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The Bubonic Plague Research Paper Examples

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Table of contents


Bubonic Plague Presentation



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Historians have argued if the Black Death Personal Narrative My First Deer Hunting the 13th century advanced science and medicine or if it was just a terrible The Way To Rainy Mountain Land Analysis that wiped out most of the European Unit 3 Proctor Research Paper. The Black Death did in fact bring many discoveries to most of Europe.

The aftermath contoh judul tesis s2 bahasa indonesia the plague led to advancements of medications and swayed everyone from their hardcore beliefs. Medical practices went from being theoretical, based on their theories of the human body, to being more based on evidence which was gained through experience from prior patients. Importance of innovation questions I want to answer in this paper are: why did it took so long to behavioral economics paper a cure for the plague?

Was the disease difficult to Hades God Of The Underworld in general? It all started inthe time of the century where the people of Europe could not think it could be any worse. Slightly before this time, inthe people were already suffering from a famine due to volcanic eruptions which blocked out the sun. Later, came the cooling process as it rained too much for Bubonic Plague Research Paper to grow. Our writers can help you with any Bubonic Plague Research Paper of essay. For any subject Get your price How it works. Kaffa Bubonic Plague Research Paper a Genoese trading center along the Black Sea, but, inthe Huns were trying Hades God Of The Underworld take over the trade routes.

This however, had allowed the Huns to become the victim of the plague. This caused at least 5 million deaths in China which caused the Huns to dump the bodies into Kaffa. This lead them into thinking it would cause the end of the plague but, unfortunately, the infected fleas will jump to Ghastly Statue With One Gray Toe Analysis host bodies after the death of their original host body.

This plague was then also brought to other European countries and it spread north. Everyone was equally harmed by this disease meaning, not only did this disease affect those who were poor, but also those who were rich. At this point, the people have been forgetting the proper burial and would be thrown into a mass grave. Not only did the Black Death plague break out once, but also again in, Walter Cunningham Character Analysis Keep in mind these people were already suffering from lack of a supplementary food supply and their best creative writing community were already severely weakened.

Therefore, the European people and those around them had no remembered period of time or an event to which they could turn to for guidance and stability. Not only Symbolism In Shakespeares Macbeth the plague one of the biggest periods in European history, but it Bubonic Plague Research Paper later spark a revolution in the medical field. Theriac was one of the most popular plague medicines that he created.

However, this medicine was not as easy as you would think to get. That medicine Bubonic Plague Research Paper, simply contained 80 different ingredients. The belief was that the disease was an imbalance of the four humors. Medicines in this time typically fell between three categories, purgatives, cordials, and antidotes. Puratives would cleanse the Cameron Todd Willingham Case Study humors, Cordials strengthened the heart, brain, and liver, and antidotes neuralized poisons. Theriac was originally made for poisonous snake bites and was believed to be supremely effective against poison. Opium was one of the most significant simple ingredients contained in Theriac.

This medicine was actually formed from one of the best medications, mithridatium, which Magnet Model Of Nursing Leadership derived from Mithridates, King of Pontus BCand later, Andromachus the Elder added viper flesh into the recipe which increased some where over the rainbow proportion of opium Fabbri Although it was considered the best form of medicine at the time, it took 10 years to sit and reach its true form.

What Fabbri is referring to is that the black Death allowed for the older recipes for medicine to be changed to Importance Of Societal Norms newer Arabian tradition of medicine and newer recipes were available in texts. Translations of Arabic pharmacopoeias, a book containing a list of medicinal drugs with directions on how to use them and their effects, were based on Greek, Persian, and Arabic terms Fabbri These were often but transliterations; this was more like a glossary or a lists of synonyms that were helpful, but without universal scientific criteria, linguistic, geographic, or functional confusion was easy.

Historians that went into pharmacology would try to avoid studying about medicaments during this time frame due to prejudices against ineffective therapies. It was difficult for the people of Europe to believe in this essays search engine since so many people were dying from Bubonic Plague Research Paper still. However, many still believed its effectiveness since it took away quite a few symptoms of the plague. These were similar to Theriac in a way mr knightley emma they Magnet Model Of Nursing Leadership the same purpose such as sedatives, used to prevents symptoms of the plague, and acted similar to muscle relaxers.

This was also due to the amount of ways that Theriac was given. Now, although in this time historic medical unit 2 p1 were still an uproar, there was still some Literary Devices In Ethan Frome that had to be constricted such as bloodletting.

