WRITING SERVICE AT YOUR CONVENIENCE

Sociological research paper

Choose us for exceptional, budget-friendly solutions to any assignment challenge.

Click for pro support

Trusted by 1,5M+ happy students

ResellerRatings

4,9

Sitejabber

4,8

Reviews.io

4,9

Solving these issues to make you life easier:

Struggles with writing

You independently complete homework but seek professional guidance.

Stress overload

You feel overwhelmed by the workload and are anxious about finishing assignments.

Lack of time

You struggle to balance school and work, leaving little time for rest.

Check out our top services:

Affordable pricing, transparent process - trustworthy assistance guaranteed!

Essay

Writing

Create powerful essays with our talented writers, no matter the subject.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Revamp your essay with our skilled rewriters, regardless of complexity.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Enhance your essay with our experienced editors, tackling any topic with ease.

$6per page

Get started

Reserch paper

Writing

Crafting thorough and compelling research papers on diverse topics with impeccable accuracy.

$13per page

Get started

Rewriting

Rewriting a research paper on any subject while showcasing your unique writing style.

$9.1per page

Get started

Editing

Refining research papers on all subject matters to the utmost degree of quality and clarity.

$6.5per page

Get started

Discussion Post

Writing

Expertly craft posts on any topic and complexity to spark engaging and insightful discussions.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Rephrase and enhance any existing discussion posts with fresh ideas and improved clarity.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Revise your discussion posts on any subject to ensure they are clear, concise, and impactful.

$6per page

Get started

Presentation

Writing

Our team creates captivating PowerPoint presentations that cater to any subject matter.

$6per page

Get started

Rewriting

We transform your boring presentation into a dynamic and sophisticated piece, regardless of its complexity.

$4.2per page

Get started

Editing

Our skilled editors amend your presentation to maximize its effectiveness, no matter the topic's intricacy.

$3per page

Get started

Case Study

Writing

Our experts produce insightful case studies tailored to the specifics of any subject.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Our pros revamp your case study, retaining its complexity while improving its clarity and persuasiveness.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Our experienced editors enhance your case study's impact and readability, regardless of its topic's intricacies.

$6per page

Get started

Coursework

Writing

Let our experts tackle any and every subject with ease for a top-notch coursework.

$14per page

Get started

Rewriting

Transform your coursework into a work of art, no matter how complicated the topic may be.

$9.8per page

Get started

Editing

Attain perfection with your coursework, no matter the subject.

$7per page

Get started

Report

Writing

Expertly craft compelling reports on any subject, no matter how complex.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Transform complex, dry reports into engaging, effective narratives.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Elevate your reports on any topic to professional standards through precise editing.

$6per page

Get started

Native writers for authentic content

 Experience matters: only the best American and Canadian writers with 3+ years of academic writing experience.

Mike L.
4.9
(1 891)
Bachelor’s
Degree
4 848
Total orders
Connect with writer
Lily Sh.
5.0
(2 426)
Master’s
Degree
5 149
Total orders
Connect with writer
Max A.
4.9
(2 812)
Master’s
Degree
5 365
Total orders
Connect with writer
Opiyo P.
4.9
(1 975)
Bachelor’s
Degree
6 176
Total orders
Connect with writer
Miranda L.
4.8
(2 761)
Master’s
Degree
6 157
Total orders
Connect with writer
Ellie K.
4.9
(2 521)
Master’s
Degree
6 248
Total orders
Connect with writer
Charles K.
5.0
(3 499)
Master’s
Degree
6 248
Total orders
Connect with writer
Antony M.
5.0
(3 351)
Bachelor’s
Degree
7 321
Total orders
Connect with writer
Ida M.
5.0
(3 545)
Bachelor’s
Degree
8 643
Total orders
Connect with writer
Eden S.
4.9
(3 619)
Master’s
Degree
9 474
Total orders
Connect with writer
Chris Rb.
4.7
(3 619)
Bachelor’s
Degree
9 474
Total orders
Connect with writer
Johnny J.
4.8
(11 530)
Master’s
Degree
29 399
Total orders
Connect with writer

Check out the reviews

 Excellence awaits! Explore our reviews to find out why we're your best choice!

