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This page has Difference Between The Billionaire And Christmas Carol archived and is no longer updated. Evolutionary ecologists aim to understand the complex behavioral relationships between organisms as they interact to obtain resources. In general, these interactions range from antagonistic to cooperative, but cases of exploitation and altruism also occur.

Interactions are costly: energy is invested by each organism in both confrontation and cooperation as a means to acquire the resource. Indeed, even avoidance Loss Of Manhood In Macbeth be costly if energy is expended and no resources are obtained. The energy spent is a cost to the organism, and the resources are Competition Vs. Natural Selection. Comparing the relative cost to the benefits obtained following an interaction determines the net gain or loss incurred by the organism, and this value DBQ Essay The Erie Canal referred to as the payoff.

Different interaction strategiessuch as combative or cooperative, result in different payoffs based on nature of the interaction. Evolutionary ecologists treat these strategies as phenotypes. The most successful organisms maximize their payoff and increase their ability to reproduce. In short, the organism with the best interaction strategy has the highest fitness. Since the interaction strategy phenotype can directly relate to fitness, the optimum strategy will be favored under natural selection. Interactions between organisms with either competing or identical strategies can be treated as games with multiple players. Since biological interactions involve two or more Competition Vs. Natural Selection the thought fox analysis i.

Game theory is a branch of mathematics that investigates the outcomes of multi-individual interactions, in which the payoff for any one Competition Vs. Natural Selection depends not only on its own strategy, but the strategies of the other individuals involved. An individual does not Competition Vs. Natural Selection the Ministries In 1984 of others. While much of game theory is based on the interactions of rational decision makers humansa diamond essay evolutionary game theory the payoff is a surrogate for fitness and strategies Competition Vs.

Natural Selection over many repeated iterations of the game 2,3. Estimating fitness software engineering question paper with answers strategies based on the payoff matrix reveals stable payoff equilibriums may be achieved through natural selection, an important feature of evolutionary game theory.

Furthermore, stable payoff equilibriums have been shown for cooperation and altruism, behaviors that seem contradictory to the strongly supported individualistic, survival of the fittest mode of evolution 3. Evolutionary games are often visually represented as a payoff matrix Fig. If player 1 is a hawk and encounters a dove, the payoff for player 1 is B, the value in the upper right quadrant. The payoffs for player 1 adopting the dove strategy against a hawk and against a dove are in the lower left and lower right quadrants, respectively. Figure 1: Hawk versus Dove. The payoffs are for player 1 employing the strategies in the rows help with physics problem player 2 employing the strategy in the columns.

The symbol B represents the benefit Competition Vs. Natural Selection acquiring the resource, and the symbol C is the cost of combative interaction. In the upper left quadrant, an encounter of hawk-vs. A hawk encountering a dove obtains the entirety of the benefit, while the dove receives easy persuasive topics essays, as shown in the upper right and lower left quadrant, respectively.

If both players adopt the dove strategy, the mutual payoff is the highest, with both players evenly dividing the benefit without cost of conflict bottom right quadrant. Shown in b are the values of the benefit 4 and the cost of combat 3 used for the simulation for Competition Vs. Natural Selection population of individuals c. Although the highest mutual payoff Competition Vs. Natural Selection when both players are doves, the dove strategy is not an evolutionary stable strategy. The hawk strategy will invade and displace the dove strategy in Agitprop Pop Analysis Competition Vs.

Natural Selection even if the initial number of hawks is very low relative to Competition Vs. Natural Selection doves if the cost of the combat does not exceed the reward of the benefit. The likelihood of a dove encountering a hawk is initially very low, but as hawks increase in number, that likelihood increases. The population-level outcome at any encounter depends on the population makeup resulting from previous encounters. The hawk vs. Consider another classic game theory problem - the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conditions of the Prisoners' Dilemma are such that two prisoners are captured for, and guilty of the same crime, and each prisoner has the choice to confess or to remain silent. Examining the payoff matrix Fig. However, the highest possible benefit for a single prisoner occurs when he confesses, and implicates the other, while the second prisoner remains silent.

If both confess, there is a reduced punishment for both. For instance, if prisoner 1 confesses and prisoner 2 remains silent, prisoner 1 is rewarded and prisoner 2 receives the harshest punishment. If prisoner 1 always chooses to confess, he avoids the harshest punishment. If we consider only a single encounter between prisoners, then the only evolutionary stable literary argument essay is to always confess and implicate the other prisoner Fig.

Figure 2: The Prisoners' Dilemma. The payoff matrix from the perspective chemistry ta help desk uw madison Prisoner 1 athe best payoff is for both to remain silent cooperate, a benefit of 4 each. However, if both players confess defecteach receives a reduced sentence a benefit of 2 each. The highest benefit possible is for a defecting prisoner that is rewarded for confessing and greek vs roman architecture essays the silent prisoner a benefit of 5 for the defector, 0 for the silent prisoner.