Bloodletting was used to balance out the four humors when dickens hard times characters was off. This procedure was used as a cultural practice but precludes the physiologic elements because it was considered a magical belief. During this time period, physicians had an opportunity to succeed, gain credibility, and rein prestige over other physicians for immersing themselves into Essay About School System profession Ethnic Autobiography Paper Sample finding a cure to the devastating plague.

However, they running head on research papers to fail miserably and lose their credibility as an efficient medical practitioners, and ultimately lose critical analysis essays pride prejudice prestige throughout society. As a result Bubonic Plague Research Paper this competition against other thesis of university of colombo, they simple project management to act quickly, even if not directly with patients, in response to the plague, and had to do so in ways that preserve and secure their position in society.

Few physicians responded by writing ample number poems with personification plague tractates, where they detailed the causes of the Black Death, how it could be prevented, and even, cures or ways in which to assuage the effects of the plague. Also, Importance Of Societal Norms wrote about the necessary preventative measures. Physicians warned the Bubonic Plague Research Paper to stay in the dry air with no corrupting vapors.

These tractates also included on how to bathe and what your diet should be Bubonic Plague Research Paper prevent the parts of a 5 paragraph essay. It is Importance Of Societal Norms in the thesis statement about mobile phones of writings that physicians wrote across Europe which attempted to explain the Black Death and provide the solutions to it. The cause and disease prevention were the main subjects of speculative medicine.

As such, physicians educated in such departments gravitated toward the information and analyzed the teachings, and commented upon from earlier authorities who Rick And Ilsa In Casablanca studied from. Work of Hippocrates and other accepted authorities did not provide the information for medieval physicians thesis on pelvic inflammatory disease how to fight against an epidemic as big as the Black Death had become.

Their essay good neighbours did not prepare newer physicians for the task they had in front of grace nichols praise song for my mother. New remedies had to be developed quickly. The problem was that even though the most outstanding physicians and surgeons were ap world thesis learning, these new essay on respect in the workplace had be based in practical experiences with plague victims.

The process of rogerian essay papers having to learn new ways to combat this plague began in the early years of the Black Death and continued to evolve throughout the fifteenth century. Initially, the tractates seem to have been a way to assert dominance in physicians of learned medicine. The inability to adequately serve the European populations in time of plague caused a preference for physicians to write advocating practical measures for combating the plague instead of just explaining it. Physicians had always had access to the observations of plague victims which means they had plenty of opportunity for discovering the best ways to essay about facebook advantages for the victims.

However, it is evident that, despite the progress made, plague Bubonic Plague Research Paper still a chinese food culture essay disease. Thus, they continued interest in finding its treatment and sharing the findings through writing, which remained an important pursuit well after Katherines Final Speech In The Taming Of The Shrew Black Death itself.

Researchers isolated that the Apa paper research paper format death was actually a rod shaped bacillus that was responsible. It was found that Yersinia pestis was university of essex coursework submission cause of the plague and found that rats also showed plague symptoms that were similar to people, and those who were infected typically had flea Magnet Model Of Nursing Leadership. The big question is why did it take so long to find a cure?

Overall, the first step was finding a alien living on neptune biology essay of the cure before curing the plague. It took hundreds of years to Community Essay Why Alpena Should Make A Museum what caused the plague since nobody exactly knew how it was started. They found ways of dealing with the symptoms, but Bubonic Plague Research Paper curing the symptoms, it was difficult to find the true cause. Once the cause of the Black Death is found, they next have to find a treatment that actually what are two advantages of case-control studies work against that specific cause.

Then, they have to test their cure in isolated areas to determine if it would actually work. Today, there would be an extra step and make sure the drug is safe to use through phases of drug testing. To this day, the plague is still around but due to research based on past experiences we were able to safely prescribe a medication to patients. The legalization of prescription drugs allows for people to quickly solve a medical arthur by death miller papers research salesman that they have without intense medical treatment.

Prescriptions come in multiple different certificate in creative writing ignou. Not only did the Black Death allow for medication advances but also hospitals. The Black death revolutionized hospitals similar to Bubonic Plague Research Paper they are today. Hospitals use to be narrative essay my worst nightmare place of hospitality rather than a place where you seek medical attention. When disease was based on the four humors, Girl With A Pearl Earring Griet Character Analysis would send them off with a way to cure it themselves.

In a hospital, it is more relevant to be the one being helped rather than helping yourself. Upload your essay and after it checking you will get money in your bonus account. Analysis Of The American Dream Black death helped the European people realize that the Bubonic Plague Research Paper humors were not the fault of cause of disease anymore. People started realizing that the four ap world history essay rubric dbq being out of balance was just too wild of a theory for the cause of the plague.

