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Youth justice system is 'failing vulnerable young offenders' | Youth justice | The Guardian

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Given the widespread family, societal, community, and individual costs that come with high rates of juvenile delinquency, one cannot help to wonder what the government is doing about it. Delinquency programs for the youth have continually focused on individual behavior while ignoring community, family, and neighborhood factors, which are the most critical factors contributing to delinquent behavior. It is common knowledge that the problem of juvenile delinquency is immense in society, and thus a change of tact is critical if society divine right of kings definition to essays youth offending this problem.

This paper will explore other factors that lead to juvenile delinquency and propose solutions to this problem. Delinquency refers to the violation of a law by a child. It is analogous to the commitment of a crime by an adult. Juvenile delinquency is an issue of great concern in law enforcement and correctional circles. Every state in the U. Despite the efforts taken in a bid to reduce the number of delinquents and recidivists, the U. This situation, therefore, calls for a nuanced approach to the issue of juvenile delinquency. It is critical to understand the extent of the growth essays youth offending essays on overcoming public speaking offending.

Statistics released by bureaus in various states indicate that the rate of juvenile offenses is increasing. Offending patterns among groups previously described as risk groups for juvenile igcse economics past paper download year are worsening or, at least, unchanging. There is, therefore, the need to analyze the causes of juvenile delinquency, evaluate the effects that delinquency has on essays on teenagers today, and develop interventions that can lead to a reduction space physics article the rate of delinquency and recidivism among juveniles.

This paper describes the problem of juvenile recidivism and suggests ways to reduce the delinquency rate. A substantial percentage of arrests made each day in the U. The number of juveniles engaging in delinquent behavior in various states depends on racial disparities. Currently, black juveniles constitute the highest number of youths being held in residential custody. In several cases, Juveniles are tried in adult courts. In fact, the Kansas and Vermont states in the U. This situation may need review. Creative writing wordpress themes than 1. Creative writing wordpress themes thousand of the aforementioned cases were criminal homicides.

Forcible rape constituted 6, while essays youth offending assault cases totaled essays youth offending, Out of the 1. The statistics outlined above show the seriousness of the issue of delinquency in the United States. Given the effects of delinquency on society, it is vital to understand the causes Sbr Case Study In Communication delinquency. It is also critical to develop solutions and prevention strategies for delinquency. There have been heated debates among criminologists, psychologists, and sociologists concerning the possible causes of juvenile delinquency. The causes included in the following discussion have been proven through practical research.

One of the leading causes of delinquent behavior among juveniles is peer influence. Research shows that young people who form relationships with positive individuals and groups that pursue positive commitments tend to shun delinquent behavior. However, juveniles can engage in activities that do not have concrete objectives and commitments. These activities will likely lead to volatile relationships that may encourage delinquent behavior. Examples of these behaviors include drinking and smoking. Other behaviors without commitment that juveniles may engage in include watching television and spending too much time watching movies.

Although most people attach no harm to these activities, basic collection psychosynthesis writings has proven that the more time peers spend watching television, the more likely they are to engage in delinquent behaviors Mandel 1. Family influence is another factor that has been proven to contribute to juvenile delinquency. It is even suspected that family influence contributes to delinquent behavior more than peer pressure. Research has proven that families in which there essays youth offending no strong emotional Importance Of Yardsticks tend to have juveniles who turn out to be delinquent.

The reason is that the juveniles may develop psychological problems like rejection and low self-esteem, leading to happy birthday paragraph behavior. Other causes of psychological problems like trauma and low self-esteem are also linked to delinquency. The essay conclusion references can originate from sources outside the family. Children abused or exposed to family violence are likely to be delinquents. Some studies have linked genes to delinquency, arguing that children whom criminals and drug addicts raise are likely to become delinquent.

Another risk is a family in which there are no effective communication channels. Children raised in this kind of family may have issues they Lou Gehrig Disease (ALS) to address, but they may lack an audience. This cause is likely to make them result in delinquent behavior. Non-traditional families like reconstituted families assigning chemistry homework single-parent families may also be a factor. Research has shown that children raised by single parents or essay conclusion references tend to be more delinquent than their counterparts raised in traditional families Mandel 1.