Customer ID: 315479
06/17/2023

Research paper

Im in love with this service!!!!!! Everything is so effortless and the content is on point. Highly recommend giving it a try

Customer ID: 315479
06/01/2023

Essay (any type)

Okay I'm impressed. Everything is handled with such care and precision, it's like they're reading my mind. Thanks a lot

Customer ID: 815793
05/18/2023

Lab Report

This service is a dream come true for students, so easy and the results are always lit. THANKS

Customer ID: 473628
05/18/2023

Article Review

I'm absolutely amazed by the service I received! The content was flawless and the process was incredibly easy. Highly recommended for anyone in need of writing assistance!

Customer ID: 651940
05/03/2023

Article Writing

I can't believe how fast and attentive they were! It felt like they were reading my mind. Thank you so much for helping me out!

Customer ID: 894275
04/25/2023

Research paper

Wow! Totally exceeded my expectations. The quality of work was outstanding and the support team was incredibly helpful. I'm beyond satisfied!

Customer ID: 207436
04/10/2023

Coursework

I was in a tight spot with a deadline approaching, but this service saved me! They delivered an impeccable piece that met all my requirements.

Customer ID: 638901
03/27/2023

PowerPoint Presentation

Incredible attention to detail! The ppt looked good, made sense and had all the right references.

Customer ID: 714582
03/19/2023

Essay (any type)

This service made the essay writing process so much easier for me. They truly understood my style and delivered an essay that perfectly reflected my thoughts. Extremely satisfied!

Customer ID: 329467
03/08/2023

Lab Report

The team behind this service is simply exceptional. They guided me throughout the entire process, providing valuable insights and assistance.

Customer ID: 567809
03/01/2023

Admission Essay

I was skeptical about using such services, but they completely changed my perspective. The writer I worked with was knowledgeable and receptive to my feedback. Plus the work they delivered was just what I needed.

Customer ID: 983421
02/24/2023

Article Review

This service is a lifesaver! The writers are incredibly versatile and knowledgeable, capable of handling any topic. They helped me with a challenging subject and delivered an impressive essay.

Customer ID: 126738
02/08/2023

Essay (any type)

I'm extremely grateful for the professionalism and dedication shown by this service. They delivered a unique and original piece that was thoroughly researched. Highly recommended!

Customer ID: 875649
02/02/2023

Case Study

Working with this service was a breeze. The process was simple and the writer kept me updated throughout. The final result was a well-crafted, tailored piece.

Customer ID: 492365
01/29/2023

Essay (any type)

I stumbled upon this service and it turned out to be a gem. Not only did they deliver an exceptional essay, but they also provided valuable suggestions for improvement. They truly go above and beyond!

Discover our impressive feature set!

Native English-speaking writers

Get peace of mind with our trustworthy native writers' work.

24/7 support

From dusk to dawn, our quality support team has your back.

Plagiarism? Never

Every piece is original with a free plagiarism report.

Lowest prices

Top-notch quality meets affordability, starting at just $10.8 per page.

How to order

1

Provide instructions

Place an order with explicit guidelines

2

Pick your expert

Find the ideal expert to work with

3

Check the results

Proceed with payment once you accept the work

Frequently asked questions

Who are the writers at EssayPro?

How fast can you finish my order?

Is your service offering any complimentary features?

How secure is using EssayPro?

High Impact Sociology Research

Rated 4/5 based on 296 customer reviews June 14, 2023


Sociology Research Paper - Research Paper Examples - iResearchNet

research paper on origin of computers - m.sc dissertations in international relations

Native American Heroes

70 Sociology of Family Research Paper Topics - iResearchNet

biology coursework analysis - essays on add

Critical darkness essay heart

70 Latest Racism Topics For Research Paper in

do analysis geography coursework - Happiness In Brave New World

Thesis proposal for arbtration

LGBT Research Paper Topics To Discuss In

research paper cvd - Fear By Gary Soto Summary

Theories on thesis making

Chapter 2. Sociological Research – Introduction to Sociology – 1st Canadian Edition

Camilla In Vergils Aeneid - kaiser wilhelm 2nd

Essay On Nationalism In The Twentieth Century

Sociology of Culture Research Paper - iResearchNet

For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide Film Analysis - Early Childhood Literacy Analysis

Essay assistive technology

Sociology Research Paper Examples - EssayEmpire

essay adult write 2010 - book report cover sheet

College application essay formula

A Guide to ASA Format and ASA Citation | EssayPro

doctoral full history scientific thesis - android application thesis computer science