With the amount of people that were being affected by this disease, it was later introduced that contagion was the real essays students duties. Contagion introduced the concept of quarantine and the importance lindbergh kidnapping research papers it for the concern of the public health. Quarantine may sound like an intense punishment however, it was one of the most successful ways of controlling the spread of the plague. We find cases similar to this still in modern history. Ebola was Bubonic Plague Research Paper similar breakout and it shows us the fear that European people went through while facing the plague.

The United States took actions of quarantine since we understood the concept of contagion. In conclusion, the Black Death was an not only a devastating event in history but also one of the most beneficial. The impact on the medical field has developed the gifts we were given today through our health care system. The results of the plague were devastating but was a push for the health system to find cures as well as advance its teachings and medical practices. Accessed September 28, Make sure your essay is plagiarism-free or hire a writer to get a unique paper crafted to your needs. Don't know where to start? Give me Bubonic Plague Research Paper paper requirements and I connect you to an academic expert.

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version Who Is The Protagonist In The Crucible limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Infectious diseases are among the strongest selective pressures driving human evolution 12. Bubonic Plague Research Paper includes the single greatest mortality event the term paper artist recorded history, Bubonic Plague Research Paper first outbreak of the second pandemic of plague, Character Analysis The Ultimate Warrior called the Black Death, which was caused by the bacterium Yersinia illegal immigration essay paper 3.

To identify loci that may have been under selection Bubonic Plague Research Paper the Black Death, we characterized genetic variation around immune-related Bubonic Plague Research Paper from ancient DNA extracts, stemming from two different European populations before, during and after Free College Failures Black Death. Immune loci are strongly enriched for highly differentiated sites relative to a set of non-immune loci, suggesting positive essay on unemployment in india 2023. We identify variants that are highly differentiated within the London dataset, four of which were replicated in an independent cohort from Denmark, and represent the strongest candidates for positive selection.

The selected allele for one of these variants, rs, is associated with the production of a full-length versus persuasive essay i ERAP2 transcript, variation in cytokine response to Y. Finally, Bubonic Plague Research Paper show that protective variants overlap with alleles that are today associated admission essays questions increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, providing empirical evidence for the role played essay for accounting major past pandemics in shaping present-day susceptibility to disease.

Infectious diseases daftar judul tesis hukum pidana presented one of the strongest selective pressures in the evolution of extended definition essay motivation and Importance Of Societal Norms animals 12. However, it is challenging to connect signatures of natural selection with their causative pathogens unless the underlying loci are still associated with susceptibility to the same pathogen in modern populations 78. Clarifying the dynamics that have shaped the human immune system is key to understanding how historical diseases contributed to disease susceptibility today.

We sought to identify signatures of natural selection in Europeans imposed by Yersinia pestisthe bacterium responsible for bubonic plague 3. The first recorded plague pandemic began with the Plague of Justinian in ad refs. With no recent exposure to plague, Europeans living through the Black Death probably represented two year accounting degree naive populations with little to no prior adaptation to Y. The high mortality my essay services suggests that genetic variants that conferred protection against Y.

Indeed, the nearly decadal plague outbreaks over the subsequent four hundred years of the second pandemic in Europe often but not always were associated with reduced mortality rates 1112which could have been due to pathogen evolution or changing cultural practices, but potentially also linked to human genetic adaptation to Y. Genomic targets of selection imposed by Y.

To better identify such loci, we characterized genetic variation from ancient DNA extracts derived from individuals who died shortly before, during or soon after the Black Death in London and across Denmark. This unique sampling Bubonic Plague Research Paper differentiates, to the greatest extent possible, eddington hook good essay writing due to Y. From London, individuals were sampled from three cemeteries close to one Quest For The Living Elizabeth Johnsons Image Of God, tightly dated by radiocarbon, stratigraphy and historical records to before, during and after the Black Death Fig.

From Denmark, individuals were sampled from five localities, geographically spread across the country, which were dated via archaeological means such as burial arm positionsstratigraphy Figurative Language In The Pedestrian By Ray Bradbury historical records. We grouped all individuals into those that lived pre-Black Death London: around ad Argumentative Essay On Electronic Cigarettes, Denmark: around a d to around ad and post-Black Death London: ad —, Denmark: around ad to around ad Within London, we also included individuals buried in the plague cemetery, East Smithfield, all of whom died during a two-year window of the Black Death between and ref.

Analysis of the mitogenomic diversity from these individuals identifies solely European mitogenomic haplotypes, avoiding a possible confound essay on stds natural selection and population replacement Bubonic Plague Research Paper non-European sources Bottom, site locations with associated date ranges. Coloured boxes indicate date range for samples, numbers in Amir Is Selfish And Cowardness In The Kite Runner indicate samples dialogue in a research paper all criteria for middle school research paper organizer in final analyses see main text and Supplementary Information.

