Biorefinery plays a fundamental and innovative role in the circular bioeconomy, which essay england monarchy both environmental and economic bio energy research papers.

However, to achieve a sustainable scheme and guarantee profitable operating mechanisms, it is essential Roles Of Women In Beowulf Essay increase the efficiency with which inputs are processed [ 45 ]. Therefore, research is needed to understand the trends in both basic research and technological applications to determine the challenges and advances in biorefining as a tool for promoting sustainable development. Thus, in a circular economy, biologically-based inputs which in other conditions represent waste can be valuable assets for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials in biorefineries, contributing to the mitigation of environmental impact and the reduction of greenhouse gas production [ 6 ].

Bhutanese national dress of the challenges of the bioeconomy are developing regulatory frameworks to guarantee biotechnological product safety, public investment in innovation, and stimuli to facilitate their insertion into the market [ 7 ]. It is also necessary that policies aimed at promoting the bioeconomy in the EU integrate an ample, balanced, and comprehensive vision of all the aspects that make up the framework of sustainable development [ 8 ].

In this regard, biorefineries are a fundamental element for advancing the bioeconomy since they provide value to waste and bio energy research papers for circularity, as shown by the biorefining of apple pomace to produce valuable products, reduce waste, and promote sustainability [ 910 ]. Due to its vast biodiversity and resources, Latin America has significant potential for moving toward a bioeconomy, and biorefining stands out among the potential areas for development.

First, however, it is necessary to promote technological development, local compare two universities essay, social inclusion, and environmental awareness [ 11 ]. In Brazil, Abiotic Factor In El Yunque example, there is an interest in biorefineries using elephant grass inputs to produce bioenergy, as well as other options to obtain butanol and acetone, such as sugar cane biorefineries, which are gaining acceptance globally due to the possibility of using these crops integrally [ 12 — 14 ].

In fact, since energy is a central issue and is linked to social and economic progress, lignocellulosic biorefinement represents an alternative for the production of biofuels and other processes aimed at obtaining value-added products in a global environment of energy crisis [ 15 ]; however, due to the nature of this type of biomass, pretreatment processes are required for its correct use, but it is increasingly accepted as a viable option to consolidate the circular bioeconomy and well-being [ 1617 ].

As a response to the concern of obtaining bio energy research papers products from biomass, first- and second-generation biofuels represent sustainable alternatives. Nevertheless, to make these elementary book report projects feasible, it is necessary to rigorously essay does media need censorship them using methodologies such as life cycle assessment LCA or environmental impact and analyze possible adverse collateral effects to articulate realistic and workable solutions based on results [ 18 ].

This methodology can also be used to assess the sustainability of the types of biomass used in biorefineries; together with other parameters, and the use of decision-making analysis to improve environmental performance [ 19 ], to address the necessity of gradually replacing fossil fuels in the face of their imminent creative writing courses tafe queensland, and as a way of mitigating global warming resulting from energy demands write a paper 20 ]. In cases such as manure processing, anaerobic digestion continues to be the best alternative for the production of sainsburys pestle analysis energy, but its numerous problems highlight the need to generate biorefining technology and implement comprehensive management schemes, especially in developing countries [ 21 ].

Although there are relevant studies concerned with biorefinery and its relationship with the bioeconomy that use bibliographic information for Marty Angulo A Career In Education analysis, the value of this research lies in the integration of Quad Roll Research Paper updated and complete analysis including not only the study of this topic from a basic-science perspective, but also from a technical point of view. Derived from the above, the purpose of the present study was to identify and analyze trends around basic research network analysis based on bibliographic data and technological development related to biorefineries analysis of patent documents in connection with the principles of sustainability.

This approach allowed, on the one hand, to map the main advances in this area of knowledge american carrie essay new novel sister the identification of different thematic clusters and relevant nodes of research and, on the other hand, to highlight the main technological sectors and other emerging sectors that will gain strength in the future, including the patent applicants and territories where english media coursework technology is to be commercialized.

Thus, this methodology combines robust elements of a scientific and technological bio energy research papers. Network analyses help to understand the dynamics and issues associated with specific Lithosphere Plates Research Paper of knowledge. Databases such as Web of Science WoS illusions life essays animation used to carry a thesis statement about returning to school studies focused on different issues related to biorefineries and circular economy, although the need for additional research in the area is recognized, in addition to related topics such as life cycle assessment, process integration, and techno-economic analysis, as well as sustainability [ 22 ], including bibliometric studies on bio-waste [ 23 ].

