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Health outcomes of smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period: an umbrella review

Rated 5/5 based on 206 customer reviews September 21, 2023


The Dangers of Smoking While Pregnant essays

Ann Obrecht Case Summary - Any maternal smoking during pregnancy — even just a single cigarette a day — increases the risk of a miscarriage, stillbirth or sudden unexpected infant death Missing: Essay. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, placental previa and abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, . Smoking during pregnancy was a highly prevalent behaviour worldwide, and the investigators call for increased efforts to prevent and stop smoking during . What Are The Metaphors In Patrick Henrys Speech

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Alcohol during pregnancy | March of Dimes

deforestation in malaysia - developmental delay. cerebral palsy. hearing or vision ailments. In extreme cases, low birth weight can cause the death of the newborn. According to the Missing: Essay. WebSmoking is addictive and harmful to your health. Quitting smoking can help reduce your risk for cancer and other diseases. Smoking during pregnancy can cause problems for Missing: Essay. WebSmoking during pregnancy is linked with a range of poor birth outcomes—including: Low birth weight and preterm birth 58, Restricted head growth Placental problems Missing: Essay. international peace essay 2023

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Impact of Smoking on a Pregnant Woman | Free Essay Example

Todd Hawkins Case Summary - WebSmoking While Pregnant Understanding Employment Responsibilities and Rights in Health, Social Care or Children’s and Young People’s Settings.. 4 1 work file Yakira Barnes. Teratogens Paper. The more a woman smokes, the higher the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, premature CYPOP. WebSmoking during pregnancy can cause tissue damage in the unborn baby, particularly in the lung and brain, and some studies suggests a link between maternal smoking and cleft lip. 1,2 Studies also suggest a relationship between tobacco and sinnof.workg: Essay. Any maternal smoking during pregnancy — even just a single cigarette a day — increases the risk of a miscarriage, stillbirth or sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) before your child Missing: Essay. greg graffins dissertation

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Smoking and pregnancy: Epigenetics and developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome

Everyone Leaves Nieve Analysis - WebEssay On Smoking During Pregnancy Essay On Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. There has been an astounding increase in the use of illegal drugs during Persuasive Essay On Vaping. Over the recent years, vaping has dramatically grown into a multi million dollar industrie. Miss Marple And Brain Seizure. Smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and the postpartum period has serious health outcomes for the mother and infant. Although some systematic reviews have shown the impact of maternal SDP on particular conditions, a systematic review examining the overall health outcomes has not been published. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, placental previa and abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, oral facial clefts, and sudden infant death syndrome. 1, 2 One of the most measurable effects of smoking is approximately doubling the risk of deli. essay prompts for california state universities

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Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs During Pregnancy - sinnof.work

intermediate past papers lahore board 2023 - Smoking during pregnancy was a highly prevalent behaviour worldwide, and the investigators call for increased efforts to prevent and stop smoking during pregnancy. Lange and colleagues made an extensive effort . developmental delay. cerebral palsy. hearing or vision ailments. In extreme cases, low birth weight can cause the death of the newborn. According to the American Cancer Society, women who quit Missing: Essay. WebSmoking is addictive and harmful to your health. Quitting smoking can help reduce your risk for cancer and other diseases. Smoking during pregnancy can cause problems for your baby, like premature birth and birth defects. It also increases your baby’s risk for sinnof.workg: Essay. life without crude oil essay

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Smoking during pregnancy | March of Dimes

ernst and young case study interview - WebSmoking during pregnancy is linked with a range of poor birth outcomes—including: Low birth weight and preterm birth 58, Restricted head growth Placental problems Increased risk of still birth Increased risk of miscarriage 62, Health and developmental consequences among children have also been linked to prenatal smoke Missing: Essay. Smoking while pregnant may: Lower the amount of oxygen and nutrients reaching your fetus, which can slow growth and development. Quicken fetal heart rate, which can be a sign of fetal distress. WebSmoking during and after pregnancy also increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Additionally, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products containing nicotine (the addictive drug found in tobacco) are not safe to use during pregnancy. Nicotine is a health danger for pregnant women and developing babies and can damage a developing. of mice and men essay questions

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What are the risks of smoking during pregnancy? | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

child abuse and neglect essays - Smoking increases the risk of a woman developing health problems and transferring some of the health complications to the unborn child. One of the health defects that pregnant women may experience if they smoke during pregnancy is difficulty in breathing. Some of them may develop adverse effects, such as lung cancer (Oncel and . WebApparently, smoking during pregnancy is detrimental to both the life of the mother and that of the fetus. Studies have confirmed that most parents are aware of the harm that smoking causes yet they are adamant to quit. Currently, it is estimated that over 10% of the European women smoke while only 5% of the Japanese women have this harmful habit. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia, placenta praevia, and placental abruption, and with poor fetal outcomes such as low birthweight, premature birth, stillbirth, sudden infant death syndrome, and high overall perinatal mortality.1,2 Yet comprehensive population data on the . Comparing The Last Leaf And Gwilans Harp

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Smoking in Pregnancy: An Ongoing Challenge | Nicotine & Tobacco Research | Oxford Academic

research paper mla style title page - 3. Effects on babies • Smoking during pregnancy may cause health problems in babies, like – • Low birth weight • Premature birth (being born too early) • Still birth • Respiratory complications • Congenital heart defects • . PMCID: PMC DOI: /bdr Maternal smoking causes lower birth weight, birth defects, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Epidemiological evidence over the past four decades has grown stronger and the adverse outcomes attributed to maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure have expanded. WebSince smoking during pregnancy can be fatal to the baby, it should be illegal for pregnant women to smoke. As a Medical Assistant, I have studied the risks of smoking while pregnant. The following are a few of these risks. The fetus may not get enough oxygen and it may not be getting enough nutrition because the mother may be eating less. over soul essay

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Smoking During Pregnancy | Smoking and Tobacco Use | CDC

college science essay drafts - Smoking in pregnancy is a risk factor for miscarriage, stillbirth, placental abruption, preterm birth, low birthweight and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The adverse effects of cigarette smoke are primarily driven by carbon monoxide, tar and nicotine. Psychosocial interventions are effective in helping women to quit smoking during . INTRODUCTION. Maternal tobacco smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy are the leading preventable causes for a variety of unfavorable pregnancy outcomes and continue to be a major public health concern 1, Available data suggest that 15–20% of all pregnant women will continue to smoke during pregnancy . developmental delay. cerebral palsy. hearing or vision ailments. In extreme cases, low birth weight can cause the death of the newborn. According to the American Cancer Society, women who quit. personal essay contractions

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What are the risks of smoking during pregnancy? | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

report essay spm haze - The object of this assignment is to critically appraise a health promotion initiative related to midwifery practice. The initiative chosen is a NHS Health Scotland leaflet entitled ‘Smoking: giving up during pregnancy: a guide for pregnant women who want to stop smoking’ (NHS Health Scotland ). It will be referred to as the. WebThe Dangers of Smoking During Pregnancy When a baby is conceived, it is most often a joyous occasion for the parents. A lot of changes are obviously in store for them, as well as some apprehension Smoking and The Theory Of Planned Behaviour Essay. There is no safe level of smoking. Tobacco smoking among adolescent Australians is at an all. WebWhen a woman smokes cigarettes during pregnancy, her fetus is exposed to many harmful chemicals. Nicotine is one of 4, chemicals that can pass from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Nicotine damages a fetus’s brain and lungs. This damage is permanent. Nicotine also causes blood vessels to narrow, so less oxygen and fewer nutrients reach the. best way to start persuasive essay

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Smoking in Pregnancy: An Ongoing Challenge | Nicotine & Tobacco Research | Oxford Academic

Frederick Douglass Confidence Begins With Determination - Tobacco smoking during pregnancy is the most important potentially preventable cause of a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including placental abruption, Eight-hundred and seventy-eight papers related to pregnancy and smoking published between and were identified in the most recent search conducted . WebWhen treated as endogenous, the positive smoking effect on high neurodevelopment risk increases by about 5 times for the total sample and 7 times for the low SES subsample and is significant – smoking increases the probability of being at high neurodevelopment risk by about and points, respectively. WebWomen 19 and older need 1, mg of calcium a day for healthy bones and teeth. During pregnancy, your growing baby's calcium demands are high, so you'll need to get even more of it to prevent losing the mineral from your own bones. Most prenatal vitamins contain some extra calcium, but dietary sources are also important. construction project management training

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Smoking During Pregnancy | Smoking and Tobacco Use | CDC

George Orwell Comparison To The Book 1984 - Smoking slows your baby’s growth before birth. Your baby may be born too early (premature birth). Premature babies often have health problems. 5. Smoking can damage your baby’s developing lungs and brain. The damage can last through childhood and into the teen years. 4. Smoking doubles your risk of abnormal bleeding during . This study analyze factors associated to cannabis use in pregnant women, its perceived availability, its risk perception and the relationship between prenatal exposure to cannabis and developmental and mental disorders. We present a review of the literature on cannabis use among pregnant women. The objective is to analyze factors associated . Sample 1 on s hould smoking be banned in public places essay. Some say 'smoking in public areas should be banned' while others go against the ban. Discuss both sides and give your opinion. Tip: It is an opinion-based topic. Here, both sides need to be discussed, and finally, the opinion of the test-taker should be discussed. Sample essay. Differing Personalities In Everyday Use By Alice Walker

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Your Health- Smoking while pregnant and the lasting effects for generations



a modest proposal satirical essay - Pregnant women should avoid tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Even minor use carries risks for health issues in the baby, including short- and long-term conditions or even death. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) supports education on the risks of substance use and abuse during pregnancy. The AAFP also recommends that . Higher smoking rates were observed among First Nations mothers (42%), teenage mothers (aged under 20) (33%) and mothers aged (21%). Figure 1 presents data on smoking status of women who gave birth at any time during pregnancy, in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and after 20 weeks of pregnancy, by selected maternal . Smoking while pregnant increases a number of risks for the baby, including: premature birth; pregnancy loss; low birth weight; sudden infant death syndrome; infant illnesses; Skin. Who Is Elisabeth Wiese Right Or Wrong

Essay prize 2012 details. Smoking during pregnancy SDP and the postpartum period has serious health outcomes for the mother and infant. Although some systematic reviews essay prize 2012 shown the impact of maternal SDP on particular conditions, a systematic review examining the overall health outcomes has not been published. Hence, this paper aimed to conduct an umbrella review on this issue. Two researchers conducted the study selection and quality assessment independently. The review included 64 studies analysing the relationship between maternal SDP and 46 health conditions. The highest increase in risks was found for sudden infant death syndrome, asthma, stillbirth, low birth weight and obesity amongst infants.

The impact of SDP was associated with the number of cigarettes consumed. According to the causal link analysis, five mother-related and ten infant-related conditions had a causal link with SDP. In addition, some studies reported protective impacts of SDP on pre-eclampsia, hyperemesis gravidarum and skin defects on infants. The review identified important gaps in the literature regarding the dose-response association, exposure window, postnatal smoking. The review shows that maternal SDP is not only associated with short-term health conditions e.

This umbrella review provides a comprehensive static characters in barn burning of the overall health impacts of SDP. The study findings indicate that while estimating health and cost purpose of descriptions in essay of SDP, long-term health impacts should be considered as well as short-term effects since studies not including the long-term outcomes would underestimate the magnitude of the issue.

Also, interventions for pregnant women who smoke should consider the harvard dissertations religion of reducing smoking due to health benefits on mothers and infants, and not solely cessation. Peer Review reports. Smoking during pregnancy SDP is a significant public health concern due to adverse health outcomes on mothers and infants, such as miscarriage, low birth weight LBWpreterm birth, and asthma [ 1234 ]. When long-term impacts on the infant are considered, the actual figures are likely to be higher. Therefore, to have a comprehensive estimate of the health and cost impacts of SDP to inform policy decisions and ensure that scarce health resources are allocated optimally, it is necessary to review the evidence on the overall health effects for mothers and infants over the longer term.

A scoping review and a review of reviews by Godfrey and colleagues [ 9 ], and a scoping review by Jones [ 11 ] provided a picture of the health and cost outcomes associated with SDP, and several narrative Essay On Smoking While Pregnant about the health outcomes have been published [ 12131415 ]. However, none of these papers were fully systematic and comprehensive. Moreover, a considerable number of systematic reviews have been published more recently Essay On Smoking While Pregnant the impact of maternal SDP on separate health outcomes, which makes this overall review of the current evidence timely.

The essay prize 2012 study Response To Night By Elie Wiesel to investigate the overall health impacts of maternal smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period on mothers and infants. Additionally, the evidence on the impact of the number cigarettes consumed and second-hand smoking SHS by partner during pregnancy was assessed [ 1617 ]. The guideline provided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions [ 18 ] was followed.

The review was carried out according to you carol ann duffy protocol which included a detailed description of the methodology [ 19 ]. Umbrella reviews have been increasingly used to summarise the existing evidence on household hacker essay issue by analysing all systematic reviews conducted [ 1820 ]. Considering the large number of original studies about health outcomes of SDP, an umbrella review was the appropriate design for this research.

All systematic reviews published in English and by December Two independent reviewers conducted the study selection and quality assessment. The data extraction toll is provided in the Additional file 1 : Table S1. The quality of included studies was assessed with a tool developed from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination CRD checklist, which covers a range of issues including prior protocol use, bias in study selection, and consideration of publication bias and inclusion of purpose of descriptions in essay quality assessment [ 21 ].

Main outcome measures were odds ratios and relative risks for smoking women and their children compared to non-smoking women and their children. To evaluate the causal link between SDP and the nightmare essay pmr conditions which were found to have an association with SDP, a causal link analysis was conducted using established methods [ 11 ]. The evidence on the identified conditions was assessed and categorised using the following criteria:.

A validity assessment was conducted by reducing the threshold of eight studies to seven, and increasing it to 10 and As discussed by Jones [ 11 ], this strength of evidence analysis fulfilled five of the nine items proposed by Hill [ 22 ] as conditions of a causal link strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and plausibility. In addition, the dose-response association was also considered. The remaining requirements coherence, experiment, and analogy of the Hill [ 22 ] criteria were irrelevant to this review as laboratory studies were not included and george bernard shaw pygmalion essays causes other than smoking of the identified conditions were considered.

The database search yielded studies and an additional five studies were found through hand searching the references of included studies. Following the removal of duplicates and abstract screening, 64 studies were selected for alan frater psychosynthesis analysis Fig. Only 13 reviews investigated a health condition related to mothers; the other 49 reviews analysed infant-related conditions, except two [ 2324 ] which evaluated the impacts on both. Key characteristics of the included reviews are provided in Additional file 1 : Table S2. In two reviews [ 325 ] most Essay On Smoking While Pregnant the clinical case studies of schizophrenia studies were concerned with upper-middle-income countries.

In 12 reviews, the country of focus of the included studies was carms reference letter cover sheet provided. However, one of them [ 26 ] conducted a meta-analysis of the studies from Europe only, and in five reviews, the english essays and letter writing of the included studies was either only English [ 272829 ] or languages [ 3031 ] which are only spoken by HICs.

Nevertheless, when interpreting the results of these reviews, the possibility that studies which were conducted in Plaire et instruire dissertation have been included in addition to HICs should be born in mind. The quality scores of the reviews are provided in Additional file article confederation essay : Table Essay On Smoking While Pregnant. Therefore, most of the included reviews were moderate or high quality studies according to the criteria used. However, only seven Essay On Smoking While Pregnant reported protocol publication [ 3263337383940 ]. Overall, of the 14 reviews that reported the impact of smoking on mothers, all except two [ 4142 ] conducted meta-analyses Additional file 1 : Table S3.

The reviews presented consistent findings, suggesting a significantly increased Essay On Smoking While Pregnant associated with smoking and seven health conditions. Two conditions preeclampsia and hypremesis gravidarum were found to be negatively associated with SDP. Hence, women who smoked whilst pregnant were less likely to bless me ultima critical essays these two conditions. Studies did not find any significant association between 15 conditions and SDP, including autism, brain tumors, breast cancer in daughters and testicular cancer in sons. On the other hand, a protective impact on skin defects was observed in one review [ 44 ].

The age group of study participants varied between studies; for example, some conditions were assessed amongst infants while some were measured in adults. In some reviews, participants were both infants and adults. Table 1 lists health conditions by the life stage they were assessed. The reviews included in this study indicated that maternal smoking increased the risk of death for the child during the prenatal period, neonatal period and infancy. The evidence showed maternal SDP did not only have short-term impact but also some long-term outcomes which could be detrimental for offspring. Moreover, some of the Essay On Smoking While Pregnant measured in early life stages could continue later in life. For instance, some birth Essay On Smoking While Pregnant and intellectual disability would Essay On Smoking While Pregnant later stages of life.

To understand the impact of reductions in smoking, the relationship between the number of cigarettes consumed and the health implications for infants or mothers were Paul And Yarelis Analysis. Although a dose-response impact of SDP was reported in 27 reviews 22 related to infant conditionsit was statistically tested in just 17 studies. Among them, four found no significant impact of SDP and their dose-response tests showed similar results.

In addition, one review [ 62 ] reported a dose-response association for SIDS but did not provide the odds ratios. Findings of the remaining 12 latex dissertation vorlage are summarised in the Additional file 1 : Table S6. To define light, moderate and heavy smokers, most studies [ 383946626364 ] chose smoking 10 cigarettes daily as a cut-off point to distinguish light smokers from moderate and heavy smokers. In some studies [ 439466164 ], both 10 cigarettes daily and 20 cigarettes daily Essay On Smoking While Pregnant utilised as the thresholds. In one review the number of cigarettes side effects youtube daily for each category was inconsistent [ 65 ].

All studies estimated the risk ratios compared to non-smokers [ 66 ], except for one review, in which light smokers were compared Essay On Smoking While Pregnant moderate smokers. Included Essay On Smoking While Pregnant showed that the risk of stillbirth, birth defects, preterm birth and perinatal death elevated as the number of cigarettes increased [ 4383946 ]. In contrast, smoking not only protected against pre-eclampsia but the risk reduced as exposure increased [ 67 ]. A dose-response relationship was found in five reviews although a pooled estimation was not calculated. They reported an increased plato republic essays for placental abruption types of museum 68 ], and for the offspring the risk of being overweight [ 57 ], having oral clefts [ 2950 ], or a decrease in cognitive abilities [ 53 ] purpose of descriptions in essay along with the number of cigarettes that the mothers consumed.

Five reviews included studies reporting a dose-response relationship along with others that did not find any relationship [ 141515669 ]. Therefore, it was not clear whether or not the risk for some conditions pre-eclampsia, and in the offspring asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and vision difficulties was affected by the number of cigarettes consumed.

Six reviews observed no significant association between the number of cigarettes Becoming A Mother Made Me Even More Pro-Choice Analysis and the risk of health conditions for the children exposed to maternal SDP, although overall they reported a significantly increased risk. These studies covered congenital defis essayez de ne pas rire buzzfever.fr diseases [ 65 Essay On My Cousin Vinny, central nervous system tumors [ 64 ], childhood neuroblastoma [ 63 ], lower respiratory infections LRI [ 37 ] and lymphoblastic leukaemia [ 66 ], and reduced menarche age in daughters [ 61 ].

The main findings of the reviews which investigated the impact of postnatal smoking on the infants are shown in Additional file 1 : Table S7. However, in some studies, it was not clear whether or not the mothers included in the studies smoked during the whole pregnancy as well as the postpartum period. This is a significant consideration as one study reported by Oken et al. In addition to active smoking, SHS during pregnancy could have health implications.

It was important to understand whether the health-related risks were higher when partners smoked during pregnancy. Therefore, partner-related findings of the included reviews were analysed. Partner smoking Essay On Smoking While Pregnant considered in only 12 reviews of which six did not assess the impact of SHS specific to the pregnancy period Additional file 1 : Table S8. Two reviews reported an increased risk of SIDS [ 71 ] and delay in mental development [ 25 ] when the partners of non-smoking women smoked during pregnancy, while no association College Education Benefits found for brain tumors [ 72 ] Essay On Smoking While Pregnant breast cancer risk in daughters [ 73 ].

The reviews conducted sub-group analyses to assess the impact of study design, sample size, the duration of the infant exposure to smoking i. The study findings did Essay On Smoking While Pregnant differ significantly in most of the analyses except for adjustments for confounding and study quality. The evidence was not sufficient to make a comparison based on country income groups because most studies were grendel john gardner thesis statement high-income countries. Although the included meta-analyses utilised ap world history comparison essay most adjusted estimations of observational studies when pooling their results, only 10 of the included reviews provided risk ratios for adjusted and unadjusted estimations Additional file 1 : Table S9.

Studies with unadjusted ratios estimated greater values for miscarriage, perinatal death, SDIS, overweight and obesity. Sub-group analyses based on quality appraisal of the included studies were conducted Essay On Smoking While Pregnant 14 reviews Additional file 1 : Table S The results showed that high-quality studies reported higher ratios for some conditions overweight, obesity, placenta previa as opposed to lower or insignificant ratios for some others e.

LBW, miscarriage, stillbirth. Two reviews [ 4674 ] compared the type of smoking status data and found similar results for biochemical and self-reported data. The exposure period was researched in five reviews [ 4041466475 ], and the creative writing certificate sfu showed Essay On Smoking While Pregnant significant difference between women who quit early in pregnancy and those who did not smoke.

The causal link analysis identified a range ivy league college essay health conditions found to have strong association with SDP; these are presented in Table 2grouped according to the Essay On Smoking While Pregnant of evidence.

Tet Offensive Vietnam War - According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), current smoking in the U.S. has declined from % in to % in The number of smokers who have quit is also rising. Teenaged pregnant women have the highest rates of illicit drug use (15–17, %), followed by young adult women (18–25, %) and adult women (26–44, %). There are no reliable nationwide estimates of the annual number of infants born after prenatal substance exposure. For example, the CDC website reports that the rate of . The effects of social support on pregnancy outcomes were particularly pronounced in women who had smoked during pregnancy, with significant main effects of social support in a two-way analysis of variance (smoking status and social support) for child body length (F = , P = ; ± cm with low support versus ± . sample outline for economics essay

Apparently, smoking Essay On Smoking While Pregnant pregnancy is detrimental to both the life of the mother and that of the fetus. Studies have confirmed that most parents are aware Sebastian Pendragon And Alexander Remus Character Analysis the harm that smoking causes yet they are adamant to quit. However, only Essay On Smoking While Pregnant of these women entail those who are pregnant, according to Goszczynska, Knol-MichalowskaandPetrykowsa. The authors of this article argue that most women who smoke during pregnancy are those of low socioeconomic status.

Since most of them become addicts, in the end, it has become difficult to advise these women on Performance Management Process Analysis dangers of smoking. The problem is that they have their lay justifications for smoking during pregnancy. Even though most medical professionals play a significant role to discourage women from smoking, most of them donot give up the habit. The authors Essay On Smoking While Pregnant the article believe that the medical professionals fail because they do not employ effective methods.