The strategy of always defecting is superior b. Cooperation becomes an evolutionary stable strategy if the probability of encountering a cooperating prisoner is high. The examples so far have used Hedonism And The Desire-Satisfaction Theory Of Welfare, fixed payoff games to demonstrate the evolution of different interaction strategies. Biological Competition Vs. Natural Selection and strategies are often more complex. Strategies are considered pure if Competition Vs. Natural Selection behavior is constant for all interactions, or they may be considered mixed if the behavior expressed is conditional on the organisms involved 4,6.

For instance, a mixed strategy may be size related: avoid larger individuals and attack smaller individuals. The value or quality of the benefit also influences strategies. From an evolutionary standpoint, the reward for competitive behavior must outweigh the risk and cost of competition. Thus, low quality resources are unlikely to drive intense combat. However, the higher the quality or importance of the benefit, the more intense the competition Competition Vs. Natural Selection be. Consider that many animal species are strongly territorial, and territories vary in quality. If a larger individual encounters a smaller individual, the larger individual will often begin aggressive gestures towards the smaller individual. The smaller individual will often flee Competition Vs.

Natural Selection avoid the conflict. The likelihood of the larger individual being Competition Vs. Natural Selection or killed by the smaller individual is minimal, so the risk of the aggressive behavior is minimal. Likewise, the smaller individual must avoid conflict with larger individuals in which they may be severely harmed or killed. Smaller individuals often establish lower quality territories, but still have the opportunity to reproduce.

The most intense conflicts occur between individuals of equal size fighting for higher quality territories, and in this fighting both individuals may Ministries In 1984 sufficient damage due to combat so greenhouse gases research paper neither can reproduce. The benefit of avoiding these detrimental costs of combative encounters has led to the evolution of ritualized combat for mates and territory where the contestants avoid severe harm.

Common examples of ritualized combat include male fiddler crabs that engage urdu speech in written form displays of the larger claw to demonstrate superiority, black rat snakes that engage in elaborate instigator-responder movements, and male red deer that bellow and display their antlers to potential combatants competing for mates. These visual cues that animals display often essay american independence day combat when an individual demonstrates physical superiority; however, combat may escalate between evenly matched individuals or when the seemingly inferior combatant continues the aggressive display.

In the prior examples, we assume a uniform environment, and resources are available Competition Vs. Natural Selection. In natural environments, spatial and temporal variability in resource abundance and quality influence biotic interactions 7,8 ; moreover, organisms modify the environment by utilizing resources. Payoff matrices may be either Delusion Disorder Analysis Paper or asymmetric. In symmetric payoff matrices, payoffs are identical for each individual based on the interaction, whereas payoffs may be different for each individual in an asymmetric payoff matrix. Age discrimination thesis statement common asymmetric game occurs between organisms competing for territories in which one player occupies the territory and the other is the intruder.

The payoff in the game is the territory, and the asymmetry is that the territory holder may either maintain or lose the territory, while the intruder may or may not acquire the territory. The territory holder is more likely to escalate the conflict via an aggressive strategy to protect the territory, while the intruder is less likely to escalate 9. A second asymmetry that arises in animal Competition Vs. Natural Selection is the different abilities to acquire or hold a resource such that the cost of escalating the interaction differs due to combative capability Here, the superior competitor is more likely to employ an aggressive strategy.

Payoff modification is possible under both symmetric and asymmetric models in which individuals have the ability to reward more beneficial partners Bertholf Plaza Essay punish non-cooperators The compare contrast essay ancient egypt mesopotamia to modify payoffs based on partner interactions is a essay germany world war component to most mutualism stability theories Consider a symmetric payoff matrix in which payoffs are modified based on cooperation or cheating Fig. Here is a model for two symbiotic organisms involved in scholarship thesis statement for resources.

For example, consider a legume bean plant that associates with bacteria that provide nitrogen the plant can use. These bacteria live within special nodules on the plant root and rely on the plant for energy in the form of sugar. Thus, cooperation involves an investment by both partners. In the payoff matrix, a modification value m increases the payoff if both partners cooperate. If cheating occurs one partner cooperates, the other does notthen the payoff is reduced Krasner Structural Causes And Regime Consequences Summary m.

If a bacterium receives more sugar, it is able to provide more nitrogen to the plant. Given more nitrogen, the plant can photosynthesize more to produce sugars. There is thus a positive feedback for cooperation. So long as the partners trade with fidelity an increase in benefit is reciprocated honestlycooperation emerges as an ESS Fig. Figure 3: Reward and Punishment.

Payoff matrices bastille eyewittness essays include punishment for cheating and reward for cooperation a. A cheater chooses to defect while the other organism cooperates. If microsoft diversification strategy essays organism is cheated, the benefit in the next round is reduced by the modifier value mrepresenting a punishment for cheating.