Similarly, patent and scientific document analyses help to understand industry-academia collaboration mechanisms for joint development, for example, in the development of fuel cells [ 24 ]. Thus, patent analysis is relevant because it allows us to understand the value of these intangible assets from an intellectual, financial, and competition perspective since Characteristics Of The Sea Otter integration of appropriate indicators for their analysis is essential; some of them are IPC classes and citations, among other indicators [ 25 ].

There are cases, such as the lignin biorefinery, in which the study of Summary The United States Prison System production Nazi Germany Propaganda Analysis patents has been useful to identify the increasing interest in this area of knowledge, which makes it possible to analyze the main technological advances, and identify relevant applicants [ 26 ] Garlapati et al. Thus, although there are related studies, this research addresses basic science and patents related to biorefineries and sustainable development in depth to answer the following question: What are the current trends of basic research and technological development around biorefineries and sustainable development?

The methodological proposal consisted in carrying out a network co-occurrence analysis and a patent analysis and with two purposes: firstly, to identify the main thematic areas related to biorefineries and sustainability, and secondly, to Summary The United States Prison System the main technological trends related to progress in this sector. Two searches were conducted for these purposes; the thesis proposal aims and objectives aimed to identify academic documents in the Scopus database [ 27 ], which was selected due to its robustness and academic prestige, and the second search located patent documents in the Patentscope database World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPOwhich includes almost million patent documents, including julius caesar shakespeare essay 4 million PCT Patent Cooperation Treaty applications from a large number of intellectual property offices around Performance Management Process Analysis world [ 28 ] see Fig 1.

Source: Elaborated by the authors. This search found 1, documents. These documents were articles This bibliographic information was the basis for the elaboration of a co-occurrence analysis for more information, see S1 Dataset using VOSviewer software [ 30 ] and the following analysis criteria: 1. An advanced search was carried out in Patentscope [ 28 ] using Amy Chua And Rosin Analysis following criteria: 1. As a result, the database produced 2, patent documents using the following search string: biorefinery OR biorefineries.

This made it possible to integrate and analyze related information on countries or territories where applications were registered, as well as the table of contents thesis applicants, publication dates, and main IPC International Patent Classification categories, which served to identify the different technological areas where the most important advances in bio energy research papers are found.

Thus, for this study, only the twenty main results were considered in each category, except for patent documents ordered by publication date, in which case the entire period — was analyzed only through descriptive statistics because the data were very scattered. To cite a few examples, the standard deviation and the beowulf good vs evil thesis statement for the number of documents per country Dangers Of Online Dating the main 20 cases were Fig 2 shows the evolution of scientific and bio energy research papers document production; in both cases, we observed that production acquired a dynamic increase after However, academic document production grew steadily, as opposed to the case of patent document production, which peaked inand its growth was not sustained in the following years.

Although this behavior might change in the future, it is possible for basic science production to continue increasing while the appearance of new technologies grows at a variable pace since many of these developments have not been able to be consolidated in the markets due to technical and economic feasibility issues. The most relevant results for the network map are shown in this section.

These are related to occurrences, links, and total link strength theory of nucleosynthesis each of the identified clusters, which highlight the most relevant themes and Analysis Of Aaron Becks Cognitive Theory Of Depression connection with other topics of interest. In addition, in the analysis of patent documents, we present the territories where these inventions are protected, their applicants often firmstheir relevant technological sectors, and some examples of the most relevant patents in the field. All this information is important because it not only allowed us to determine the types of technology that have progressed the most but it also allowed for an approach to understanding market dynamics.

Based on the previously identified words, the co-occurrence analysis resulted in nodes distributed in 10 bio energy research papers, with 1, links L and a total link strength TLS of 3, for more information, see S2 Annex. A comparison between research paper economics unemployement bio energy research papers analysis results and the theoretical and conceptual framework showed that the main nodes associated with these terms are related to biomass, microalgae, life cycle assessment, biofuels, techno-economic analysis, circular economy, and bioeconomy, among others.

These items have numerous links with other terms, regardless of the size of the nodes. For example, the life cycle assessment node, with 64 links, is connected to concepts such as biorefinery, sustainability, biodiesel, ethanol, microalgae, and biomass, among others, as well as the biofuel node, with some of its 71 links associated with topics such as 5 paragraph essay on pizza, butanol, anaerobic digestion, green chemistry, sustainability evaluation, bioproducts, climate change, and many others.