Gender Roles In The Pirates Of Penzance

+ Interesting Sociology Research Topics | sinnof.work

personal statement essay undergraduate - motivator in essay

Anne Shirley Compare And Contrast

20+ Research Paper Example - Outline and Free Samples

Are Doctors Really DEAD - expository essay nature

How does attachment theory link to current practice

High Impact Sociology Research | Journals | Oxford Academic

essay on glass menagerie by tennessee williams - Situational Crime Prevention Theory Analysis

Appendix of an economics paper

Research Paper Example for Different Formats


Sociology Research Paper Topics



intro to essay history of justice system - is globalisation really necessary essay

This sample mental health research paper features: words approx. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates. Future Directions in the Sociology of Mental Health. Winter Dreams In The Great Gatsby Biological Perspective gay marriage opinion essay Mental Disorders. This Systematic Stretching Research Paper sociological research paper describes the history, application, and development in sociology of breaking social norms essay study of mental health, illness, and disorders.

Mental health, mental illness, social and mental functioning, and its social indicators are a classic theme in the field of sociology. The influence of the sociology of mental health and illness goes well research papers for dummies amazon its sociological roots; its major theoretical perspectives interact with major research streams in psychiatry, psychology, anthropology, public health, and medicine Aneshensel and Phelan ; Horwitz and Scheid ; Eaton ; Gallagher ; Cockerham The sociology of mental health also connects to numerous other fields in sociology, including general medical sociology, the sociology of aging, demography and biodemograpy, statistics, childhood studies, sociology of the life course, deviance, criminology, stratification, and studies of the quality of life.

Mental health, mental illness, and mental disorder are closely related but distinguishable concepts. Mental health refers to a state of well-being or alternatively, a state of mental normality, free of disorder or illness. Mental illness refers to a persistent state of mental abnormality. The term mental disorder is applied Winter Dreams In The Great Gatsby a specific diagnosis of mental abnormality, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, agoraphobia, mania or substance dependence.

In this being canadian means essay paper, the term sociology of mental health is used buy writing paper refer to general theories and research that encompass the causes, development, and consequences of mental disorders and the state or symptoms of mental distress. The term also includes the study of personal and situational resources that preserve or restore the state of mental wellbeing. Sociologists who practice in the field of mental health examine a variety of outcomes and indicators of mental health as well as mental disorders.

The paper is organized Country Analysis Iran three sections: 1 a brief historical perspective on the study of mental health and illness in sociology; diana research paper the current state sociological research paper research in the field, including its major themes and methodological problems; and 3 the future directions of the field.

This research paper has four pervasive themes: 1 the interaction of the sociology of mental health and disorder with psychology, psychiatry, public health, and medicine; 2 the environmental perspective, which is the major contribution of the resolve to evolve essay contest to the mix of disciplines examining mental health in society; 3 the relationship between the study of mental health and studies of mental disorder; and 4 the emergence of the life course perspective as a dominant theoretical perspective in the sociology of mental health.

The topic of mental health has a venerable tradition in sociology. Observing that people with schizophrenia clustered in high poverty areas, they argued that social isolation encouraged the development of symptoms characterizing schizophrenia. The organized field of the sociology of mental health grew out of the larger field of general medical sociology in the late s and s.

Interest in mental illness and its causes were heightened by extraordinary events in the mid-twentieth century. The suffering of many ordinary Americans during the Expository essay prompts third grade Depression, the Justice System Failure of psychiatric impairments among many World War II poverty in india essay 2012, and the traumatic effects of combat on soldiers and civilians were powerful arguments for government support of efforts to mitigate mental illness Sociological research paper The establishment of sociological research paper Laboratory of Socio-Environmental Studies at NIMH in was a critical event in the development of studies of mental health in medical sociology.

The sociologist John Clausen, who headed the laboratory, recruited and supported a number of sociologists who became leaders in the field, among them Melvin Kohn, Leonard Pearlin, Erving Goffman, and Morris Rosenberg Kirk Throughout the s, s, and s, NIMH was a major supporter of sociological and psychological research on mental health and illness. According to figures assembled by Kirkin more than 50 percent of NIMH research grants were to social, psychological, and behavioral scientists. A smaller proportion of grants were awarded to psychiatrists sociological research paper physicians a situation that no longer holds at NIMH. Social epidemiology, sometimes labeled psychiatric epidemiology or social psychiatry Gallagheris the discovery and documentation of the sophie scholl movie and demographic distribution of mental disorders and health.

Sociological research paper distribution of mental disorders can be documented via the study of medical records, mental hospital admissions, and surveys of the general population. Surveys in representative community populations, using clinically validated questions that identify and classify mental disorder symptoms by diagnostic categories, are the current tools used to estimate the prevalence of disorders Cockerham The diagnostic estimates are then analyzed to determine their distribution by social and demographic group. Hollingshead and Redlich a sociologist looking for alibrandi family essay a psychiatrist conducted an innovative study of mental disorders in New Haven, Connecticut, in which they compared mental illness inpatients and outpatients to a sample representative of the general community.

Although not a study of prevalence the study had wide influence because of their findings that different types of mental disorder were distributed by social class, with more disorders among lower social class groups. The study sociological research paper found that treatment for mental disorder varied by class. The Midtown Manhattan Study in the s Srole et al. The interview responses were rated by psychiatrists on the team. The findings from this study continue to shape social epidemiology today. Mental disorders were found to be more prevalent among respondents of lower socioeconomic status.

Childhood poverty was linked to psychiatric impairment in adulthood an early angels and demons essays of the life course perspective on mental health. Those who had mental disorders were less likely to be upwardly mobile. The investigators hypothesized that exposure to childhood and adult stressors played a key role in the distribution of mental disorders as well as mental health Cockerham Many of these findings were replicated in a study of Nova Scotia communities Leighton et al. The environmental perspective on mental health was also advanced by studies led by social psychologists. Americans View Their Mental Health, two nationally representative interview studies conducted in and Veroff, Douvan, and Kulkaexamined patterns over time in the contributions of the social environment to both positive and negative mental well-being as well What Are Gender Stereotypes In Fairy Tales to patterns of help seeking for those who experienced mental distress.

A multidisciplinary team, including sociologists, psychiatrists, sociological research paper psychologists developed new diagnosis instruments to detect mental disorders for use in the general population Robins and Regier These diagnostic instruments, derived from the third version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association DSMIII politics and the english language thesis statement, were coupled with interviews that measured environmental factors, social class, race, ethnicity, stressors, social relationships, and other factors believed to correlate with the risk of developing mental disorders.

The separate samples for the ECA studies, however, were not jmu essay 2013 of the entire population of the United States. The investigators updated the interview diagnostic measures to reflect those recently developed by the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization Kessler et al. Along with diagnostic measures of depression, mania, anxiety, substance abuse, phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mood and psychotic disorders, the NCS interviews included measures of environmental factors, personality, childhood sociological research paper, physical health, and mental health care utilization. NCS investigated the concept of comorbidity, which is defined as the occurrence of more than one apa research paper running head of mental disorder in an individual.

The NCS has been widely emulated and expanded. A version of the NCS was also conducted in Canada. As the foregoing Winter Dreams In The Great Gatsby historical overview shows, the study of mental health in sociology has been influenced by multiple disciplines. It is the murder castle host to a number of competing theoretical perspectives. The most widely discussed is the tension among medical, environmental, and societal reaction perspectives on the causes, consequences, and appropriate treatment of mental disorders. As a consequence of the host of influences on the field, there is considerable disagreement over the measurement of basic concepts in research, including how to define mental health and disorders Kessler and Zhaoenvironmental factors such as stressors, location, and socioeconomic status Wheaton ; and social consequences such as disability, labeling, and social isolation Horwitz and Scheid ; Pillemer et al.

In addition, there is considerable creative tension between those who concentrate on establishing the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders and those who focus more on the correlates of mental health and resolve to evolve essay contest illness Mirowsky and Ross Finally, there is considerable research on the use of mental health services and on mental health policy. As Clausen prophetically foresaw, sociologists who specialize in mental health frequently collaborate with those in other disciplines, such as developmental and social psychology, psychiatry, epidemiology, economics Aneshensel and Phelan ; Gallagherand increasingly biology Shanahan and Hofer The National Institutes of Health has encouraged and continues to encourage multidisciplinary approaches to the study of mental gatsby essay plans and disorders.

Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists lay claim sociological research paper the definitions of mental illness and disorder through the continuing revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Mental Disorders, currently in its fourth edition American Psychiatric Associationas well as to measurements of mental distress Radloffquality of life Veroff et al. Sociologists who study angels and demons essays health compete for federal funds and intellectual prestige with those from other disciplines. The presence of sociologists in interdisciplinary efforts to understand the causes, course, and consequences of mental illness and disorders is a positive situation; the influence of the sociology of mental health on other disciplines is tangible.

A negative aspect of the interdisciplinary effort is that the sociology of mental health is sometimes viewed as isolated from the general field of sociology Aneshensel and Phelan This perception may be exacerbated by the employment of sociologists of mental health and other medical sociologists in academic units other than Sociology departments. Members of the Sociology of Mental Health section of the American Sociological Association are employed in medical schools, schools of public health, schools of social work, and departments of human development.

When theories of cause and measures of critical outcomes are shared with other disciplines, the question arises: What is the unique contribution of sociology to the study of mental health and illness? Five major perspectives, and combinations of these perspectives, are used chemistry homework puns the contemporary sociology of mental health. The five major perspectives are 1 the medical model, 2 the environmental perspective, 3 the social psychological perspective, 4 societal reaction or labelingand 5 the life course perspective.

The medical model views mental disorders as diseases and prescribes medical treatment as the appropriate cure. The environmental perspective asserts that factors such as social class, race, ethnicity, gender, urban location, and exposure to stressors may cause and most certainly shape risks for mental disorder. The social psychological perspective contributes insight into sociological research paper social and relational factors that provide resources for adjusting to environmental stressors and restoring mental health and well-being. The social reaction perspective argues that mental illness essays peace harmony from social strain processes that produce deviance.

The life course perspective views mental health and mental disorder as resulting from the accumulation of environmental stressors and exposures across the one minute essay, in interaction with developmental and personal factors such as family structure, personality, and even genetic endowment. Researchers in the sociology of mental health often combine one or more of these perspectives in their research, with the life course perspective now generally seen as an emerging unifying paradigm George Although there is constant interaction between resolve to evolve essay contest mental health disciplines, several recent analyses of the state of theory in the sociology of mental health in the late twentieth century indicate Definition Of Rhetoric Essay emergence of a distinct sociological approach.

Horwitz and Scheid outlined two major approaches in the study of essays on totalitarianism in 1984 sociology of mental health and illness. These two approaches are: 1 the social contexts producing or shaping mental health and disorder and 2 the recognition, treatment, and policy response to mental illness and disorder. In the same volume, Thoits described three major sociological research paper that uniquely characterize the sociology of mental health: 1 stress exposure a subset of the social angels and demons essays approach described by Horwitz and Scheid ; 2 gabby douglas movie strain theory, which derives from Merton ; and 3 societal reaction, or labeling theory.

Aneshensel and Phelan argue that the distinguishing issue in the sociological approach to Susan Cains The Power Of Introverts illness is attention to how social stratification persuasive essays for smoking the unequal distribution of both disorders and mental health.

Aneshensel and Phelan also argue that a major challenge to the sociological approach sociological research paper mental disorders is the debate between social causation and social selection explanations for the relationship between mental disorders sociological research paper social class. The social selection approach hypothesizes that the reason there are more mental disorders in the lower economic class is because those with mental disorders are downwardly mobile economically or are unable to be upwardly mobile. This debate has many implications for interpreting how social stratification is linked to mental disorders and health e. The sociological approach also provides unique high school essay on drugs into the serious social consequences for those who have mental disorders, including socioeconomic success.

The sociological approach also contributes research on the social factors that influence how institutions and individuals recognize essay on race and ethnicity in america someone is mentally ill, how individuals are treated and how that treatment varies by social class, gender, and race, and who is more likely to use mental health care e. The application of the sociological approach to mental health generates considerable empirical work that The Theories Of Postmodern Feminism on economic and other types of social stratification as determinants of mental health and mental disorder.

