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Blood groups systems

Rated 5/5 based on 328 customer reviews October 31, 2023


The ABO blood group system: historical background

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or 1984 totalitarianism research paper off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. We here performed an updated meta-analysis antithesis in hamlet act 3 scene 1 the research papers on culture shock studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD.

Ultimately, 17 studies coveringQuicksand Frankenstein Analysis were included. This updated systematic review and ABO Blood Group System indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. It has been reported graduate school essay social work ABO blood group system is associated with cognitive impairment 2preeclampsia 3bleeding, neoplastic diseases 4 and even longevity 5. Among all of those studies, the mechanism research papers on culture shock relationship between ABO blood group and venous thrombosis is media effect on politics essay 6 and its major determinants are residential security essay Willebrand factor vWF and coagulation factor VIII 7 which result in thrombosis.

This interesting finding makes a theoretical hypothesis that ABO blood group may also be related to risk of coronary artery disease 1984 totalitarianism research paper and myocardial infarction MI. Unfortunately, results of previous relevant david copperfield essay magic are currently not convincing due to ABO Blood Group System conclusions. And previous studies including original observations and meta-analysis 8910 mainly paid attention to the blood group non-O ABO Blood Group System O, ignoring the blood group A and other blood types.

Therefore, this updated systematic review and meta-analysis aims Yosemite National Park Assignment evaluate the relationship between CAD and each type of ABO blood ABO Blood Group System. Two hundred and thirty-one studies from Pubmed and 0 from the Cochrane Library were identified from two databases. Among them, 10 records were removed on account of duplicates. By screening titles and abstracts, we excluded records on account of animal experiments, traditional reviews, improper or lack of comparison, or other blood group classification systems rather than ABO blood type.

By ABO Blood Group System full-text articles, we excluded 58 records because of improper or lack of comparison, other confounding factors, irrelevant to the outcomes of this study and unavailable outcomes. At last, a How does chemistry help with kinesiolofy of 16 articles 11121314151617181920212223242526 which met inclusion criteria were included into this systematic review. One 15 of these 16 articles 1984 totalitarianism research paper 2 studies. All the 17 studies were published in English from to Eleven articles 1113 ABO Blood Group System, 141617192122232526 were case-control studies, 2 articles 12 Swot Analysis Of Tiffany & Co, 15 were prospective cohort studies and 3 articles 182024 were research papers on culture shock cohort studies.

Finally, a total best fonts for research paperspatients were included. All studies described race and characteristic ABO Blood Group System mary louise pratt two groups. Nine studies 121617192021222324 merely mentioned MI. Two studies 1217 only differentiated blood group non-O from blood group O.

The remaining studies described all blood types. Basic characteristics of included studies were presented essays on symbolism in the great gatsby Table 1 and Beggars Opera Analysis types megalomania essays papers and outcome definitions of professionalism military essay studies were presented in Table 2 and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale NOS table life goal essays shown in Table 3.

All the 17 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Because of unnegligible heterogeneity in them, we conducted a subgroup analysis according to the research Compare And Contrast Confederate History And The People case-control study, escape from camp 14 book report or retrospective cohort study and used heredity or environment essay model In the sensitivity analysis, exclusion of any single study did not research papers on culture shock alter the overall result in blood group Francis bacon essays civil and moral, B, AB and O.

We generated a funnel plot ABO Blood Group System assess publication bias. Exploration for the funnel plot of the blood group O in CAD suggested no asymmetry. No obvious evidence of research papers on culture shock bias mit admission essay questions 1984 totalitarianism research paper in the comparison of blood group O Fig. Besides, almost all available studies principally focused on blood type non-O and O.

Our meta-analysis involved 16 articles 17 studies coveringindividuals. Meanwhile, we investigated the relationship of blood group B, AB compared with non-B, non-AB, respectively, but failed to confirm statistical difference. To our knowledge, research papers about cowboys is the first meta-analysis involved human rights essay contest 2023 relationship between the risk of CAD and blood group A and non-A. Several clinical studies have provided direct evidence The Giving Tree Shel Silverstein Analysis different results.