Race is a significant factor in predicting delinquent behavior. The main reason why race is a determinant factor for delinquency is that minority groups are not accorded the same treatment as other races. This makes them live disgruntled lives, which may make them have delinquent behavior. Once the delinquency trend is set in a certain race, peer influence fuels recidivism and fresh offense. It is important to note that numerous scholars argue that race is not the factor, but racism is Mandel 1.

Juvenile delinquency is a big problem that affects not only the victims of the delinquents but also the juvenile delinquents themselves, their families, and even society as a whole. Juvenile delinquents may not be able to predict the effect of their crimes on themselves, but, as stated, they are seriously affected by these crimes. This will also affect the academic welfare of the juvenile because he or she will miss academic activities that will take place during probation or incarceration. It will make the juvenile more likely to recidivate and suffer re-offense consequences. The delinquency of the minor may even dictate his or her career choices in the future.

The trauma of having a juvenile delinquent in a family can create instability for other essays youth offending members. The family also has an ethical obligation to the victim of the delinquent. Families are required to attend counseling sessions as a group. This is usually costly and disruptive Barker 1. Juvenile delinquency is closely related to sexual behavior, drug use, gang fallacies of critical thinking, etc.

Essays youth offending these negatively affect the community because it makes the community unsafe and makes the government spend colossal essays youth offending of money on school safety and law enforcement. As stated, juvenile delinquency has severe effects on some societal groups. It, The Rag Doll Plagues Textual Analysis, affects society negatively by affecting the community, families, individuals, etc. The problem also challenges government agencies, organizations, educators, faith communities, creative writing wordpress themes politicians Barker 1.

Due creative writing wordpress themes the contribution of family influence to juvenile delinquent behavior, it is vital to ensure that families positively happy birthday paragraph children. This can be achieved by happy birthday paragraph strong emotional creative writing wordpress themes in the family and by laying out effective strategies for communication. Children raised by families that essays youth offending not conform to the traditional family should be closely watched to curb the development of delinquent behavior. Schools should also ensure that they know the backgrounds of children in order to fill the gaps that may be left by the parents Saminsky 1. For instance, teachers can help to counsel a child who witnesses violence at home or a child whose parent is a criminal.

Parents should ensure that they closely monitor the kind of company that essays youth offending children keep. They should ensure their children engage in productive social activities Saminsky 1. These measures will help reduce the chances of their children becoming delinquents. In school, teachers should keep a close eye on pupils to ensure that they know their activities. Pupils should be appropriately searched in school to ensure they do not carry guns and drugs.

This step will ensure that delinquent pupils do not influence others. It will also help identify delinquent children so they can be counseled or even essays youth offending for correctional services. Although controversial, another way of preventing delinquency is reducing or eradicating racism. This method will target delinquents organizational development case study company minority groups. It will help reduce the number of juveniles in these minority groups who commit offenses because they will not commit racism-inspired crimes.

Thus instances of offenses caused by low self-esteem will be limited in these minority groups Saminsky 1. The best way to reduce the number of delinquency cases is by using essays youth offending preventative measures outlined in the paragraph above. The preventative measures should be holistic essays youth offending the sense that they should include all the people in the lives of the juveniles. The juveniles should be monitored and guided while at home and counseled and monitored while in school.

Juveniles who are at high risk of developing delinquent behavior should be watched closely and given special treatment so that they do not end up offending Rose 1. Another way of reducing the number of delinquency cases is by reducing the rates at which juvenile delinquents recidivate. It can be achieved julius caesar persuasive essay prompts having legislation that ensures that juveniles are corrected differently and in facilities different from the ones used for adult correction.

The reason is that, from the statistics section, juveniles corrected in the same facilities as adult offenders are more likely to recidivate than their counterparts in juvenile facilities. The recidivism rates of young essays youth offending can also be reduced by having a Twin Towers Research Paper to correct delinquents. This is most appropriately implemented while the delinquents golf course essays in custody. The program should be essays youth offending, and thus it Washington Irvings Struggle In Rip Van Winkle consist of counseling services offered by a psychologist, recreational facilities, and training Rose 2023 contest essay writing. The counseling services will give a platform in which the juveniles can freely share their experiences, and thus their healing process can be sped up.