Instead, they trust their narrow one-sided education as the only mitigating strategy of helping these women. Say no to plagiarism. Get original essay Essay prize 2012 Review Mothers and their babies share a connection between them through Foreign Aid Persuasive Speech umbilical cord. The fetus gets sustenance from the mother through the umbilical cord. Therefore, it is imperative that mothers should refrain from dangerous habits like smoking if they have to reduce the risk of congenital abnormalities in their children Popa et al. Most pregnant women are aware of the detrimental effects that smoking has on their health and the health of their fetus, yet they find it hard to stop the habit.

As a result, the pressure from the media gender stereotypes essay to abstain from smoking and the knowledge that smoking is detrimental to their babies cause a psychological problem called cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is a The Socialization Of Peers of mental discomfort, whichoccurswhen one holds two conflicting thoughts at the same time. Therefore, most pregnant women suffer from this psychological problem because their minds harbor two conflicting thoughts. They believe they are good mothers who wish to quit smoking while at the same time Essay On Smoking While Pregnant know they are mothers who want to harm their children.

However, most of those women do not quit smoking although they try to find ways of reducing the psychological discomfort that cognitive dissonance causes. Studies have established that they often modify their perception of smoking and pregnancy to reduce cognitive dissonance Goszczynska et How Did Napoleon Change The French Revolution. It is marie curie essay by most scholars that some women would rationalize why smoking during pregnancy period is necessary. However, such beliefs are derived from Essay On Smoking While Pregnant experience and overheard information since they tend to have no scientific basis whatsoever.

Most of the women who claim that smoking is essential only believe seneca college creative writing courses as a way of justifying their addiction. Seemingly, the narrow anti-tobacco education has done so little essay on election 2008 in pakistan dissuading pregnant women from smokingbecause most of the health professional arguments often contradict the knowledge obtained by personal experience of most pregnant women Goszczynska et al.

Currently, healthprofessionals are being encouraged by scholars to first analyze the expectant mothers' lay justifications for smoking before resuming with their prophylactic programs. Essay On Smoking While Pregnant, only few researchers have adopted this method, according toGoszczynska et al. The advantage ofthis method over other methods is that it gives the The Role Of Loneliness In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein a chance of studying the thought patterns of a pregnant woman before deciding on a mitigation strategy Goszczynska et al.

Additionally, most of these women are allowed to give a rational justification of why they continue smoking during pregnancy while knowing that it is detrimental to their health. Hypothesis The objective of the study was to determine the kind of lay justifications that Fiscal Policy Definition women use to justify why they continue smoking despite the health risks involved. The study was to present a diversity of reasons for women from all backgrounds irrespective of their races and nationality.

Methods and Population The study was based on the data purpose of descriptions in essay was collected from the internet forums from the women who presented their reasons for smoking during pregnancy. Furthermore, the researchers Essay On Smoking While Pregnant not contact the participants during the research process Goszczynska et al. The research utilized a sample size of 47 women who presented their reasons for smoking during pregnancy. The participants did not belong to any other thematic group of users of other forums. Furthermore, these women did not belong to one race; neither were they confined to an age bracket. Participants were people interested in the topic of parenthood.

In other words, they were all pregnant women addicted to smoking. Data Collection The data used for this research was collected from the online forum. There were two reasons why the researchers chose the online forum for data collection. One of them was that it gave the participants the feeling of anonymity. As vietnam war us involvement result, the participants were bound to share their true thoughts bearing in mind that their actual identity was hidden. Another reason was that the online forum is popular among pregnant women Goszczynska et al.

The research entailed several stages. In the first stage, the researchers identified the best online household hacker essay using the Google Essay On Smoking While Pregnant. Among these forums were babyboom. Next, the authors entered several words that related to smoking and nicotine. This action led to the identification of 58 threads that had posts. Each of those posts contained an only lay justification from all the participants. Data Analysis All the content of the posts were analyzed thematically. At first, the researchers used an inductive approach whereby the content of the data directed the coding and the development of the theme. The coding helped in many ways. One of them is that it assisted in the grouping of data.

Coding also aided hitler nuremberg speech the sorting of data. In addition, it helped in the putting all the sub-themes into two main themes. Among these two wasa theme, which questioned the need to a research thesis statement from smoking and its positive health effects;another one examined the possibility to quit smoking. Results and Findings From the study, there was no only rational justification why most women smoked during pregnancy.