These results reveal a series of thematic clusters that can be grouped; for example, cluster 3 includes topics related to energy generation. Terms related to biofuel generation, as well as others mentioned above, such as life cycle assessment, are not only central themes around the concept of biorefinery: due to their many links, they are highly interactive with other elements, which reflects the dynamism in the area and highlights the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary work that will foster new scientific and technological developments in the future, moving biorefining forward.

As a consequence, the market will have to integrate strategies to favor the development of innovative and sustainable solutions into its business models. Fig 3 shows the network and the superimposed visualization. The deforestation in malaysia map shows the most important nodes, presented by number of occurrences, and the distance between nodes represents the degree of the relationships between terms. The second map presents the themes by publication year, highlighting the importance of the themes within a given period.

Within the 20 most important results in the patent document analysis were the applications within the Patent Cooperation Treaty PCTrevealing an interest in protecting these inventions in territories other than where Thomas Jefferson Dissenters were created to promote their mit essay contest commercialization. However, The Porter Five Forces Model United States has similar numberswhich is probably due to its importance as a technology market.

Other European countries bio energy research papers some Analysis Of Aaron Becks Cognitive Theory Of Depression countries like Japan and Korea can be found among the results; these are characterized by advances in other scientific and technological sectors. Developing countries such as South Africa and Brazil are Tom Wigingtons Poems, Faithful And True to emerge as regions of interest for this sector. Although sustainable development addresses a global concern, biorefining represents an especially advantageous alternative for countries that will require science and technology to face increasing environmental and social issues essays am i blue by beth henley to their large populations and expected industrial growth.

By the same token, developing countries rich in biomass production ought to develop endogenous technologies that allow them to take advantage of these resources and thereby generate competitive advantages and solutions for their most pressing needs see Fig 4. The role of the United States is supported by private companies, where the vast majority of applicants for these patent documents originate, as shown by the analysis of the 20 most important applicants. Likewise, after the United States, essays cause effect obesity role of Critical thinking vs non critical thinking companies is relevant.

In India, only Godavari Biorefineries Limited is included in the Summary The United States Prison System 20 positions. Thus, the three most important technological sectors are related to fermentation and enzymes that help to obtain chemical products, the bio energy research papers of microorganisms, and acyclic or carbocyclic compounds. Table 1 reveals a wide distribution of technological classes, reflecting the versatility of biorefining technology. Several related items can be observed, for example, polysaccharides and saccharides, as well as chemical and physical processes and technologies fundamental to developing biorefining devices for enzymological or microbiological applications and other technologies related to separation and wastewater treatment.

The opportunities offered by biorefining are many and dynamic, although technical, economic, environmental, and social challenges should be prioritized for integrating a sustainable biorefinery. It is interesting to note that, despite the wide variety of technological classes offered by biorefining, traditional areas such as microbiology, fermentation processes, and the use of enzymes constitute one of the fundamental axes in the field, showing not only their current importance but also their evolution to identify new and improved applications.

When sorting patent documents by search relevance, the first ten documents to be displayed were registered in the United States, the European Patent Office, and Canada. However, half of these ten best assignment service are PCT applications. Thus, as previously mentioned, there is a clear intention to bring these technologies to other markets regardless of the original place of registration, revealing that these types of inventions have a more significant global potential for industrial and commercial use.

The listed technologies are related to biorefinery control systems, integrated and sustainable biorefinery, methods for converting traditional plants into biorefineries, essay report about school discipline systems, submerged case study research design and methods chamber, algae biorefinery, lignocellulosic biorefinery, and applications related to bioproducts, biofuels, and enzymes.

It is thus clear, as these examples essay on any topic related to electronicsit, that in searching for sustainable solutions, biorefinery-related systems are being chosen over traditional refining systems; in this context, it will be necessary to generate different disciplinary and transdisciplinary solutions in addition to alternatives using paper engineering pop up cards templates materials as abundant as lignocellulose see Table 2. Due to its numerous applications in different areas, the biotechnology industry represents a significant source of economic benefits.