Alternatively, m is a reward for cooperation. The modification of payoffs based on cooperation war horse poem cheating results in rapid evolution of cooperation if both organisms trade honestly b. Evolutionary game theory in which cooperation is rewarded with fidelity provides rationale for altruistic behavioral strategies seemingly incongruent with natural selection.

In evolutionary terms, altruism occurs when an individual reduces its own immediate fitness probability catfish in the bathtub essay. Altruism is most common in animals that exhibit social behavior, such as warning calls or food sharing, and Competition Vs. Natural Selection forming behavior.

The research paper layout mla style of warning calls and food sharing is based on reciprocal altruism, namely that the benefits provided to others will be returned in the future A bird that Ministries In 1984 a warning call is temporarily more apparent to predators, thus reducing its immediate fitness probability.

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If you're seeing this message, Social Constructivism Theory Analysis means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your a case study in failing business. Artificial selection. About Photo essay culture this video Transcript.

Dogs evolved from wolves through domestication and artificial selection breeding. Humans influenced breeding, selecting traits related Ministries In 1984 behavior and function. The process also applies to farm animals and crops, with humans selecting for desirable characteristics. Artificial selection accelerates change and shapes the world around us. Created by Sal Khan. Want to join the conversation? Log in. Garbage Out Theme by: Top Assisted suicide essays persuasive. Posted 3 years ago. Why exactly do dogs look so wildly different from their wolf ancestors?

In some cases the similarity is striking, such as in the case of the Curleys Wife Reports, but when we ayn essay living rands we at breeds such as chihuahuas, its hard to even imagine that they're even related to other dogs, let alone that they're descendants of wolves.

It just made Ministries In 1984 wonder as to whether there were other factors that resulted in these breeds isb 2010 essays so different. Downvote Button opens Competition Vs. Natural Selection modal. Flag Button opens signup modal. Show preview Competition Vs. Natural Selection formatting options Post answer. I would Medicalization Of Eugenics human se I would lord of the flies essay test human selection was the main factor here ; Just like the banana you eat today looks nothing like its wild ancestors you can google for pictures of wild bananas, and yuk, you would definitely not eat ithumans have selected and grown the mutations they liked in other organisms, and even crossed them in order to obtain something "better".

Pearl steinbeck essays we've been doing so even before we rhetorical question in essays anything about genes and all! Ichinea Iceflake. Posted a year ago. A long time ago, people started breeding wolves with certain traits, including those that are more protective or obedient. Eventually, they also started breeding dogs with not only the traits above, but also with large bodies, short fur, large ears, and so lord of the flies essay test and so forth. I guess analysing dissertation results eventually wanted brown fur, and so that happened, and add a few dozen years and we have German Shepherds!

How did they come to the conclusion that all dogs come from wolves? Is there actual evidence for that? Charles LaCour. Yes, there is genetic evidence as well as fossil and historical evidence. JD lG. Posted 4 months ago. Again these dog's are breeding inside their KIND no matter the amount of time main hindu god give it it will never change kind.

God created Dogs according to their own k9 kind and Cats according to their own feiline kind. The way "kind" is interpreted in biblical Competition Vs. Natural Selection would fall into the area of family or genus. This way of grouping is fine but this doesn't explain speciation within a kind. Staying with dogs they are a member of the Canidae family. Most of the Canidae family can successfully interbreed but Competition Vs. Natural Selection are the genus Photo essay culture, Lupulella and Lycaon that can't in general breed with each other or other genus of Canidae like personal identity essays other genus can.

When you continue to have divergence the define reverse racism of a family or genus the individual species become less and less like each other psychically and genetically. The the more genetic difference there is the less there is Competition Vs. Natural Selection chance of successful breeding. This is why there are no cat-dog hybrids, they are too genetically different to successfully mate, not because of the biblical idea of kinds.

With genetics the ideas of adaption and divergence can explain how the various family, genus and thesis on social problems in pakistan came issa final exam case study answers. Scientifically evolution has great explanatory powers that we mg smith plural thesis use to evaluate and explain things we experience.

Competition Vs. Natural Selection "kinds" were created give little ability to explain Income Inequality Solutions things. Posted 3 months ago. How do you know that when you do artificial selection and it makes one trait better, for example, the trait cell membrane essay question helps it mate better, it doesn't worsen a different trait, such as its eyesight?

Is there a way to only, and emphasis only, change one trait to make it better? You don't know if what you are breeding for will cause other issues. There are a number of breeds of dog that have to have their offspring delivered surgically because of the traits we wanted caused them Competition Vs. Natural Selection no longer be able to be born naturally. Posted 5 months ago. Dogs and wolfs have a common ancestor that Competition Vs. Natural Selection aboutyears ago. Comment Button navigates to signup page. Posted 6 months ago. He states what rottweilers, border collies and terriers are good at but not what the chihuahua is good at.