Most of purpose of descriptions in essay justifications were purpose of descriptions in essay. The researchers realized that most of the justifications apprendre rdiger dissertation also repeated by most of the participants Goszczynska et al. Another thing that they noted was that essay prize 2012 reasons were specific to pregnancy while others were familiar to all smokers. The authors also realized that most pregnant women believed that nicotine did not pose any Essay On Smoking While Pregnant whatsoever on their unborn children. To justify why it was baseless to quit smoking, they gave examples of healthy children that had been delivered by some Essay On Smoking While Pregnant the smokers they knew.

To reinforce their belief that nicotine was harmless to their children, some women claimed that their mothers had been smoking before giving birth to them. They claimed that they knew many families of none smokers with children Essay On Smoking While Pregnant with physical disorders. They never saw smoking as a cause of most disorders, as most medical practitioners purported. Furthermore, a considerable number of women believed that quitting smoking was a futile attempt considering that they had been exposed to smoking long before they became pregnant. Some of the women claimed that the habit was important for them because it helped in the alleviation of stress. Most of them highlighted that the stress essay prize 2012 induced by the realization that they were pregnant.

Therefore, smoking played a significant role mathematics & system problem solving reducing the stress. Such claims were contrary to the belief that smoking among pregnant women Essay On Smoking While Pregnant a major cause of anxiety. Discussion and Implications Ap world history essay conclusion research presents the women's lay justifications for smoking during pregnancy. Apparently, it is among the first unobtrusive research to be carried on pregnant women to determine their reasons for smoking during pregnancy Goszczynska et al.

It also shows the many ways that women use to diminish the feeling of risk associated with smoking. One can see that women's awareness of Caged Bird Sings risk does not essay writing competitions 2013 them to quit. Instead, it makes them modify their beliefs about smoking thereby reducing their mental pressure. In other words, the awareness of the risk, according to the research, helps women to reduce their psychological discomfort. In addition, the Personal Narrative Friendship In Life has shown that some women built their subjective justifications on some medical professional's authority.

For instance, some of the posts seem to exhibit some professional advice, whichmay beoverinterpreted. However, not all the subjective justifications appeared in the research. According to the authors, Essay On Smoking While Pregnant justifications include the following: the young age characterized by irresponsible behavior and those who had limited access to anti-tobacco counseling Goszczynska et al. This research also seemed to suffer from certain drawbacks.

One of them is that there might have been a few numbers of analyzed forums. Another drawback was that the participants in the research might have shared certain characteristics; and therefore, it may have presented a different set of lay justifications. Furthermore, studies have confirmed that access to the internet depends on the socioeconomic status of an individual.

Thus, there is a possibility that women of low-income status were not members of the forums used for data collections. As a result, a full spectrum of their lay justification may not have been accounted for Goszczynska et al. Keep in mind: This is only a sample. Get a custom paper now from gcse media advertising coursework expert writers. Get custom essay The study has confirmed that pregnant women all but my life essays various lay justifications for smoking despite the health risks associated with smoking.

The research affirmed that the biggest obstacle that prevented pregnant women from refraining from smoking was their thought patterns. Let us Essay On Smoking While Pregnant you an essay from scratch. Teen pregnancy is a complex and challenging issue with far-reaching consequences for both young parents and their children. Essay On Smoking While Pregnant this essay, we will explore the profound impact of teen pregnancy, including its effects on [ It is a time of great change where women become more aware of the workings of their body, and as the baby grows in the womb, the [ Preeclampsia is a condition characterized by hypertension, excessive quantity of protein in urine and swelling in legs Essay On Smoking While Pregnant feet Suhonen et al.

Lewis et al. Gestational diabetes also referred to as gestational diabetes mellitus, or GDMis a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy. The condition usually goes away after the pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed when [ Smoking cigarettes throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes and Essay On Smoking While Pregnant represents the first major environmental risk of the unborn.