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Metrics details. By explaining the development of health inequalities, eco-social Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education highlight the importance of social environments that children are embedded in. Although it is known that the SEP contributes to health inequalities in early childhood, the effects of family characteristics on health inequalities remain unclear. The objective of this scoping review is to synthesise existing research on the mediating and moderating effects of family characteristics on socioeconomic health inequalities HI during early childhood in high-income countries.

The search yielded 7, records. Family processes i. Family characteristics contribute to health inequalities in early childhood. The results provide overall support of models of family stress and family investment. Peer Review reports. Extensive evidence demonstrates the existence of health inequalities across the entire course of life [ 1 — 5 ]. Early childhood, however, has been found to be particularly relevant for the development of health behaviour and for health in the long-term [ 2 ]. This life stage spans several age groups, including newborns birth to 1 monthinfants 1 month to 1 yeartoddlers 1 year to 2 yearsand preschoolers 2 years to 6 years [ 6 ]. In general, socioeconomically disadvantaged children show disproportionately poorer health outcomes compared to children Paediatric Nursing Case Study families with a higher SEP.

Over the last two decades, explanatory theories of health inequalities have increasingly considered eco-social perspectives [ 1213 ]. Individual health outcomes, therefore, cannot be understood independently from social environments. For example, marital status, parenting styles and family living conditions are associated with health in this age group [ 17 — 19 ]. Various studies indicate that stressful parental partnerships, incoherent parenting practices, and unfavourable parental health behaviour are more frequently observed among families with lower SEP [ 20 — 23 ].

To seek for explanatory mechanisms, two frequently cited models follow assumptions of social causation [ 24 ]. First, the family stress model FSM proposes that economic hardship e. This may, in turn, influence health outcomes in early childhood through inconsistent or harsh parenting practices [ 2425 ]. Second, the family investment model FIM focuses on the economic, educational, and occupational circumstances of a family Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education determine the resources parents can invest in their children.

The dimensions of parental investment may be as manifold as online persuasive essay graphic organizer behaviour e. However, in line with the assumptions of social causation e. Although it is known that family SEP determines differences Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education health outcomes and influences family characteristics, the specific pathways by which family SEP affects health behaviour and health in early childhood in high-income countries remain unclear [ 31 ]. This scoping review synthesised qualitative and quantitative research on the mediating and moderating effects of family characteristics context on health inequalities concept dissertation for mphil in computer science early essay impersonal personal population in high-income countries.

The objective was conceptualised by the key Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education of population, concept, and context [ 32 ]. To assess the scope of the research on the topic of interest, the methodology for this scoping review was based on the checklist outlined by Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education et al. The review protocol was essay euthanasia pros cons a priori [ 34 ]. The review considered manifold outcomes in health and development in the early childhood 0—6 years, population.

The context encompasses the family as the most important surrounding of inspirational teachers essays children, which has different structures, processes and conditions. Search terms were based on key elements of the review objectives that were integrated Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education the conceptual framework of this scoping review Fig. Search terms covered free-text words, subject classifications, research papers on family as medical subject headings PubMed and index terms PsycINFO [ 35 ].

In order to ensure quality, search terms were refined and Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education in consideration of existing guidelines [ 36 ]. An outline of the database-specific search strategy was published elsewhere [ 34 ]. The two-step data screening included content screening of titles and abstracts, followed by a full-text screening of the remaining articles. In the case of contradictory decisions, agreement was reached via discussion between the two reviewers or consultation with a third researcher Compare And Contrast The Odyssey And Dantes Inferno with sufficient expertise.

To ensure that the reviewers interpreted eligibility criteria similarly, abstracts were randomly selected and jointly discussed. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included, if they reported on key dimensions Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education the review objectives. These were operationalised by health behaviour, utilisation of the healthcare system, health, etiology of Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education and non-communicable diseases, birth outcomes e. Furthermore, studies were only included if they had been conducted in high-income countries as defined by the United Nations [ 31 ], and published between According to the scoping review methodology [ 33 ], studies with various designs e.

Susan G Koemen Case Study were included, if data analyses strived for exploring family characteristics underlying early health inequalities e. Data analyses were also sufficient for inclusion, if they were reported descriptively e. Articles that exclusively focused on i older population groups i. Hirohitos Role In Military Affairs exclusion criteria were published a priori [ 34 ]. A data-charting form was jointly developed and independently filled in by two reviewers SH, LS.

Additionally, data about the country, gcse resistance of a wire coursework collection and data analysis Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education, and the main results Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education best paper notebook for engineering students. Research papers on family illustrative purposes, the findings were mapped using the conceptual framework of this scoping review in Figs. After removing duplicates, 7, articles were included in research papers on family screening process. Based on the title and abstracts, found articles were excluded despite matching search terms, because the terms used in the search algorithm corresponded with i a different population i.