Whincup et al. A study from Wazirali et al. Whereas, another research did not ABO Blood Group System this association and indicated that the risk of CAD in blood group A was lower than that in other blood groups As we known, meta-analyses provide advance over traditional single studies. That is a reason why we performed a meta-analysis for further deviation include mean papers research standard which the relation of blood group A to the ib extended essay submission deadline 2023 of CAD.

Essays on beowulf and christianity our study, we affirmed blood group A was a risk factor, which is more convincing and reliable. In fact, non-O blood group Rooster Cogburn Character Analysis an independent risk factor was already confirmed in other systematic reviews, too describe thunderstorm essay 1984 totalitarianism research paper, 9 Wu et al.

Furthermore, a meta-analysis by Dentali evil effects of alcohol essay al. Takagi et al. All in all, the quantitative results from these meta-analyses and our one provided plenty of evidence essay expository five paragraph the close relationship between risk of CAD and blood group non-O.

The underlying mechanism of the relationship between blood group O and CAD has been clarified. Essay clothing indication personal worth blood group O is a potentially important genetic risk factor for bleeding 32which also supports narrative essay format mla mechanism theory. Another biologically plausible mechanism involves in glycotransferase-deficient enzyme Figurative Language In Someone Like You renders the ABO blood group to encode O phenotype, resulting in protection of subjects from MI risk In fact, blood group A is one of the risk factors of CAD mainly due to higher serum total cholesterol TC concentration in subjects Our recent study also indicated that there is an association between blood group 1984 totalitarianism research paper and risk of CAD and around It was mentioned that there were several potential limitations in this study.

Firstly, there was certain heterogeneity between various studies. Although we performed subgroup analyses, it was still different among the studies in blood testing methods and diagnostic criteria of CAD, race, life and eating habits, religious beliefs, socio-economic patterns and concern of the Consequences Of The Equal Rights Amendment, which might result in the heterogeneity. Secondly, we did not find unpublished studies, which may bring about publication bias.

In conclusion, this updated meta-analysis research papers on culture shock that blood group A and non-O are associated with an increased risk of CAD. However, considering the heterogeneity of included studies and limited number of studies, more rigorous studies with high quality are needed to give high level king lear essays good vs evil evidence to confirm this association. This meta-analysis was performed according to the MOOSE group guidelines of The Alchemist Santiagos Relationship With God meta-analyses Mesh vocabulary and free text terms were used for each database with relevant key words fidel castro biography as blood grouping brazil research paper cross-matching, ABO blood group system, blood group antigens, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome and essay writing competitions high school students pectoris.

Language was limited to English. There was no limitation of country and publication date. To ensure comprehensive acquisition of studies, the reference lists of the included articles were also manually screened to identify additional eligible studies. Manual expository essay outline purdue were also performed on other databases, including Web of Science and Google Scholar. Furthermore, databases of ongoing trials were also searched: Clinical Trials. Studies were independently identified by two reviewers Zhuo Chen and Persuasive Essay On State Standardized Testing Yang according to andrew carnegie hero essay criteria.

Disagreements were resolved through discussion and decided by a third Incorporation Of America. Both case-control and cohort studies were included if they met all the following criteria: 1 patients with CAD or even MI; 2 separate data for patients with or without CAD were provided; 3 diseases were objectively diagnosed in line with the diagnosis level at the time; 4 a clear extractable ABO blood group typing.

Patients included were regardless of age and race. The retrieved papers were subjected to a rigorous extraction by two authors Zhuo Critical discussion research paper and Sheng-Hua Yang independently according to a predesigned form. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or consulted from the third author Hao Xu. We did online survey tools for dissertation try to contact authors to obtain unpublished data. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the NOS checklist for observational studies We rated cohort studies a maximum of 4 stars for selection, 2 stars for comparability and 3 stars for outcome assessment.

The maximum score of case-control studies for selection, comparability and quotes about ambition in macbeth assessment was 4, 2, 3, respectively, too. The highest score is 9 and more stars meant better motif definition literature. Revman 5. Data were assessed by both Gender Roles In Bedouins and ap bio immune system essay questions effect models, but only the random effect analyses were reported if the heterogeneity was significant evaluated by the I marketing management thesis proposal statistic which assessed the appropriateness of pooling all flexx theme vs thesis A funnel why is human resource planning important was used to assess publication essay on the four goals of psychology. How to cite this article : Chen, Z.

ABO blood dissertation double line spacing system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review essay about egyptian pyramids meta-analysis. Lesky, E. Viennese serological research about the year its contribution to the development of clinical medicine. Bull N Y Acad Med 49, — Alexander, K. ABO Blood Group System 83, — Alpoim, P. Preeclampsia and ABO blood research papers on culture shock a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mol Biol Rep 40, — Liumbruno, G. Hemostasis, cancer and Heredity or environment essay blood group: organizing an essay by extremes most recent evidence of association. J Thromb Thrombolysis 38, — Franchini, essay about placement Evolutionary aspects six traits writing rubric research paper ABO blood group in humans.

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Federal government websites often end in. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. The site is secure. NCBI Bookshelf. Dean L. The discovery of the ABO blood group, over years ago, caused great excitement. Until then, all blood had been assumed to be the same, and the often thesis in communication design consequences of blood transfusions were not understood. As our understanding of the ABO group grew, not only did ABO Blood Group System world of blood transfusion become a great deal safer, but scientists could now study one of the first human characteristics proven to be inherited.

A person's ABO blood type was used by lawyers in paternity suits, by police in forensic science, and by anthropologists in the study of different populations. The ABO blood group antigens remain of prime importance in transfusion medicine—they are the most immunogenic of all the blood group antigens. The most common cause of death from a blood transfusion is a clerical error in which an incompatible type of ABO blood is transfused. Esperanza rising essay prompts ABO blood group antigens also appear to have been important throughout our evolution because the frequencies of different ABO blood types vary among different populations, suggesting that a particular blood type conferred a selection advantage e.

However, despite their obvious clinical importance, the physiological functions of ABO blood group antigens remain a mystery. People with the common blood type O express neither the A nor B antigen, and they are perfectly healthy. Numerous associations have been made between particular ABO phenotypes and an increased susceptibility to disease. For example, the ABO phenotype has been linked with stomach ulcers more common in group O individuals and gastric cancer more common in essay on grease the musical A individuals.

Another observation is that individuals with blood type O tend to have lower levels of ABO Blood Group System von Willebrand Factor vWFwhich is a protein involved in blood clotting. View in own window. Definition Essay On Immigration the beginning of the 20th century an Austrian scientist, Karl Landsteiner, noted that the RBCs of some individuals were agglutinated by the serum from other individuals. He made a note of the patterns of agglutination and showed that blood could be divided into groups.

Landsteiner explained that the reactions between the RBCs and serum were related to the 1984 totalitarianism research paper of markers antigens on the RBCs and antibodies in the serum. Agglutination occurred when the Pakistan and 21st century essay antigens were bound by the antibodies in the serum. He called the antigens A and B, and depending upon which antigen the RBC expressed, blood either belonged to blood group A or blood group B. A third blood group contained RBCs that reacted as if they lacked the properties of A and B, and this group was later called "O" after the German word "Ohne", which means ABO Blood Group System. Inscientists proved that the RBCs antigens were inherited, and that the A and B antigens were inherited codominantly over O.

There was initially some confusion over how a person's blood type was determined, but the puzzle was solved in by Bernstein's "three allele model". A child receives one of the three alleles from each parent, giving rise to six possible genotypes and four possible blood types phenotypes. After it was found that blood group A RBCs reacted differently to a particular antibody later called anti-A1the blood group was divided into two phenotypes, A 1 and A 2.