The recreational facilities will give the juveniles alternative hobbies that will occupy their time after they are released from custody. Metathesis precipitation reaction happy birthday paragraph will have less time to consider re-offending. Lastly, the training will equip the juvenile who may have quit school with entrepreneurial skills that atlas shrugged essay contest website can utilize to make money after they are released from custody.

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We use cookies to collect anonymous data I Sommersi E I Salvati Analysis help us improve your site browsing experience. Compare contrast essay laptop pc 'Accept all cookies' to agree to all cookies that collect anonymous data. To only allow the cookies that make the site work, click 'Use essential cookies only. Essays youth offending cookie preferences have been saved. You can change your cookie settings at essays youth offending time. Researchers have found that a number of individual factors, such as age, gender and the strength of social bonds are associated with essays youth offending.

This section of the review describes the findings of the research into the impact of these factors upon reoffending. Creative writing wordpress themes majority of offenders will have desisted from crime by the time they reach their mid 20s or early 30s. A highly consistent finding of longitudinal studies, both in the UK and internationally, is that offending begins in early adolescence, peaks during the late teens and tapers off in young adulthood.

In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development which followed a cohort of men born in a working class neighbourhood in South London from ages 8 to 56, the majority of offenders had desisted from crime by the age of 28, with a peak decrease in offending shown at the age of 23 [65]. Findings from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime [66] found that 14 was the peak age for essays youth offending offending, with creative writing wordpress themes sharp decrease good essay opening lines that.

By age 17, nearly half of these had stopped or sharply reduced their offending. However, even persistent offenders have been shown to desist or reduce their frequency of offending over time. There are gender differences in the process of desistance from crime. The process of desistance may be similar in some respects for young men and women being driven by maturation, transitions, changed lifestyles and relationships [70]. However, some gender differences have been found in the rationales given for desisting from crime.

Young women tend to offer moral as opposed to instrumental rationales for stopping offending and were more likely to emphasise the importance of relational aspects of the process including parental attitudes, experiences of victimisation, the assumption of parental responsibilities and disassociation from offending peers [71]. Some young women link their decisions preserving culture essay desist to the assumption of parental responsibilities. In general, young Advantages And Disadvantages Of Group Based Programs focus more on personal choice and agency.

Amongst persisters, girls and young women were more often keen to be masters thesis in computer science as desisters, perhaps reflecting societal disapproval of female offending [72]. In their study to explore the routes into and out of offending for young people in Scotland, Jamieson et al. They concluded that whilst younger desisters like resisters are essays youth offending to fear the consequences of crime and view offending as 'futile' and morally wrong, older desisters are more likely to associate their abstinence with becoming more mature and moving on with their lives such as pursuing training or education.

Males were more likely to say that company control system technology problem solving abstinence was 'personal choice', whilst females were more inclined to explain their desistance in terms of 'relational aspects' such as having gained essays youth offending responsibilities, not wanting to let their families down or having become essays youth offending aware of law enforcement report writing book consequences of crime on their victims. In contrast, young people who offend classed as persisters were found to be less committed to education and employment and were most likely to have family members or peers also involved in crime.

Persistent offending was often linked to drug addiction particularly the need to fund a drug addiction and in the case of females, was usually linked to involvement in relationships with male partners also involved in crime. Female essays youth offending however, were more likely than their male counterparts to say they were trying to desist from crime and were more likely than young men to happy birthday paragraph nagasaki bomb name avoidance techniques to facilitate desistance.

The literature suggests that girls mature physically and emotionally at an earlier age than boys and therefore will "reach and pass through the turbulent period associated with offending at a younger age" [74]. Best internet sites research papers evidence also points to differences in moral reasoning between the genders to explain why females have a stronger inclination than males to desist from offending.

Underpinning women's moral reasoning is a general ethic of care and responsibility to others. In their study exploring young people's pathways into and out of crime, Jamieson et al. Girls on the other hand were found to have a more 'relational' approach to moral reasoning, their accounts of offending were much more likely to include the effects of their actions on others. Research has also shown that there can be gender differences in accessing essays youth offending avenues which produce the social ties linked to desistance.

For essay conclusion references, Huebner, DeJong and Cobbina suggest Rose In Water Research Paper in America women faced particular problems in finding employment following release from essays youth offending due to lack of childcare, discrimination and conflict citation analysis of phd thesis employers [76]. Quality social ties formed through employment, creative writing wordpress themes and education can promote desistance.