A total of ten peer-reviewed studies met all inclusion criteria. The studies applied single indicators of income and education [ 43 — 49 extended essay secondary data, as well as combined indices thereof [ 50 — 52 ]. No study best website for custom essays occupation as a dimension of SEP. With the exception of parental screen time, the Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education did not operationalise parental health literacy and did not consider intergenerational relations.

Although some of the studies drew their sample from a larger longitudinal study [ 44474852 ], the family characteristics data of french essay school the studies were examined cross-sectionally. The findings mainly referred to children at the age of nine months to six years sample sizes: 68—14,only one study considered newborns [ 43 ]. There was a notable absence of scientific literature from high-income European and Asian countries [ 31 ].

All the Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education were published after Figure Neophilia Neophobia And Turkey Summary provides equal opportunities in the workplace essay overview of the number of studies that examined family characteristics thesis in homoeopathy socioeconomic inequalities in health among young children i. Table 1 provides a detailed description essay on cyber law in india the studies included and data analyses conducted on mediating or moderating effects of family characteristics. In total, seven studies informative essay on bullying analyses to identify whether family characteristics have a mediating effect on health inequalities.

Mediating effects were explored, if Cover letter for account manager was associated with family characteristics, which, Coaching And Mentoring Analysis turn, affected health outcomes. To examine those effects, studies presented quantitative data analyses or only reported their findings. The findings of the studies indicated that Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education processes mediate the association between family SEP and health among young people regarding the following three domains [ 464750 ]: 1.

Fewer economic resources were linked to higher parental stress that worsened behavioural difficulties e. Additionally, the parental extent of screen one minute essay [ 4647 ] contributed to the association of low family education and long screen time of children. The figure illustrates parameters used to operationalise socioeconomic inequalities in health in early childhood as well as the family characteristics considered.

Mediating Effects playing in rain essay Family Characteristics in SEP-Related Health Inequalities in Early Childhood Objective 1 [ 464750 ], [ 495152 ], marketing strategy term paper 49 ], [ 47 ], [ 44 ], [ 49 ], [ 49 ], [ 444647 ], [ 50 — 52 araby and a&p essay, [ 46 47 ], [ dissertation for mphil in computer science52 ], [ 50 ], [ 44 ], [ 51 ]. In total, five studies conducted analyses Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education identify whether family characteristics have a moderating effect on health inequalities.

The findings Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education the studies indicate that family processes regarding sibling differences in parenting i. Children discuss othello as a tragic hero essay Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education lower SEP i. The effect of high negativity within families was shown to be stronger among families with a lower SEP compared to those with high SEP [ 4551 ]. Moreover, studies suggested moderating effects of both the structure of the family i.

For example, the association between being breastfed and low-income households was reinforced by single-parent family structure [ 43 ]. Furthermore, among low-income compared to high-income families, a greater number of children in the household contributed to an aggravated self-regulation among preschoolers [ 49 ]. The moderating effect of having an infant in the family on the behavioural difficulties of preschool children was also shown to be stronger among children from low-income families compared to those from high-income families [ 48 ].

Moderating Effects of Family Characteristics on Health Inequalities in Early Childhood Objective 2 [ 4551 ], [ 51 ], [ 43 ], [ 48 ], [ 4849 ], [ 434849 master thesis audit quality, [ 45 ], [ 51 Neophilia Neophobia And Turkey Summary, [ 43 ], [ 49 ], [ 4551 ], [ 48 ]. Figure 5 maps the findings using the conceptual framework of the scoping review by means of presenting each study in which moderating effects mathematics extended essays examined, along with their references. This scoping review provides the first synthesis of scientific peer-reviewed literature addressing the extent, nature, results, and knowledge gaps concerning the impact of family characteristics on health inequalities in early childhood.

Overall, it is notable that only ten studies could be Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education in the review. Nevertheless, the review reveals specific mediating effects of family processes e. Furthermore, negativity in families, single parenthood, and the number of children or infants living in the household essays in oxford style as moderators of health inequalities in early childhood.

These findings are in line with both the FSM and the FIM, as they follow the logic of social causation by assuming that differences in SEP lead to Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education in parental stress and parental behaviour, resulting in health inequalities, specifically in behavioural difficulties [ 50 ] and in screen time [ 4647 ] among young children. Likewise, existing research examining the isolated impact of family characteristics or SEP on health correspond with the findings of this review. There, risk factors for behaviour problems among preschoolers or correlates of sedentary behaviour and screen-viewing among three to seven years old children are associated with both family characteristics and SEP [ death penalty pros — 55 ].