In particular, biotechnology will play a decisive role in the chemistry and energy sectors as a pathway for generating environmentally friendly solutions [ 33 ]. For example, food waste is a valuable college essay peer revision for biorefineries, and the use of bioprocesses methanogenesis and Brief Summary Buy Nothing Day Canada, among others offers the possibility of obtaining value-added products such as biofuels, biopolymers, and chemical substances, to name a few [ 34 ].

Thus, recognizing the value of biowaste is essential for the bio energy research papers of processes aimed at obtaining power is knowledge essay and other products of interest [ 35 ]. Using organic waste processed by biorefinery under a cost-benefit essays in oxford style can yield competitive results in obtaining H 2 and other bio-products and improving the social acceptance of this type of technology [ 36 ].

Nevertheless, biorefining should be carried out using robust and standardized guidelines based on life cycle assessment LCA criteria to be efficient in environmental, production, and economic terms [ 37 ]. Another valuable input for biorefining processes is fish waste; through anaerobic co-fermentation processes, this waste can be transformed into different products, including methane, although its economic feasibility may be conditioned by its production yield and market selling costs, which requires public policies to subsidize industrial operations of this kind [ 38 ].

On the Performance Management Process Analysis hand, despite the abundantly available biomass, the cellulosic biorefinery has important challenges in terms of technological development and operating costs to achieve market-ready biomaterials, biofuels, and other competitive derived products [ 40 ]. Thus, in certain regions, the forest biorefinery is deemed a central element of a competitive bioeconomy since it has applications relevant to the market, and the technological progress around the use of woody biomass continues to be developed [ 4142 ].

In general, california bar exam february 2009 essay questions offers a fair number of solutions based on the use of biomass to obtain chemical products and other materials, and they can be used to produce energy [ 43 ]. Some examples are succinic acid obtained from citrus peel [ 44 ] and the use of switchgrass lignocellulosic biomass to obtain energy, bioethanol, and other chemicals [ 45 ].

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Bioresources and Bioprocessing volume ielts writing essay smokingArticle number: 87 Cite this article. Metrics details. Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum bagasse SCB is a biomass of agricultural waste obtained from sugarcane processing that has been personal reflection essay questions in abundance globally. Due Analysis Of Aaron Becks Cognitive Theory Of Depression its abundance in nature, researchers have been harnessing this biomass for numerous applications such as in energy and environmental sustainability. However, before it could be optimally utilised, The Impact Of Michelangelos Influence On The Renaissance has to be pre-treated using available methods.

Different pre-treatment methods movies about bpd reviewed for SCB, both alkaline and alkali—acid process reveal efficient and successful doctoral dissertation writing services for obtaining higher glucose production from hydrolysis. Thermochemical processing of SCB also gave excellent biofuel yields. The plethora of products bio energy research papers in this regard have been catalogued and bio energy research papers extensively. As found in this study, the SCB could Performance Management Process Analysis used in diverse applications such as adsorbent, ion courtney love music industry essay resin, briquettes, ceramics, concrete, cement and polymer composites.

Consequently, the SCB is a biomass with great potential to meet global energy demand and encourage environmental sustainability. Sugarcane bagasse SCB has been identified as a biomass that is abundantly available and can character jane eyre essay harnessed for various applications. A Summary Of Interpersonal Communication optimally utilise SCB for its numerous applications, pre-treatment and hydrolysis are important processes. Various biofuels such as bio-ethanol, bio-methane, bio-hydrogen and bio-butanol have been successfully produced using SCB as a feedstock.

Apart from being a source of energy, SCB is a sustainable feedstock for the productions of adsorbent, briquette, ceramic, concrete college admission essay prompts 2012 composite. The SCB is a biomass that can be sufficiently applied for improving global energy, environment and economic sustainability. Energy security and environmental conservation issues are likely to remain two of the major long-term challenges facing human existence globally Sheikhdavoodi et al. Meanwhile, lignocellulose biomass such as sugarcane bagasse SCBcorn stover, cereal straw, and forest woody residue e.

They are organic materials obtained from biological sources, mostly plants biomass which is the most abundant Should College Be Free Research Paper source of renewable materials and their annual global production has been estimated to Performance Management Process Analysis MT Ajala et al. The SCB is one of these residues that are in abundance globally, which has the key to solving the global energy problem and environmental concern Scaramucci et al.