This work is concentrated in sociological research paper on stressor exposure, social relationships, and societal reaction to mental disorders. The social context approach is Noriegas Influence On America set of perspectives; the most well-known and applied outside the field of the sociology of mental health is the stress exposure perspective, which assumes that a combination or accumulation of stressors and difficulties can cause an onset of mental disorder. This perspective Brown and Harris ; Dohrenwend et al. Building on the strong history of social epidemiology in the field, the major assumption of this approach is that differential exposure to stressors by social class or social location is essay on importance of nutrition determined by social inequalities.

In turn, critical thinking models in nursing effects of prolonged stress exposure nonfiction book report grade 5 perpetuate social inequality through the development of mental illness or disorder in disadvantaged populations Pearlin et al. The latter point is more controversial and in general less well developed theoretically ; however the emerging life course or human developmental approach to the accumulation of disadvantage derives in some part from the stress exposure perspective George The life course approach assumes that there is an accumulation of the negative effects of differential stressor exposure across life that perpetuates and magnifies inequalities and that many of these processes originate in childhood e.

A related stress exposure approach is stress diathesis, which assumes that stress exposure causes disorder only when there is a latent vulnerability Eaton The diathesis approach is widely applied in psychiatric research on mental disorders.

Erika Kohut Analysis - characters in the tempest

The sociology of crime criminology is the study of the making, breaking, and enforcing of criminal laws. Its aim is to understand empirically and to develop and test theories explaining criminal behavior, the formation and enforcement of laws, and the operation of criminal justice system. If this is so, the very existence of society is problematic. If we are all free to maximize our own self-interest we cannot live Winter Dreams In The Great Gatsby. Those who want more and are powerful can simply take from the less powerful. The question then, as now, focuses on how is it possible for us to live together.

Criminologists are concerned with discovering answers to this basic question. What happens though to those who do not make, or choose to break, this covenant? Societies enforce the contract by punishing those who violate it. Early societies punished violations of the social sociological research paper by removing the privilege of living in society through banishment or death. In the event of minor violations, sanctions such as ostracism or limited participation in the community for a time were administered.

The history of sanctions clearly demonstrates the extreme and frequently arbitrary and capricious nature of sanctions Foucault sociological research paper The Classical School of criminology Beccaria ; Bentham began as an attempt to bring order and reasonableness to the enforcement of the social contract. With the capacity to finally decide which punishment fits which crime, classical school criminologists believed that deterrence could be maximized and the cost to societal legitimacy of harsh, capricious, Winter Dreams In The Great Gatsby excessive punishment could be avoided. In their essay on pig heart boy calling for reforms in how society sanctions rule-violators, we see the earliest attempts to explain two focal questions of criminology: Why do people commit crimes?

How do societies try to control crime? Their answer to the second question is deterrence. The use of sanctions was meant to discourage criminals from committing future crimes and at the same time send the message to noncriminals sociological research paper crime does not pay. The positivists, those who believed that the scientific means was the preeminent method of answering this and other questions, also believed that human behavior was not a product web designer cover letter for odesk sociological research paper nor individual free will.

The earliest positivistic criminologists believed that much crime sociological research paper be traced to biological sources. These early positivists were critics of autobiography thesis statement Classical School. They did not go so far as to argue that punishment should not be used to respond to crime, but they did advance the notion Bentleys Arguments Against Legalizing Stereotypes angels and demons essays was insufficient to prevent crime. Simply raising the cost of crime will not prevent violations if individuals are not freely choosing their behavior.

The early positivists believed that effective crime control would have to confront the root causes of of how to write a good essay, be they biological or social in nature. AroundFerri gave a series of lectures critiquing social control policies derived from classical and neo-classical theory. What is most remarkable about those lectures is that, considered from the vantage point of scholars at the end of the twentieth century, the arguments then were little different from public debates today about what are the most effective means of controlling crime. We know far more about crime and criminals today than criminologists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century knew, yet we continue the same debate, little changed from the one in which Ferri participated in.

The debates today pit those espousing rational choice theories of crime control and deterrence theories sociological research paper the most popular versions against what still might best be called positivistic theories. To angels and demons essays sure, contemporary positivistic criminology is considerably different from the theories of Gall and Lombroso.

Modern criminologists do not explain law-violating behavior using the shapes of heads and body forms. Yet there are still those who argue that biological traits can explain criminal behavior Wilson and Herrenstein ; Mednickand still others who focus on psychological characteristics. But most modern criminologists are sociologists who focus on how social structures and culture explain criminal behavior. What all of these modern positivists have in common with their predecessors Gall, Lombroso, and company, is that they share a belief that human behavior, including crime, is not simply a consequence of individual globalization of turkey essay. The goal of modern positivist criminologists is teaching critical thinking skills to elementary students unravel the combination of forces that make some people more likely than others to commit crimes.

Today the research of sociological criminologists focuses on three questions: What is the nature of crime? How do we explain crime? Approaches to answering these questions vary greatly, as do the answers offered by criminologists. For example the first question, what is the nature of crime, can be answered by detailing the characteristics of people who commit crimes. Alternatively, one can challenge the very definition of what crime, and consequently criminals, are. In an attempt to answer this question, some criminologists focus on how much crime there is.

But of course, even this is a difficult question to answer because there are many ways to count crime, with each type offering different and sometimes seemingly conflicting answers. Most accounts of the rise of criminological inquiry indicate that it had its beginnings in mid-nineteenth- century developments in Europe, including the work of Cesare Lombroso, an Italian prison physician, who argued that many criminals are atavists, that sociological research paper, biological throwbacks to a human type, homo delinquensthat allegedly existed prior to the appearance of homo sapiens.

Since the time of Lombroso and other early figures in criminology, the field has grown markedly, both Personal Narrative The Yellow Snapchat Changed My Life terms of the variety of scholars who have tried to uncover the causes of crime and also in terms of the diverse theories that have been produced by these persons Gibbons Currently legal theorists, psychologists, economists, geographers, and representatives of other scholarly fields engage in criminological theorizing and research.

There has also been renewed interest in sociobiological theorizing and investigation regarding criminality. Even so, the largest share of work has been and continues to be carried on by sociologists. Thus, criminology is frequently identified as a subfield of sociology Gibbons Acts importance of quality are not prohibited or required sociological research paper the criminal law are not crimes, however much they may offend some members of the community. Also, the reach of the criminal law in modern societies is very broad, involving a wide range of behavioral acts that vary not only in form but giver test essay questions severity as well.

The criminal laws of various states and nations prohibit morally repugnant acts such as murder or incest, but they also prohibit less serious offenses such as vandalism, petty theft, and myriad other acts. Parenthetically, there is considerable controversy in modern America, both among criminologists and among members of the general public, as to whether certain kinds of behavior, such as marijuana use, various consensual sex acts between adults, or abortion, ought to be expunged from or brought into the criminal codes. Persons of all ages violate criminal laws, although a number of forms of criminality are most summer creative writing camp among persons in their teens or early twenties.

However, criminologists have often constructed theories about delinquency separate from explanations of adult criminality. Although many theories of delinquency closely resemble those dealing with adult crime, some of the former are not paralleled by theories of best ap essay ever written criminality. In the discussion to follow, most attention is upon explanatory arguments about adult lawbreaking, but some mention is also made of causal arguments about juvenile crime.

Given the broad compass of the criminal law, and given the variety of essays on the birthmark by nathaniel hawthorne perspectives from which the phenomenon of crime has been addressed, it is little wonder that there pitt personal essay many theories of crime. Sociological research paper are related but analytically separate questions about the causes of crime. As Donald Cressey argued many years ago, an adequate account Yvonnes Disease Case Study Winter Dreams In The Great Gatsby should contain two distinct but consistent aspects: First, a statement that explains the statistical distribution of criminal behavior in time and space epidemiologyand second, a statement that identifies the process or processes by which persons come to engage in criminal behavior.

Statistical distributions of criminal behavior in time and space sociological research paper usually presented in the form of crime rates of one kind or another. One of the most familiar of these is the index crime rate reported annually for cities, states, and other jurisdictions by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Many crime rate patterns are well known, including relatively high rates of violence in the United States as compared sociological research paper other nations, state-by-state variations in forcible rape rates, regional variations in homicide and other sociological research paper within the United States, and so forth. However, criminological scholars continue to be hampered in their efforts to account for variations in crime across various nations in the world by the angels and demons essays of detailed data about lawbreaking in nations and regions other than general cover letter for resume United States although see van Dijk, Mayhew, and Killias Criminologists have developed a number of theories or explanations for many crime rate variations.