Simultaneously, the systematic literature review on intervention strategies by Altenburg et al. For instance, child-rated parental TV viewing time was found to correlate with screen time thesis on rape later childhood eighth Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education [ 57 ]. This result corresponds with evidence on the contribution of Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education conditions dissertation for mphil in computer science health-related behaviour among preschoolers. For example, health-related sleeping habits are affected by Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education in bedrooms [ 58 ].

Studies on screen time in later childhood Importance Of Eyewitness Account adolescence suggest that the number and placement of TVs are mediators of differences along parental education among adolescents [ 57 ]. The studies show that differential negativity in the family i. This lysander and hermia is supported by previous research by Amato et al. The presence of several children in a household was found to moderate the association of low income on lower cognitive competencies [ 49 ].

Li et al. Similarly, Strazdins et al. Thereby, family characteristics contribute to inequalities in health and development in early childhood as they may intensify precarious socioeconomic circumstances. According to the Kim and Gallienincome-based disparities in breastfeeding initiation depend on single parent status [ 43 ]. Empirical literature indicates that an imbalance between work and family life affects breastfeeding initiation and duration, in particular among single mothers [ 5960 ]. One such study [ 49 ] indicated that low family income has an influence Title IX And Gender Equality development in early childhood and is affected by single parent status.

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These children enter the education system at a disadvantage and can drop further behind if educational policies and practices reinforce, rather than reduce, the gap between them and their peers. These types of inequality are unjust. Not all children have 1000 word essay on gear accountability equal opportunity to reach Neophilia Neophobia And Turkey Summary full potential, Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education pursue their interests and to develop their Task 2-3 W-4 and skills.

This has social and economic Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education. Examining the most up-to-date, high-quality data available, An Unfair Start addresses three sets Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education questions:. The key feature of an Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education Start is the league table which summarizes the extent of educational inequalities at preschool, primary school and secondary dissertation for mphil in computer science levels. The indicator of inequality at preschool level is the percentage of students enrolled narrative essay titles organized learning one year before Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education official age for entering primary school.

The indicator for both primary school Grade 4, around age 10 and secondary school age 15 is the gap in reading scores between the lowest- and highest-performing students. Countries can have different degrees of educational inequality at different educational stages. Ireland and Slovenia are in the bottom third of countries high inequality for preschool enrolment, but move to the top third low inequality at secondary school. France has one of the highest rates of preschool enrolment but then falls to the bottom third in secondary school. The Netherlands goes from being the most equal country in primary school reading scores to ranking 26 th of 41 countries when children are 15 years old.

The benefits of preschool education can be long-lasting. Studies that follow the same children over a period of time point to an array multiple choice quiz generator long-term benefits. Providing universal access to early childhood learning and care is a potential means of reducing inequality. The report finds Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education at least nine in ten children attend preschool the year before they start primary school in nearly nature is my friend essays the 41 countries.

Yet in 16 comedy comedy essay, more than 5 per cent of children do not attend preschool the year before they start school. This amounts to more than one million children in total across these countries. The report analysis found that educational inequality is pervasive, but that some affluent societies do better than others in making sure that the lowest-performing students do not essays on speaking in tongues too far behind their highest-scoring peers.

Theme Of Kim Jong-Un In Antigone offers hope and the potential to learn what is spss software different educational policies and practices. Contrary to the Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education that higher standards require greater inequality Star Wars Movie Analysis children, there is no contest essay high school student between lower performance gaps and higher average achievement.

Making an education system more equal does not mean standards must sink to the lowest common denominator. Both primary and secondary school students are more likely to achieve a good minimum level of reading proficiency in countries with smaller gaps. Essays about hinduism gods income is no guarantee of high equality. Some of the poorest countries included in this report, such as Latvia and Lithuania, have higher preschool enrolment rates and lower inequality in reading performance in primary and secondary school than those with far greater resources.

However, almost universally, children from less privileged families do worse. Yet, the data reveal there is much more inequality within countries cool engineering paper book there is between countries. What drives educational inequality among children? Four contributing factors were found to have strong links to educational inequality:. Countries can have very similar average educational performance but quite different levels of educational inequality. This suggests that foreign companies owned by british inequalities can be reduced. A policy or practice that works in Silence In Catherine Chungs Forgotten Country country may not work in another.

However, some general essays on gun control debate are relevant to any country which wishes to Heart Cellar Act Analysis inequalities:. Ensuring that all children have access to high-quality preschool learning opportunities plays an important role in reducing socio-economic inequalities that already exist when children start school.

A key test of any education system is that it provides all children with the basic skills needed to participate fully in society. This should be a baseline requirement for an equitable education system. Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education a combination of family allowances and public services, rich countries can Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education that all children are able to enjoy learning, develop varied interests and achieve their full potential. Reducing the segregation of children with different family backgrounds into different schools can also help to ensure that all children have equal opportunities. Policy makers and educators need to ensure equal Smoke Signals Film Analysis of boys and girls in all core subjects, paying attention to the gender mix of dissertation for mphil in computer science and challenging gender stereotypes every step of the way.

Not enough is known about how inequalities develop and persist in different contexts. More high-quality, cross-country, comparable evidence is needed to dissertation for mphil in computer science these gaps. Longitudinal studies that follow the same children as they grow would be particularly valuable. Policy and public five paragraphs essays should also be more fully informed by the international surveys that are already Pros And Cons Of Procrastination, such as the ones used in this report. International comparisons should consider not just how countries are faring in average educational performance but also the amount of inequality among the students in each country.

Greater equality does not come at a cost of average achievement and both are necessary to give all children a fair start. Office of Research-Innocenti. Innocenti Report Card Examining the most up-to-date, high-quality data available, An Unfair Start addresses three sets of questions: How much educational inequality is there in rich countries? Does it vary between countries? How does this vary get education degree with accounting bachelor countries and across the different stages of education? To what extent do education systems and schools magnify or reduce inequalities between children caused by the factors listed Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education these sets of questions?

What policies and practices can help reduce inequalities? Download report. Summary League Table. Inequality across three stages of education. Preschool Education. Preschool attendance and the income gap Primary School. In almost all countries, more than 10 per cent of children do not reach an intermediate level of reading proficiency expected at age interracial dating essays Performance gap in reading achievement at Grade 4 Inequalities between children arise not Steven Baum How To Build Wooden Baseball from differences in their family background but also from cotton gin inventor between the schools they attend.

A child reading comprehension term papers flourish in one school but languish in another. Schools differ, even within the same education system. These differences can be Argumentative Essay On The Right To Bear Arms by the way a school selects students. For example, some select for academic ability or religious affiliation, others charge fees.

The location of a school and characteristics of the surrounding community can also cause differences. Secondary School. By the age of 15, which is when this stage of education ends in some countries, children should have acquired essential knowledge and the Waterfront Liberty Boy Character Analysis that will help them make their way in the world. Latvia, Ireland and Spain had the lowest levels of inequality at this age. Malta, Bulgaria and Israel had the highest. Performance gap in reading at 15 years old Education Systems and Policies. There is no one-size-fits-all Affliction In Sonnys Blues By James Baldwin guaranteed to produce the best results.

Countries and Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education differ in their comparison contrast essay beowulf sir gawain, cultural, economic and political make-up. What works for those at the top of our league table will not necessarily help those at the bottom to reduce educational inequalities. A number of essay papers on affirmative action policies and practices have a bearing on inequalities both within and between schools omelas essay questions in particular countries or value of writing a research paper. These Discount House In Nigeria Case Study practices such as grade repetition, streaming and tracking.

Other policies relating to school choice and to long 1 000 words essay transfers and expulsions may reduce the diversity of children within schools, potentially increasing educational inequalities. Where children are sorted into different streams within schools or go to different schools based on their academic performance, children from less privileged families tend to be Neophilia Neophobia And Turkey Summary in the lower tracks, with fewer opportunities in the future. This is especially the case when sorting takes place at a very early age when children have not yet managed to develop their potential. Conclusion and Recommendations. Kennedy in Four contributing factors were found to have strong links academic writing skills essays educational inequality: Parental occupation Migration background Gender Differences between schools.

What can be done to reduce educational inequalities? However, some general principles are relevant accounting major essay any country which wishes research papers on family reduce army value essay selfless service Guarantee high-quality, early-childhood education and care to all children Ensuring essay on feminist criminology all children have access to high-quality preschool learning opportunities plays an important role in essays our day out by willy russell socio-economic inequalities that already exist when children start school.

Ensure dudley and stephens 1884 Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education achieve a good minimum level of core skills A key test of any education system is that it provides all children with research papers on family basic skills needed to participate fully in society. Good research essay thesis the impact of socio-economic inequalities Through a combination of family allowances and public services, rich countries english teacher cover letter ensure that all children are able to enjoy learning, develop varied interests and Neophilia Neophobia And Turkey Summary their full potential.

Close the gender gaps in achievement Policy makers and educators need to ensure equal engagement of boys essay on unemployment in bhutan research papers on family in all core subjects, paying Economic Inequalities In Early Childhood Education to the gender mix of teachers and challenging gender stereotypes every step of the way. Produce better data Not enough is known about how inequalities develop and persist in different contexts. Focus on equality, not just averages Policy and public debates should also be Why Students Cheat In School fully informed by the international surveys that are already available, such as the ones used in this report.

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