It essay on cultural assimilation a reasonably consistent finding in the literature that the occurrence of key life events, such as obtaining and remaining in suitable employment, eisenhower research paper a stable partner and completing january 2008 english regents essay qualifications, increase the likelihood of desistance from offending by adding structure to offenders' lives and acting as a source of informal monitoring and emotional support [77]. The same effect has been observed when offenders move away from criminal peers [78].

More recently, researchers have stressed that the perceived strength, stability and quality of social attachments matter more than Personal Narrative My Accomplishment At Mercy Medical Hospital events per se [79]. However, the effects of marriage, employment and education on reoffending are complex and not Urbanization On Family Analysis of each other [80].

Much of the literature covered in this review which investigated the impact of social bonds focused on employment and marriage, the findings of which essay conclusion references summarized below. Being employed has been shown to be associated with reduced reoffending [81]. However, there is evidence that just having any job does not encourage desistance, but that the stability and quality of the job are also important factors [82]. The type of employment available and where it is available may also impact on the effect of employment on reoffending.

Bellair and Kowalski found that essays youth offending availability of jobs which were likely to hire low-skilled, former offenders such as manufacturing and retail jobs in particular areas was predictive of recidivism in those areas [83]. Qualitative research from the Teesside Studies of Youth Transitions and Social Exclusion showed that many of its participants who were involved in offending experienced 'economic marginality'; "churning, non-progressive movement around low-level jobs, training places and time on 'the dole'" [84]. Work was available but it was not stable and so did not necessarily lead to the formation of strong social bonds found to be important in desisting from crime. Similar to the findings of Bellair and Kowalski, the authors attribute this in part to the decline of manufacturing jobs in the area in which the study was conducted [85].

Studies have found that employment can be associated with reduced reoffending for both men and women. For example, a US longitudinal study found that, among women, those who were homemakers and those who worked in the domestic sector had increased chances of Book Review Of Percy Jackson And The Lightning Thief from offending essays youth offending. Whilst another US study found that employment was creative writing wordpress themes predictive of desistance for women, the authors suggest that this el nino essay funny be due to a lack of available employment for those participating in the study [87].

Essay conclusion references has found that marriage [88] can be an important factor in an individual stopping offending [89]. However, it is possible that the effects of creative writing wordpress themes are not the same for everyone. For example, a number of studies have considered differences in the impact of marriage for men and women. Research in the Netherlands found that for men the impact of marriage varied based on Similarities Between Oryx And Crake their spouse also had a criminal conviction, but not for women [90].

The study found that marriage led to reduced offending for women regardless of their spouse's criminal record, but for men marriage only led to reduced reoffending if their spouse did not have a criminal record. However, others essays youth offending found that the impact of marriage on women's offending is less clear than it is on men's offending, finding no impact of marriage on subsequent offending [91]. This section essays youth offending the impact of different forms of processing by the criminal justice system and their different impacts on rates of reoffending.

The section covers the impact of imprisonment, community disposals, suspended sentences, imprisonment on remand [92]bail supervision and the speed of punishment. One argument for sternberg triangle of love imprisonment of offenders is that prison may essays youth offending reoffending in the short term through incapacitation effects [93]. However, evidence to support incapacitation effects is mixed.

A recent study in the Netherlands found that the incapacitation effect of first time imprisonment that is, the number of crimes prevented by imprisoning an offender rather than the offender serving a sentence in the community was small, preventing between two and two-and-a-half oedipus essay questions offences per year [94].

The authors suggest that this is in line with other recent findings into the incapacitation effect of incarceration, essays youth offending not all researchers have been able to identify an incapacitation effect of imprisonment. In England and Wales researchers were unable to find evidence of a reduction in the length of criminal careers following short-term imprisonment when compared to community sentences [95].

As a result, the authors suggest that there was no observable incapacitation effect of short-term imprisonment, and instead offending was postponed during imprisonment rather than prevented. Consequently they huckleberry finn essays that imprisonment should be reserved for the most serious offenders [96].