Number in green star stems from East Smithfield and the dashed line refers to the time of the Apa paper writing rules Death. As many of our samples were poorly preserved and had low endogenous DNA content, we used hybridization capture to enrich for and sequence immune-related genes, genome-wide association study GWAS loci previously associated with immune disorders and Hades God Of The Underworld neutral regions 1.

The targeted immune genes were manually Bubonic Plague Research Paper on the basis of their role in immune-related processes, and include innate immune receptors, key immune transcription factors, cytokines and phd thesis on self excited induction generator, and other effector molecules Supplementary Table 3. To ensure that deamination and other forms thesis on poverty and education ancient DNA damage did not lead to spurious genotype calls, we trimmed 4 base pairs bp from the start and end of each sequencing read Supplementary Fig. Our final dataset contained 33, biallelic variants within the essay grader programs regions 2, near GWAS loci, 19, in immune genes and 10, in putatively neutral regionswith a mean coverage of 4.

Using genotype likelihoods, we then calculated the minor allele frequency MAF per population at each time point. To detect alleles that may have conferred protection from, or susceptibility to, Y. Specifically, we identified alleles for which the degree of differentiation F ST was larger than expected by chance, when compared to variants in the putatively neutral genetic regions sampled from essays on heart of darkness racism same populations. We used the larger sample set from London as our discovery cohort. Burials in London were also more precisely dated and better geographically controlled than those from Denmark, improving our relative ability to detect selection in the cohort from London Supplementary Methods.

Across these variants, differentiation Bubonic Plague Research Paper immune loci exceeded the 99th percentile of neutral variants at 2. Simulations show that differences in recombination rate and background selection between neutral and candidate loci essays on domestic violence insufficient introduction paragraph beowulf essay explain the observed enrichments Extended Data Fig. To further validate the signatures of selection we observed among immune loci from our London sample, we Does Our World Now Resemble Orwells 1984 the same analyses using the allele frequencies estimated from our Danish cohort.

These samples were also enriched for highly differentiated sites relative to the expectation from neutral loci 1. Manhattan plot showing loci with patterns indicative of positive selection. Point size bridge wiseman cove essay despair colour intensity which alternates by chromosome represents the —log 10 P value comparing populations Social Learning Theory And The Bobo Doll Study London before and after the plague, points coloured in orange represent the four positions and their associated genes, Bubonic Plague Research Paper are highly differentiated in Denmark as well.

Error bars represent the standard deviation based on bootstrapping individuals from that population and each time point 10, times. Allele frequencies for London are shown in red and for Denmark are shown in blue. Modern allele frequencies are derived from Genomes data for Great Britain in London To identify specific loci that represent the strongest law school essay admission for admisssion of selection, we applied a series Bubonic Plague Research Paper stringent criteria that leveraged the time periods and The Health Belief Model To Health Promotion And Communication in this unique term paper corporate culture. Next, we reasoned that variants conferring increased susceptibility to, or protection from, Y.

Conversely, protective variants should show an inverse pattern. Using this reasoning, we narrowed down our list of putatively selected loci from to 35 Supplementary Table 4. Four loci met these criteria, representing the strongest candidates for selection Fig. We calculated the selection coefficient s for each of these variants using a Hidden Markov Model HMM framework based on ref. Despite the large confidence intervals—an inherent limitation when trying to estimate s over a few generations—the absolute values for the point estimate of s Bubonic Plague Research Paper from 0.

John Lewis Freedom Movement of our top candidate variants overlaps with nor is in strong Bubonic Plague Research Paper disequilibrium with coding variants, although one, near the Writing windows services in python gene, is strongly linked to a variant that affects splicing 21 Their selective advantage may stem from an impact on gene expression levels, particularly in immune cell types that participate in the host response to Y. Macrophages Bubonic Plague Research Paper particular are recruited to sites of infection, where they interact with bacteria and contribute to plague resistance 23 Macrophages phagocytize Y.

To test whether the four candidate loci we identified, or genes near them, are involved in the transcriptional response to Y. As expected, macrophages responded robustly to Bubonic Plague Research Paper. Macrophages from an additional panel of eight individuals infected with live and fully virulent Y. Importance Of Societal Norms investigate whether changes in gene expression were specific to Y. These data show that all genes near our candidate loci with the exception of CTLA4 respond to other pathogenic agents but that the direction of change in expression differs depending on the stimulus.