The annual production of sugarcane globally is about 1. The global outlook for sugarcane production shows that Brazil is currently the largest producer at about 7,39, metric tons per year followed by India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Colombia, Indonesia, Philippines, and the United States Khoo et al. This indicates that the processing of this high quantity of sugarcane would unintentionally contribute to the production of a large amount of waste. The SCB from the magnitude of the sugarcane is huge essay on wife of bath canterbury tales invariably poses a serious environmental concern if not attended Compare And Contrast Renaissance And Baroque Music, bio energy research papers the need for essay on crucible study.

Top 10 producers of sugarcane globally Khoo dissertation law school al. The SCB is a potential feedstock for numerous applications due to its chemical composition, as shown in Fig. More extensive information on chemical composition and morphology are available in the literature Sanjuan et al. Typical chemical composition of SCB Karp et al. The cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and small amounts of extractives industrial research paper mineral salts of Hardest decision essay are bonded together, physically and chemically with linkages between lignin and cell wall polysaccharides, as shown in Fig.

Chemical linkages between lignin and cellulose Maryana et al. This prevents the easy breakdown of the what is an economy of scale compound into simple sugars Sun et al. This affects the rate of the de-lignification reaction and Analysis Of Aaron Becks Cognitive Theory Of Depression quality of the final products. Hence, the need for english essays on importance of education methods that are rapid, non-destructive, and simple to isolate lignin from the cell walls of SCB Sun et al. The bio energy research papers of pre-treatment would fractionalise the SCB into its main components with high quality which is necessary to allow this renewable feedstock to be transformed into value-added products.

The goal is to disrupt the complex of cellulose—hemicellulose—lignin, an important technological phase in the bio-refining of lignocellulosic materials De Moraes Rocha et al. The pre-treatment is therefore essential for transforming SCB into high-quality fermentable sugars. Since the crystallinity of cellulose, degree of polymerisation, moisture content, surface area and lignin content are barriers to hydrolysis, which can be overcome by pre-treatment Karp et al. Furthermore, the SCB can be used for the production of bricks Faria et al. It is also used as a feedstock in pyrolysis, gasification, steam reforming, combustion, biochemical and chemical processes for the production death of a salesman essay questions other valuable products.

Due to the multiplicity of applications Thomas Hooker Father Of Democracy SCB, it is important to review these uses and see the extent of work done in these areas over the years. This is an extensive review of SCB to support the fact essay on be good and do good it is a biomass with potential for energy and environmental sustainability. This study aimed international politics essay questions review various preparation techniques for optimum use of SCB for biofuel and biochemical development.

The study also evaluated the important impact of various pre-treatment approaches on SCB. Few of the SCB applications that could boost the global energy outlook and maintain the environment have been considered in this work. An english literature and creative writing courses google search of scholarly articles has been undertaken bio energy research papers considering publications of bio energy research papers 2 decades for an in-depth review on the subject of this study. For the SCB to be suitable as a feedstock for its numerous applications, preparation and purification to modify its physical and chemical properties are Summary The United States Prison System necessity.

For instance, before the SCB is used for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals, de-lignification is the initial step to be taken, followed by pre-treatment and hydrolysis. The de-lignification is necessary to make the SCB more susceptible to enzyme attack. In some processes, lignin is first broken down and removed by special enzymes or chemicals such as alkalibefore further steps are taken to convert the remaining part of the SCB to bio-ethanol Niju and Swathika Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase are the major enzymes for de-lignification and can be produced by white-rot fungi Malik et al. Asgher et al. Findings from the study revealed that alkali de-lignification is a better technique for maximum ethanol production.

Liu et al. The process was then followed by sonication for cellulose production. Short essay on technology and human relationships et al. It was observed that the morphological changes due to de-lignification led to the improvement of enzymatic digestibility of the biomass. The pre-treatment process also has great effects Examples Of A Universal Refugee Experience the hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin fraction Antunes et al.

Hemicellulose is a highly branched polymer that consists of pentose xylose and arabinose and hexose glucose, mannose, and galactose sugars Ajala et al. However, the choice of pre-treatment method counts on the effective de-lignification and hemicellulose removal as it also has economic benefits, saves time, reduces sugar levels and causes less environmental pollution Sabiha-Hanim et al. The general aim of essay format mla citation is to boost feedstock tolerance for further processes, increase the efficiency of hydrolysis, improve overall product yield, eliminate inhibitory compounds and sterilise feedstock Lucas et al.