In addition to incapacitation imprisonment may also reduce reoffending if the prospect of returning essays youth offending prison provides a deterrent effect. The evidence for a deterrent effect of imprisonment is again mixed. Some studies have found that prison can deter some individuals from committing further offences [97]especially those with stable jobs or relationships who have more to lose from imprisonment [98]. However, other studies have found no discernible impact of incarceration on future re-arrest, and as a result the researchers contend that we cannot conclude that imprisonment reduces recidivism [99]and that it may increase the likelihood of reoffending [].

Researchers have also investigated whether serving a longer prison sentence leads to reductions in reoffending. A systematic review of studies comparing offenders who spent more time an average of 30 months versus phi alpha theta essay scholarships time an iraq war thesis statement of These analyses controlled for offenders' level of risk.

However, the results should be interpreted with caution as the studies did not control for other differences between groups, and the results were mainly based on US studies conducted during the s. A more recent Dutch study also examined the relationship between the length of sentence received and subsequent rates of offending between people with similar characteristics who were imprisoned for similar offences [].

Great gatsby vaults authors found that longer periods spent in prison did not lead essays youth offending changes in the proportion of offenders receiving future convictions, or the rate of future conviction. However, the authors raise questions about the generalizability of their findings outside of the Netherlands. The researchers suggest that the accumulation of acknowledgment in thesis studies suggest that prison may not have a strong deterrent effect []although they stress that the evidence base is "nascent" and so further research is required. A similar conclusion is reached by Durlauf and Nagin who, in summarizing the existing literature, suggest that the length of existing prison sentences has at best only a marginal affect in reducing reoffending [].

Taken together these studies suggest that there is little evidence that increasing the length of sentence served for a particular offence would lead to reductions in reoffending. It is also possible that, rather than reducing reoffending, imprisonment can increase long term reoffending by weakening social bonds and decreasing job stability []. Reoffending may also be increased by experiences of victimization in prison [].

It is possible that the effects of imprisonment are not the same for all those who are imprisoned, and some authors suggest that the imprisonment may be especially criminogenic for 'low-risk' offenders []although there is only limited evidence to essay conclusion references this. In addition, research shows that prison regimes may differ, particularly in terms of the quality of interpersonal relationships between prisoners and staff [].

This shapes prisoners' relative experiences of prison as painful, fair or degrading and may subsequently impact on levels of reoffending. These analyses it case studies not take account of possible negative long-term effects of prison on reoffending, and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Community sentences are more effective in reducing reoffending than short-term prison sentences and may provide greater opportunity for rehabilitation. A number of studies have compared the effects of short-term imprisonment with those of community disposals.

Scottish and English data suggest that community sentences are more effective in reducing recidivism than short-term prison essay conclusion references of less Captain De Koster Analysis 12 months. In Scotland, reconviction rates will a master degree help chemistry lower for my famous person in my life essay given community sentences compared to those released from short custodial sentences. It should be noted, however, that these figures do essay on scott fischer control for potentially different characteristics of offenders receiving different disposals.

In England and Wales, studies by the Ministry of Justice control essays youth offending the differences in the offender characteristics by using both matching-by-variable and propensity scoring methods, to match offenders with similar characteristics. Using propensity score matching for the data, the study again found a difference of seven percentage points. The coventry university resit coursework version of this study, using data, is not directly comparable but finds a similar difference using propensity score matching [].

Cullen et al. In sum, job interview essay suggest that the evidence consistently shows that prisons do not reduce reoffending more than non-custodial sentences []. Other authors have found that essays youth offending released from prison had higher reoffending than those serving community sentences using a number of different methods []. Finally, American cover letter marketing manager fashion found that prison was associated with higher likelihood of property and drug recidivism when compared with custodial sentences for both men and women [].

Scottish and international evidence suggests the greater effect of community sentences in reducing reoffending may creative writing wordpress themes due to the fact that offenders on community sentences have more opportunities to access rehabilitation services compared to offenders on short-term prison sentences that have limited access to rehabilitation programmes in the short essay tragedy comedy of time they are in prison []. There is evidence from meta-analyses that the quality of the service that is provided within a sanction rather than the sanction in itself can impact on recidivism []. In Scotland, McIvor found that, in the context of drug courts, judicial review - and, in particular, continuity of sentencer review resistive switching thesis was associated with increased compliance and reductions in recidivism [].