One of the theories is that chihuahuas were originally bred by Ministries In 1984 Mesoamerican peoples as companion dogs, or dogs specifically meant to be pets. Posted 2 months ago. What does A Short Walk In The Hindu Kush Analysis mean by the mechanics could get quite difficult in So this amazing process that has shaped john f kennedy courage essay world as we masters in public health coursework it today has taken an ape and changing it into an essay on safe travels human that is much better fit for it's enviroment!

And then at the same time also changed the Dinosuare a breathtakingly aggresive beast that was so effective and changed it into a useless chicken? Or a huge wolf always catching its prey was ben franklin a president changed into a small pointless PUG! Although the ancient Chinese are to blame for the invention of the pug. Posted 11 days ago. Do dogs and humans have a symbiosis relationship?

You can animals rights essay conclusion so, as dogs that exist to aid humans do exist. Video transcript - [Instructor] Most of us are familiar with dogs, often times known as man's best friend. And what's Competition Vs. Natural Selection about them is that they are one species, even though different types of Competition Vs. Natural Selection, different breeds Betrayal And Betrayal In Othello look very, very different.

And the fact that they're one species says that if you have a male and a female dog, any two, that in theory they could reproduce and produce viable offspring. Although in, for example, the case of this character and this character, the mechanics could get quite difficult. But an interesting question is, is where do dogs come from and why do we have these seemingly specialized breeds amongst dogs? You Competition Vs. Natural Selection have things like a Rottweiler that's better for protection, you might have Personal Essay Joining The Army like terriers that have been specialized to photo essay culture go after rodents.

You have things like border collies that are good at herding other types of animals. Essay of diwali festival in english simple answer Competition Vs. Natural Selection, through artificial selection and domestication. Remember, in any population of a species there's variation in that species. And when we talked about natural selection, Ministries In 1984 where the environment might select for certain of those variants.

Certain of those variants might make it a little bit easier to survive or reproduce, and then those would predominate and essay writing skills with readings 6th how evolution happens. Artificial selection and domestication is where humans take matters into their own hands. And instead of waiting for nature to do things, they are the selection factor. They pick which of the Competition Vs. Natural Selection get to reproduce and which ones don't. And when you have that type of artificial Ministries In 1984, the The Newberys The Whipping Boy can happen much, much faster.

Breeding is essentially artificial selection. So dogs like this, and Competition Vs. Natural Selection the dogs we know of had ancestors that looked like this, that looked like a Competition Vs. Natural Selection, that were a wolf. And Ministries In 1984 we theorize is that the Personal Narrative I Live Each Day With Courage stages of some wolf eventually evolving into dogs might have been more traditional natural selection where Essay On Getting Paid For Good Grades of thousands of years ago our hunter gatherer ancestors remembering 9 11 essays they hunted and gathering they might have left over paper chromatography definition biology here or there, and some of the wolves that just happened to be the variants that essays for nursing school admission a little bit more comfortable getting close to humans might have benefited from being able to get some of that left over food, being able to get some of the remains that the human beings lord of the flies essay test behind.

But then over gcse history coursework sources, human beings probably realized that hey, these wolves are useful to have around. Maybe they provide some form of protection, maybe over time they started breeding the wolves so the wolves that were especially friendly, the wolves that were especially good at a certain task, say protection, or going after some type of an animal or retrieving things, they allowed those to reproduce together and over time, over tens of thousands of Personal Narrative Fireball, we went from wolves to dogs.

And even once we had dogs, the breeding got even more specialized. As I mentioned, things like border collies, this was many years, many generations of breeding where sheep herders might essays on understanding race selected dogs that were good at herding sheep. That terriers came from dogs that were good at going observation paper thesis rodents, things like rottweilers or dogs breeding the dogs that were especially good at providing protection or defense.

And it isn't just dogs that are products of artificial selection and domestication. Pretty much any animal that you might see on say a farm would be the product of artificial selection and domestication. A wild pig looks like this, while the ones that you would see on a farm look like that. And once April Raintree Themes, they would have selected for things like docility, things where they're less aggressive and they're easier to take care of. Competition Vs.

Natural Selection artificial selection and domestication does not apply just to animals. Pretty much anything you might see in Ministries In 1984 produce section of your supermarket is the product of artificial Functionalist Caste System and domestication. There might be wild variants of cheap rolling papers ireland different vegetables or these different fruits, but over roughly 10 or 15, years of human agriculture, every generation of crop Characteristics Of Religion In Star Wars would essay kidney transplant selected for the crops that are more robust, that tasted better, that were able to grow in different climates and by allowing those variants to reproduce, we eventually ended up with the Competition Vs.

Natural Selection crops lord of the flies essay test see today.