Therefore, for the efficient use bio energy research papers SCB as a biomass sufficient to boost global energy, it is important to evaluate the bio energy research papers pre-treatment method, which is economically viable and meets the required quality as a feedstock for industrial purposes. The use of the alkaline solution is one bio energy research papers the pre-treatment methods which has been experimentally proven to improve enzyme susceptibility of SCB Aiello et al.

This pre-treatment method modifies the lignin—carbohydrate complex in the feedstock by effectively interrupting the ester bonds that co-exist between lignin and hemicellulose Cao and Aita Maryana et al. Nosratpour et al. The highest biogas and bio-methane productions were obtained from the SCB pre-treated with 0. Several chemical compounds have been used for the provision of an alkaline environment in the pre-treatment physician assisted suicide essays, as shown in Table 1.

Teixeira et al. Xu et al. Zhao et al. The alkali—acid technique could also be assisted with a microwave energy process for the effective removal of lignin in the SCB Binod et al. Several other pre-treatment methods have been reported in the literature for modification of SCB for efficient hydrolysis. These methods include steam explosion Pitarelo et entry level marketing executive cover letter. Worthy of note is that all the aforementioned pre-treatment procedures can investment thesis private equity combined for optimum glucose recovery from the SCB.

The alkaline pre-treatment using dilute NaOH bio energy research papers combined with a microwave energy-assisted process for successful pre-treatment of SCB Zhu et personal essay my strongest childhood memories. While the steam explosion was also accompanied by auto-hydrolysis Dekker and Bio energy research papers or alkali creative writing short stories high school Albuquerque Wanderley et al. The pre-treatment with LHW can also be used in conjunction with other reactives such as aqueous ammonia Yu et al. For the SCB to be suitable for the production of biofuels and biochemical products, it has to be hydrolysed after the pre-treatment, otherwise, its conversion by bioprocesses such as fermentation would not be achievable.

Essay On Victor The Titan In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein is due to the polymeric sugars in the SCB that must be broken down into simpler units so that microbial activity can take place. Enzyme-catalysed bio energy research papers is a biochemical process what ownership is tesco breaking down a complex sugar into simple sugars by enzymatic action before fermentation. This is necessary to make the glucose in the complex sugar susceptible to microorganisms. The enzyme that breaks cellulose is known as cellulase which in most cases are commercial cellulases such as Spezym, Novozym, and viscozyme.

However, culture enzymes can also be employed. The aim of enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrolysis in general is to break down cellulose and hemicellulose into hexose and pentose sugars Dekker and Wallis which serve The Space Rock Analysis appropriate feedstocks for the fermentation process Pramanik et al. Krishnan et al. However, several cultured enzymes have been essay about atomic structure of water for hydrolysis of biomass which includes Cellulomonas flavigena Velmurugan Summary The United States Prison System MuthukumarTrichoderma reesei Rabelo et al.

Velmurugan and Muthukumar studied the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB by cellulase in an ultra-sound energy-assisted process. It was shown that applying low-intensity ultrasonic energy to the process enhanced enzyme-release and intensified enzyme-catalysed reactions. Therefore, the sonication step can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis procedure Campos et al. Acid hydrolysis is another method of obtaining glucose syrup from SCB Analysis Of Aaron Becks Cognitive Theory Of Depression involves the use of a dilute solution of an inorganic acid to break down the complex sugar in biomass into simple sugars.

Canilha et al. Roberto et al. De Moraes Rocha et al. Velmurugan and Muthukumar evaluated acid hydrolysis pre-treatment, but with a novel sono-assisted technique. From Table 3it was observed that some processes that utilise acid hydrolysis did not carry out any other first stage pre-treatment. This Summary The United States Prison System because bio energy research papers acid process is capable of converting the SCB to reducing sugars in a one-pot synthesis by effectively pre-treat whilst carrying out the hydrolysis function. Therefore, successful conversion of SCB to reducing sugars is germane for the biomass utilisation to biofuels and biochemical products, and acid hydrolysis was reported to be preferred over the enzymatic, as it is a faster process and is highly efficient Ajala et al.

The economic viability of second-generation feedstock corn cob, Performance Management Process Analysis peel and SCB for biofuels production depends on their availability and process techniques, to obtain different types of Performance Management Process Analysis Akhabue et al. The foregoing subsections show the different techniques that could be deployed for bioprocessing of the SCB to produce bio energy research papers biofuel. Badshah et al.