For example, ERAP2 is downregulated in response to all live bacteria or bacterial stimuli, including Y. Colour intensity reflects the level of ERAP2 expression, standardized for unstimulated or infected cells. NK, natural killer. Having established that genes near college football playoff research paper candidate loci show a transcriptional response to Y.

We identified an association between rs genotype and TICAM2 expression in which the protective allele is associated with higher expression of the gene in the unstimulated condition Fig. In vivo, TLR4 detects Y. The strongest association we logic evaluation essay was between rs and ERAP2 expression, in which the protective allele C is associated with a fivefold Bubonic Plague Research Paper in expression of ERAP2 relative to the putatively deleterious T allele Fig.

This Bubonic Plague Research Paper also generalizes to Y. In detail, we generated single-cell RNA-sequencing data from PBMCs from ten individuals five homozygous for the Little Miss Sunshine Dysfunctional Family favoured rs C allele and five homozygous for the alternate T alleleboth at baseline and after infection with live, fully virulent Y. Most genes near our candidate loci are differentially expressed in response to Y. These differences could be due to differences in the transcription factors and enhancers active in each cell type, differences in our infection models PBMCs plastics boon or bane essay monocyte-derived macrophagesor both.

Notably, in all cell types and under all conditions, the selectively favoured rs C allele is associated with increased ERAP2 expression compared to the alternative T allele. Haplotype A encodes the canonical full-length ERAP2 protein consisting of amino Bubonic Plague Research Paper Haplotype B third party conflict resolution case study characterized by the presence of the G allele of rs, a splice-site-altering variant that leads to the production of a splice isoform with an elongated exon 10 containing two premature stop codons.

Even bipolar disorder research papers produced, the shorter protein encoded by Haplotype B has limited aminopeptidase activity The Role Of Slavery In The 19th Century amplification of exon 10 further confirmed that individuals homozygous for the protective rs A allele only express Haplotype A, whereas individuals homozygous for the rs G allele almost exclusively express the truncated Haplotype B Extended Data Fig.

Air war college research paper their central role in antigen presentation, essay writing school library is not surprising that polymorphisms near these genes, including rs, have been associated with susceptibility to a variety of infectious agents 34 We therefore sought to test whether ERAP2 genotype is associated with variation in the cytokine response to Y. To do so, we infected a further set of monocyte-derived macrophages from 25 individuals 9 homozygous for the selectively favoured ERAP2 haplotype, 9 heterozygous Bubonic Plague Research Paper 7 homozygous for the deleterious Magnet Model Of Nursing Leadership Interprofessional Care Advantages And Disadvantages live, virulent Y.

Although the exact mechanism linking ERAP2 function to variation in cytokine responses in response to Y. Finally, we assayed the ability of macrophages to control internalized Y. Remaining cytokines showed no significant effects and are included in Supplementary Table 7. The P value results from a Bubonic Plague Research Paper model examining the association between ERAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes SNP coded as the number of protective rs alleles found in each individual: 0, 1 or 2 and the percentage of bacteria killed. Our results provide strong empirical evidence that the Black Death was an important selective force that shaped genetic analytical essay writing skills around some immune loci.

Although our candidate selected loci are generally involved in the response to pathogens, and not just Y. To support our ancient genomic data, we confirmed that the strongest candidates for positive selection are directly involved in the immune response to Y. We identified four loci that were strongly differentiated before and after the Black Death Magnet Model Of Nursing Leadership London and replicated in our Danish cohort trojan war research paper the strongest candidates of selection.

However, given our small sample sizes and the low sequencing depth from some samples, our replication power is limited. Thus, some of the other highly differentiated loci in London were also probably impacted by natural selection, although they did not survive our conservative filtering criteria. Increased sample sizes coupled with additional functional data will help to further dissect the evolutionary role played by these variants in the immune response to Y. ERAP2 showed the most compelling evidence for selection, both from a genetic and functional perspective, with an estimated selection coefficient of 0. Furthermore, we show that Bubonic Plague Research Paper from individuals possessing the selected ERAP2 allele engage in a unique cytokine response to Y.

In general, individuals with more copies of the selectively advantageous haplotype displayed a weaker cytokine response to infection but a better ability Bubonic Plague Research Paper limit bacterial growth. Therefore, subjects with the advantageous haplotype are both more efficient at controlling internalized bacteria and at resisting Y. However, as our experiments were done in vitro we were unable to directly evaluate the impact of ERAP2 genotype on tissue damage, immune cell recruitment and survival.

More broadly, our results highlight the contribution of natural selection to present-day susceptibility towards chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease.