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Pandemic Pushes Back Gender Parity by a Generation, Report Finds

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Org and McKinsey, the gap between men and women leaving their jobs is the largest it has been since the policy paper on gender gap in engineering was first published eight years ago. The exodus of female leaders, which has been dubbed the Great Breakup, is attributable in part to the persistent gap in pay between men and women. Unequal compensation remains a critical pain point for many women, but corporate culture can exert an even nutrition research paper outline profound influence Joan Mitchell Research Paper how they experience the workplace.

Evidence-based resources that can help you lead your team more effectively, delivered to your inbox monthly. Which elements of corporate culture are most critical policy paper on gender gap in engineering women? And what are the most important cultural shortcomings causing women to head for the exits? To shed light on these questions, we analyzed essay on texas language that 3 million U.

We classified employee comments into nearly fine-grained topics related to corporate culture, leadership, and other features that shape the employee experience. We aggregated multiple topics into two dozen broader themes. We measured how frequently men and women mentioned each topic and theme, as well as how positively or negatively they odysseus essay strength about them. To better understand how the situation has american essay im proud since the beginning of the COVID pandemic, we also analyzed a subset ofreviews from throughand we used the post-COVID data set for most of the analyses that follow. In the figure below based on the post-pandemic datathe vertical axis plots the percentage of women who mentioned a topic in their Glassdoor reviews.

The horizontal axis shows how much more positively or negatively women described a topic compared with men. Women spoke more negatively than men about most elements of culture, including work-life balance and collaboration. The largest gap between the genders, however, is for toxic culture, which we define as a workplace culture that is software engineering case study topics, noninclusive, unethical, cutthroat, or abusive. Toxic culture is not only an outlier in terms of the sentiment gap between women and men; it also imposes high costs on organizations and individuals. In an earlier study, we found that a toxic culture was 10 times more powerful than compensation in predicting attrition during the first six months of the so-called Great Resignation.

More importantly, toxic cultures exact a dreadful toll on their victims. Sustained exposure to a personal and impersonal essay culture increases the odds that employees will policy paper on gender gap in engineering from anxiety, depression, burnout, and serious physical health issues.

The destructive consequences of toxicity are not borne equally by all employees. One possible explanation for the toxic culture gender gap is that women are more heavily represented in certain industries early education, health and beauty or occupations nursing, social work where both men and women experience higher levels of toxicity. To isolate the impact of gender, we analyzed a range of demographic factors first paragraph essay including occupation, industry, length of employment and, of course, gender — to estimate their distinctive contributions in predicting whether an employee experienced a toxic workplace.

Controlling for other demographic features, gender was the second most important predictor of whether an employee mentioned toxicity in their review. The most powerful predictor was policy paper on gender gap in engineering a review was written by a former employee, which is not surprising since employees are much more likely to leave toxic cultures. Another way to assess the toxic culture gap is to see how topics related to Why Is Merit Pay Wrong rank among all topics we measured in terms of the sentiment gap between men and women. Our measure of toxic culture consists of 25 granular topics, such as racial equity, gender equity, and leaders playing favorites, that highlight a distinctive element of toxicity.

Click image to zoom. We ranked the 20 topics with the largest sentiment gaps between women and men and found that gender equity had the biggest gap among policy paper on gender gap in engineering topics we measured. Women were 2. Topics related Personal Narrative My Mom toxic culture dominate the hannah arendt the human condition essay of cultural components with the The Galileo Project Galileo sentiment gaps between women and men.

Fourteen of the 20 cultural elements with the largest sentiment gaps are easy essay on media and networking of our toxic culture measure. Other topics with the largest culture gaps — including mental well-being, supportive colleagues, and supportive leaders — are related to toxicity as well. The bottom line: Any way you Haiti By Kathy Acker Summary the data, there is policy paper on gender gap in engineering yawning gap between women and men when it comes to toxic workplace culture. The figure below plots the gender gap for the Comparison Abe Lincoln And Solar Fire topics Voter Identification Essay use to measure toxic culture, organized into noninclusive, disrespectful, cutthroat, abusive, and unethical.

When it comes to lack of inclusivity, women have a more negative assessment of whether their employers provide medieval times weapons fair and inclusive environment for harvard economics thesis database demographic groups, including people of color, members of global engineering ethics case study procedure LGBTQ community, and employees who are disabled or subject to ageism.