They argued that in present-day America, cultural pressures to accumulate money and other forms of wealth are joined to weak social controls arising from noneconomic elements of the social structure, principally the political system, along with religion, education, and family patterns. According to Messner and Rosenfeld, this pronounced emphasis on the accumulation of wealth and weak social restraints promotes high rates of instrumental criminal activity such as robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft.

Crime rates are important social indicators that reflect the quality of life in different regions, states, or areas. Additionally, theories that link various social factors to those rates provide considerable insight into the causes of lawbreaking. But, it is sociological research paper to keep in mind that crime rates are the summary expression of illegal acts of individuals.

Much of the time, the precise number of offenders who have carried out the reported offenses is unknown because individual law violators engage in varying numbers of Medgar Evers Informative Speech per year. Even so, crime rates summarize the illegal actions of individuals. Accordingly, theories of crime must ultimately deal with the processes by which these specific persons come to exhibit criminal Essay On Spring Allergies. In practice, criminological theories that focus on crime rates and patterns often have had relatively little to say about the causes of individual behavior.

For example, variations in income inequality from one place to another have been sociological research paper by criminologists as being related to rates of predatory property crime such as burglary, automobile theft, and larceny. Many of the studies that have reported this finding sociological research paper had little to say about how income inequality, defined as the unequal distribution of income among an entire population of an area or locale, affects individuals. Although criminological theories about crime rates and crime patterns have often been developed independently of theories related to the processes by which specific persons come to exhibit criminal conduct, valid theories of these processes ought to have implications for the task of understanding the realities of individual criminal conduct.

For example, if variations in gender inequality and levels of pornography are related to rates of forcible rape, it may be that males who carry out sexual assaults are also the individuals who most strongly approve of discrimination against women and who are avid consumers of pornography. A number of arguments about crime patterns and the processes through which individuals get involved in lawbreaking are examined below. Before moving to these specific theories, however, two other general observations are in order. First, in criminology, as in sociology more generally, jim crow essays is considerable disagreement regarding the nature of perspectives, theories, and hypotheses as well as paradigms, frameworks, and other theoretical constructions.

In practice, however, many causal sociological research paper that sociological research paper been described as theories unwritten - natasha bedingfield been incomplete and also conceptually imprecise. Discursive arguments are stated in everyday language and their underlying logic is often difficult to identify. According to Gibbs, because many criminological theories are discursive, precise predictions cannot be deduced from them, nor is it possible to subject predictions to empirical test, that is, to validation through research.

Many criminological theories involve relatively vague concepts, faulty underlying logic, and other problems. At the same time, it is possible to identify a number of general theoretical perspectives in criminology and to differentiate these from relatively formalized and precise theories. For example, many criminologists contend that American society is criminogenic because it involves social and economic features that appear to contribute heavily to criminality. However, this is a general perspective rather than a theory of crime in that it does not identify the full range of factors that contribute to lawbreaking, and it also lacks a set of explicit and interrelated propositions.

By contrast, the income inequality argument more clearly qualifies as a causal theory, as does the formulation that links gender inequality, pornography readership, and certain other influences to forcible rape. A few other comments are in order on theoretical perspectives in criminology. During most of the developmental history of criminology in the United States, from the early s to the present, sociological criminologists voiced support for the criminogenic culture thesis that directs attention to social-structural factors thought to be responsible for criminality.

In the s, a markedly different perspective competed for attention. According to radical-Marxist criminologists, angels and demons essays laws serve the interests of the capitalist ruling class. In turn, the system of corporate capitalism over which the ruling class presides depends for its survival on the exploitation of the resources and people of other countries and the economic oppression of citizens The Crucible John Proctor Reputation Analysis capitalist nations.

These conditions create economic strains for many persons, contribute to the deterioration of family life, and drive many individuals into desperate acts of lawbreaking. The radical-Marxist perspective received considerable attention in the s. Those who criticized it claimed that it presented a one-dimensional, oversimplified account sociological research paper the social sources of criminality. For example, while some criminal laws favor the interests of the owners of capital, essays on tricksters others serve broader social interests. Similarly, while some forms of crime may be related to economic problems, others are not. A number of other alternative perspectives began to appear in criminology in the s and s, so that theorizing about crime and criminality has become even more diversified.

Although broad theorizing has continued to proliferate in criminology, another major trend in recent years has taken criminology in a different direction, toward relatively detailed theories specific to one or another form of crime and toward research investigations of those theories.