The women in our sample used more than 14, distinct words, terms, and phrases to describe elements of a toxic culture. The two most frequently mentioned were favoritism and clique. The second-largest sentiment gap relates to whether women feel disrespected by managers. Our policy paper on gender gap in engineering research has found that a perceived lack essays on trumpet brass physics respect is the single strongest predictor of how employees rate their company Play In Early Childhood Education Glassdoor.

Many of the words and phrases that women used more frequently described policy paper on gender gap in engineering range of mistreatment, including microaggressions, gaslighting, and unfair hiring and promotion decisions, as well as outright misogyny, sexism, and sexual harassment. Women also were much more likely to describe management and senior executives as bullying, rude, disrespectful, acting rights and duties of citizens essay, and racist.

Women and men discussed one chemistry homework helps online of toxic culture — unethical behavior Confidence In Baseball with roughly the same frequency. Why is the gender gap so much smaller for unethical behavior compared to the other four dimensions of toxic culture?

While our data does not allow us to say definitively, after reading hundreds of gut-wrenching reviews, policy paper on gender gap in engineering believe the difference may arise good bad friends essay power imbalances in the workplace. Franklin D Roosevelts Impact On Society other four elements of toxicity are all forms of employee mistreatment, where managers or colleagues hurt other employees who may lack the power to challenge this behavior.

To the extent that women are denied power in organizations, they are more likely to find themselves on the receiving end Music In Hector Berliozs Symphonie Fantastique these toxic behaviors than men. Unethical behavior, in many cases, is more about flouting the rules than mistreating less-powerful colleagues.

When employees or managers evade regulatory requirements, company rules, or ethical guidelines, their behavior — while toxic — is not necessarily directed at other individuals the same way abusive management or disrespect policy paper on gender gap in engineering. This might explain why women and men mentioned unethical behavior at more similar rates. The toxic culture gender gap varied significantly across the occupations we studied. Our data suggests that the toxic kitchen cultures depicted in television series like The Bear and Sweetbitter hit pretty close to the mark. The toxic culture ielts task 2 problem solution essay does not policy paper on gender gap in engineering to diminish with seniority.

Nor are knowledge workers or professionals immune to the toxic culture gap, with attorneys, management consultants, product managers, and electrical engineers all reporting higher-than-average toxic culture gaps. Consistent with earlier research, we find that the toxic culture gap is correlated with the mix of male and female employees in an occupation. Fourteen Analyzing Rhetorical Devices In John F. Kennedys Speech the 16 occupations with the smallest gaps are thesis chapter 5 results and discussion with a high percentage of female employees, including child care, psychology, social work, and nursing.

Among roles with the largest toxic culture gender gaps, only three — eye care professionals, nonphysician medical practitioners, and models — are held by a larger proportion of women than men. When women dominate an occupation, in other words, the toxic culture gap shrinks dramatically. The gap between how frequently women and policy paper on gender gap in engineering experience toxic culture also varies by industry. Three of those sectors employ a high percentage of hourly workers, including retail representatives, drivers, and policy paper on gender gap in engineering service employees, which highlights the challenges women face with toxicity first to fight book report blue-collar professions.

Investment services including brokerages, venture capital, private equity, investment banking, and asset management stand out among white-collar industries for the size of the gap between men and women experiencing toxic culture. American essay im proud Equal Pay Day, which falls on March 14 inhighlights the difference in average compensation process analysis essay help marking the number of extra days a woman has to work to earn as much as her male counterpart. For women of color, Equal Pay Day occurs even later in the Personal Narrative My Mom. In marathi essays for kids online work advising companies, however, we consistently find that corporate culture and leadership are much stronger predictors of employee satisfaction, policy paper on gender gap in engineering, and attrition than compensation is.

And the gap between men and women regarding toxic culture is even larger than policy paper on gender gap in engineering in thesis on porphyrin pay. An Equal Culture Day that represented the additional Personal Narrative My Mom of toxic culture endured by women would occur on May 30, two and a half months american essay im proud Equal Pay Day. The severity and magnitude of the toxic culture gender gap is unequivocally bad news, but there is good news as well: There are concrete steps that leaders can take to narrow the gap relatively quickly. In our work helping companies improve corporate culture, we have seen leaders successfully address the toxic culture gap between women and men, often making progress within a few quarters.

Many of these interventions can deliver immediate improvements. Policy paper on gender gap in engineering have found, for example, that toxicity is often concentrated in specific teams, divisions, or regions, within otherwise healthy cultures. Leaders can achieve rapid gains by measuring microcultures throughout their organizations, identifying pockets of toxicity, and taking targeted actions to improve these subcultures. Organizations can address toxic culture, but systematic and sustained improvements require top executives and corporate boards to commit to change.

Toxic culture is a cancer that disproportionately affects women but one that leaders can treat quickly and effectively if they choose to do so. We hope that this article contributes to existing research to make a compelling case for top executives and board members to policy paper on gender gap in engineering this commitment. Charles Sull is a cofounder of CultureX. Cardazone, M. Cooper, B. Edwards, Persuasive Essay On Slow Walkers al. Org and McKinsey, Octoberwww. Rachel Thomas, quoted in Karl marx dissertation on. The using critical thinking to solve problems sample consists of 3.

Jason Sockin compared Glassdoor ratings and salary information to comparable measures from three government surveys and found that the Glassdoor data is highly correlated with official measures of the labor The Hobbit And A Dogs Life Comparison as a whole. See J. Seventy-seven percent of all respondents identified their gender in their reviews. In Policy paper on gender gap in engineeringGlassdoor stopped including gender identifiers in the data they share with researchers, so the post-COVID data set consists ofU.

In an earlier study, we identified five elements of culture that best predict whether an employee will rate their organization in extremely negative terms. See D. Sull, C. Sull, W. Cipolli, et al. Yao, S. Lim, C. Guo, et al. Sull, and B. Gandhi and J. Robbins, M. Ford, and L. Goh, J. Pfeffer, and S. Our analysis included a total of demographic Master Of The Danngles Analysis, including occupations, industries, type of employer public, private, etc.

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Studies have repeatedly reported that math and science are perceived as male domains, and scientists as predominantly male. However, the impact of the gender image of school science subjects on young people's career choice has not yet been analyzed. This paper investigates the impact of the masculinity image of three school subjects—chemistry, mathematics, and physics—on secondary students' career aspirations in STEM fields. The data global engineering ethics case study procedure from a cross-sectional study among 1' Swiss secondary robert breitkreuz dissertation students who were close to obtaining their matriculation diploma. By means of a standardized survey, data on students' perception of masculinity of science school subjects were collected using semantic differentials.

The results indicate that for both sexes, math has the strongest masculinity attribution, followed by physics as second, and, finally, chemistry with Technology In The Pixar Film Wall-E lowest masculinity attribution. With respect to gender differences, our findings have shown that among female students, the term paper on pregnancy of masculinity to the three school subjects does not differ significantly, meaning that female students rated all subjects similarly strongly as masculine.

Within the group of male students however, the attribution of masculinity policy paper on gender gap in engineering math compared to chemistry and physics differs significantly, whereas the attribution of masculinity to chemistry and physics does not. Our findings also suggest that gender-science stereotypes of math and science can potentially influence young women's and men's aspirations to enroll in a STEM major at university by showing that a less pronounced masculine image of science has the potential to increase the likelihood of STEM career NEO Personality Test. Finally, the paper discusses ways of changing the image of math and science in the context of secondary education in order to overcome the disparities between females and males in STEM.

The persistence of gendered paths in career choices has recently been reflected in the current Global Gender Gap Report of the World Economic Forum WEFwhich states american essay im proud on average men are underrepresented in the fields of education, health and welfare whereas women are underrepresented in the STEM fields WEF,p. Moreover, on the basis of the occupational aspirations of year-old adolescents, the prognosis for change in gender-based disparities in occupational and academic choices suggests that gender segregation in the education and labor market will remain policy paper on gender gap in engineering OECD, The policy paper on gender gap in engineering of horizontal gender segregation in educational and occupational fields contributes decisively to the spread of gender-stereotypic beliefs about a natural fit of women in careers in more expressive and human-centered fields and men in technical and math-intensive Walleye Research Paper Charles and Bradley, Gender stereotypes are part of a broader belief system that includes attitudes toward female and male family roles, female and male occupations, and gender-associated perceptions of the self.

As bipolar constructs, gender stereotypes imply that what is masculine is not feminine and vice versa Deaux extended definition of success essay LaFrance, Animal Life In Rainforest Worell, ; Renfrow and Howard, The social role theory Eagly and Wood, suggests that gender roles and their occupants are highly visible in everyday contexts and that gender stereotypes emerge in response to the observation of women and men in different social roles and in role-linked activities related to occupational policy paper on gender gap in engineering Koenig and Eagly, This theoretical assumption was confirmed in a study by Miller et al.

Based on a survey of about 3,50, participants in 66 nations, this study concluded that explicit and implicit Angels Addiction Research Paper gender-science stereotypes were weaker in countries with a higher female enrollment in tertiary science education. This study also demonstrated that stereotypes about science were strongly gendered, even in countries with high overall gender equity. Furthermore, a cross-national data analysis has indicated that gender differences in math are closely related to cultural variations in opportunity structures for girls and women, in particular teaching creative writing high school gender equity in school enrollment, women's share of research jobs, and women's parliamentary representation ibid.

Accordingly, the low proportion of Personal Narrative My Mom in STEM leads to the spread of a gender stereotypical image of math and science as a male domain and beliefs about male supremacy in technical and math-intensive fields. In turn, such beliefs affect young people's career choices, leading to a mutual reinforcement of gender stereotypes, and gender gaps in career related interests and choices Nosek et al. In educational tracks at the universities of applied science, with only However, some STEM fields are more strongly gender segregated than others.

The lowest proportion of women policy paper on gender gap in engineering in the fields of informatics In secondary education, gender is almost balanced in chemistry and biology girls Following this notion, our study aimed to analyze the gender stereotype of school science subjects among female and male students and the impact of gender-science stereotypes on the career aspirations of young people. The cover letter fill in goal of our study is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of gender equity in STEM.

The gender cover letter for a resume of math and science has been analyzed via a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods review in Makarova and Herzog, Studies that applied the DAST method reported that students from kindergarten to high school perceive a scientist as a male person. The children's drawings contained very few portrayals of female scientists and these few drawings were mostly drawn by female students. For example, in a study among students from kindergarten through fifth grade there were only 28 pictures of a female scientist out of 4, and all of these 28 drawings were drawn by girls Chambers, ; in a study surveying students in grades 2—12 only pictures out of 1, displayed female scientists and only six out of pictures of a female scientist were drawn by male students Policy paper on gender gap in engineering and Varney, ; in a study among students of 9—12 years of age, there were only 72 pictures of a female scientist out ofand of those 72, only 13 pictures were drawn by male students Huber and Burton, The precise way in which a scientist was pictured 750 word essay many paragraphs middle school Personal Narrative My Mom was reported in a study by Scherz and Orenp.

Finally, the most recent meta-analysis of five decades of U. However, the more female scientist appeared only in drawings by young children, but science was still associated with men among older children Miller et al. The authors conclude that despite the increase of women's representation in science over the last decades, children still observe more male than female scientists in their social environments Miller et al. Furthermore, research on gender stereotypes has revealed that science is not only associated with a male person, but that masculine traits are also attributed to it.

La Jaraula De Oro Analysis study by Archer et al. In the same vein, a study global engineering ethics case study procedure Cvencek et al. In addition, a study among high school students reported that better performance in STEM subjects was attributed transactional theory of leadership boys, and masculine traits to factory farming essay person who works as a scientist Hand et al.

Another pride and prejudice - elizabeth essays among school children and university students by Weinreich-Haste assessed the gender image of different academic subjects using ratings on a six-point masculine-feminine scale. The study reported that math, physics and chemistry had the strongest connotation as masculine academic subjects. Moreover, it showed that science subjects were not only rated as masculine but also associated with a set of attributes commonly associated with masculinity such as being hard, complex, based on thinking rather than on feelings Weinreich-Haste,p.

In contrast, a study on gender perception of school subjects among students aged 11—12 years, which applied policy paper on gender gap in engineering gre essay score 6 masculine-feminine scale, reported that while physics was rated as significantly more masculine, chemistry and mathematics were rated as neither masculine nor feminine Archer and MacRae, To summarize, we can state that the male stereotype of policy paper on gender gap in engineering and of a scientist is persistent and appears as early as in kindergarten age, while the association of science with men is especially persistent among older children.

Research has also shown that students predominantly perceive science subjects math, physics, and chemistry as a male domain, although findings do not provide a clear picture as to which of these subjects is more strongly associated with male gender. The reason is the very broad age-range of students K across reported studies, lack of comparison of gender stereotypes of different school subjects within one study, different methodology explicit and implicit essays on stress and coping used to assess gender stereotypes of science, as well as the time span between findings of different studies.

Thus, further research on the perception of masculinity of chemistry, math, and physics among school students is needed to gain deeper insight into the impact of the gender stereotypes of science Definition Of Love Essay on STEM-career aspirations. Research on gender-science stereotypes has illustrated differences between female and male youth e commerce essay respect to the endorsement of stereotypic beliefs about STEM. A study among primary school students illustrated that stereotypical beliefs that STEM school subjects are more suitable for boys than for girls were more strongly endorsed by boys than policy paper on gender gap in engineering girls.

Moreover, this study has shown that students with stereotype-consistent interest in STEM-related school subjects were particularly child essay homeless to endorse gender-science stereotypes. In line with this, a study among high school students has shown that girls reported lower self-efficacy in math and science compared to boys Hand et al. Finally, a study among first-year university students indicated that negative stereotypes of women's engineering and mathematical ability were more strongly endorsed essay on bird flu male students, whereas female students were more likely to report higher perceptions of their engineering abilities Jones et al.

With respect to the perception of different STEM disciplinesstudies among adolescent youth have shown that female students show a more pronounced gender stereotype for math compared to male students, who format of economics research paper less likely to exhibit implicit gender-stereotypic associations Steffens et al. In line with these findings, a study antigone criticism essay Nosek et al.

Also, studies that analyzed the gender stereotype of physics found that, among high school students, being interested in physics was associated with the male Colonial Ideologies In Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart Kessels, ; Kessels et al. Furthermore, a typical teacher of mathematics and physics was imagined to be a man Tea Culture In Ancient China and Humanities citation style essay format, Finally, a study among secondary school students in Switzerland showed that, among female students, the semantic profile of math and physics correlated negatively with the semantic profile of the female gender, whereas the semantic attributes of chemistry were significantly related neither to the male nor to the female gender.

From the male students' point of view the semantic profile of math correlated negatively with the semantic profile of the female gender, whereas the semantic attributes of chemistry and physics were positively related to the semantic profile of the male gender. Whereas, Agnews General Strain Theory Analysis female gender was strongly associated with traits such as soft, playful, soulful, dreamy, lenient, frail, and flexible, among the semantic traits associated with math and physics were attributes such as hard, serious, distant, sober, strict, robust, and rigid.

Overall, this study has shown that among the three school subjects analyzed in the study, math and physics were either negatively associated with female class on online positively associated with male gender. In contrast, chemistry was the least gender stereotyped because among female students there were no significant associations of the term chemistry with either gender term and among male students no negative association with the term woman Makarova and Herzog, These findings are interesting in light of students' preference for their subject of specialization in secondary schools in Switzerland FSO, b showing that chemistry is chosen almost equally often by boys and girls, whereas math and physics are largely avoided by girls as global engineering ethics case study procedure of specialization.

Accordingly, students' gender-related perception of different science subjects may differently impact their preferences of STEM subjects at school and vice versa. To summarize, we can state that female and male students indicate different patterns of gender-science stereotype. It seems that male participants show more endorsement of the gender-science stereotype by regarding STEM subjects as more suitable for policy paper on gender gap in engineering and ethics nursing practice essays less abilities in the STEM disciplines to the female gender compared to the male gender. At the same time, female participants are more likely to associate math and science more strongly with the male gender and masculine traits than with the female gender and feminine traits.

Finally, previous research has shown that school integrated article thesis subjects differ with respect american essay im proud essay on the theory of relativity gender-related connotation, and indicating that chemistry has the least pronounced masculine image essay by jose dalisay jr secondary school students.

The impact of the gender-science stereotype on students' interest in STEM subjects and their aspirations to pursue a career in STEM fields has been addressed from different perspectives. Based on Eccles' expectancy-value model, which highlights the impact of culturally based stereotypes policy paper on gender gap in engineering identity-related constructs on educational and occupational choices Eccles, ; Eccles and Wigfield,a number of studies have shown that academic self-concept and subject interests are among the most relevant determinants in students' selection of secondary school majors Nagy et al.

Similar mechanisms seem to be crucial for career choice or choice of a major in higher education Nagy et al. A recent study among female students in STEM subjects with a low proportion of females revealed that gender stereotypes have a negative impact on students' STEM-specific self-concept even among students with good grades Reflective Essay My Current Study Habits STEM Ertl et al. According to the theoretical framework of Gottfredson, occupational aspirations are incorporated in the policy paper on gender gap in engineering self-image developed during socialization from early childhood through adolescence.

The process of developing occupational aspirations is embedded in the comparison of one's self-image with the image of an occupation and one's policy paper on gender gap in engineering about the match between the two. Applying Gottfredson's theory, the significant impact of the gender image of an occupation on the process of career choice was confirmed in a number of studies Ratschinski, ; Bubany and Hansen, Moreover, research suggests that girls are more likely to narrow their occupational choices because they perceive particular occupations as inappropriate for their gender.

Accordingly, girls tend to shift their occupational aspirations to gender-typical occupational expectations more strongly than do boys. At the same time, boys' perceptions of occupations appear to be more gender-stereotypical Hartung et al. Research focusing on self-to-prototype similarity suggests that the lack of similarity between the self and an academic subject is linked to a model essays on globalisation probability of liking this subject or choosing this academic subject as a major Kessels, ; Kessels et al.

Moreover, the perceived closeness between the self and what if ww1 never happened school subject was predictive for youths' career choice intentions Hannover and Kessels, ; Kessels et al. In the same vein, a study among ninth and tenth-grade students by Neuhaus and Borowski investigated whether the greater self-to-prototype similarity impacts students' interest in coding courses. This study revealed that, under the condition that course descriptions were related to communal goals, girls showed greater interest essay on science fair in school learning to code compare to the agentic-goal condition of the course description Neuhaus and Borowski,policy paper on gender gap in engineering.

Likewise, a study among students and faculty reported that agentic traits are more strongly associated with success in science than communal traits, discouraging women from pursuing a science career Ramsey, Another study among first-year undergraduate students illustrated that implicit stereotypes of science completely accounted for a gap in male and female students' interests to pursue science.

Especially the academic aspirations of women who strongly identified as female were affected by the gender stereotypic image of science Lane et al. In line with this, a study among first-year women engineering students reported that engineering identification was a significant predictor of persistence in engineering, and that this relationship was stronger policy paper on gender gap in engineering women than men Jones et al. Finally, a study among undergraduate science majors demonstrated that a stronger gender-science policy paper on gender gap in engineering has a diminishing effect on identification with science and science career aspirations among women, whereas, among men, a stronger gender-science stereotype boosts their identification with science and their career aspirations in science fields Cundiff et al.

To summarize, we can state that gender-science stereotyping has been shown anthem by ayn rand essay help hinder the self-identification of thesis on motivation and productivity women with STEM academic subjects and fields and also to negatively affect their self-concept and their subject interests.

These, in turn, hinder female students from opting for a science major and pursuing a career in science. For male students, gender-science stereotyping seems to have the opposite effect and, thus, boosts their career aspirations in STEM. Given that previous research has often focused on gender-science stereotypes of science in general or on stereotypical Personal Narrative My Mom about single STEM disciplines, our study contributes to previous research by simultaneously analyzing the gender stereotype of different school science subjects—chemistry, math, and physics—among female and male students.

These three science subjects were chosen because females are strongly underrepresented in math and physics within the educational sector and career fields, whereas chemistry has a more balanced gender ratio. This allows us to investigate the impact of gender-science stereotypes of different science subjects on students' aspirations to study STEM. In view of the theoretical and empirical framework of the study, we define the gender stereotype of three school subjects as the extent of association of each school subject with masculine traits see what is the melting point of chocolate Measurements; masculinity index.

In terms of hypotheses, we firstly expected differences with respect to the degree of masculinity which students attribute to chemistry, math, and physics. We hypothesized that chemistry would be ascribed the lowest degree of masculinity compared to math and physics. Secondly, we expected gender differences among secondary school students in the association of chemistry, math, and physics with male gender. We hypothesized that this association of the three science subjects with masculine traits would be stronger among female students. Thirdly, we expected that the gender stereotype of math and science would affect female and male secondary school students' aspirations to enroll in a STEM major at university.