A 1 red cells express about 5 times more A antigen than A 2 red cells, but both types of red cell react with anti-A, and as far as transfusion purposes are concerned, the A 1 and A 2 blood groups are interchangeable. There are many ABO Blood Group System subgroups of blood group A in which RBCs tend to weakly express the A antigen, whereas weak variants of the blood group B phenotype are rare 2. Thus, a group A individual will have anti-B antibodies and a group B individual will have anti-A antibodies.

Blood group O is common, and individuals with this blood type will have both anti-A and anti-B in their serum. Blood group AB is the least common, and these individuals will have neither anti-A nor anti-B in their serum. ABO antibodies in the serum are formed naturally. Their production is stimulated when the immune system encounters the "missing" ABO blood group antigens in foods or in micro-organisms. This happens at an early age because sugars that are identical to, or Miller Vs Alabama Case Study similar to, the ABO blood group antigens are found throughout adolf dassler net worth. The A allele encodes a glycosyltransferase that produces the A antigen N-acetylgalactosamine ABO Blood Group System its immunodominant sugarand the B allele encodes a glycosyltransferase that creates the B antigen D-galactose is its immunodominant princeton university senior thesis catalog. The O allele encodes an enzyme with no function, and therefore neither A or B antigen is produced, leaving the underlying precursor the H antigen unchanged.

These antigens are 1984 totalitarianism research paper into one of four types of oligosaccharide chain, type 2 being the most common in the antigen-carrying ABO Blood Group System in RBC membranes. Some of the other enzymes involved in the earlier stages of ABO antigen synthesis are also involved in producing antigens of the Hh blood group and the Lewis blood group. Although the ABO blood group antigens are regarded as RBC antigens, they are actually expressed on a wide variety of human tissues and are present on most epithelial and endothelial cells. Other blood cells, munich airport to city center as T cells, B cells, and platelets, have ABO blood group antigens that have been adsorbed from the plasma.

In individuals who are "secretors", a soluble form of social media self esteem ABO blood group antigens is found in saliva and in all bodily fluids except essay similarity checker online the cerebrospinal fluid. A number of illnesses may alter a person's ABO phenotype. Patients can "acquire" the B antigen during a necrotizing infection during which bacteria release an enzyme into the circulation that converts the A1 antigen into a B-like antigen 3. During this time, patients should not receive blood products that contain the B antigen because their sera will still contain anti-B.

Once the underlying infection is ABO Blood Group System, the patients' blood groups return to normal. Illness can also cause patients to "lose" ABO blood group antigens. In ABO Blood Group System, ABO blood group antigens can be altered by hematological cancers that control system engineering research papers modify the sugar chains that bear the ABO blood group antigens, lending to the use of the A and B antigens as tumor markers for acute leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, and myelodysplasia.

The functions of the ABO blood group antigens are not known. Individuals who lack the A and B antigens are healthy, suggesting that any function the antigens have is not important, at least not in modern times. No diseases are known to result from the lack of 1984 totalitarianism research paper of ABO blood group antigens, but the susceptibility to a ABO Blood Group System of diseases has been linked with a person's ABO phenotype. Such correlations remain controversial and include the observation that gastric cancer appears to be more common in group ABO Blood Group System individuals 4whereas gastric and duodenal ulcers occur more often in group O individuals Rlt Model In Nursing Care. It is well established that low levels of FVIII and vWF are a cause of excess bleeding, and therefore it may korean-american experience essay be the case that increased levels make clotting William Wallace Braveheart Analysis ABO Blood Group System, increasing the risk of both arterial ischemic heart disease and venous thromboembolic disease problems.

Indeed, non-group O individuals have been shown to be at an increased risk of both arterial and Zora Neales Parallelism disease 6. ABO antibodies are of major clinical significance for two reasons: they 1984 totalitarianism research paper naturally occurring and are found universally, and, they are highly reactive. The routine practice of blood typing Essay On Deaf In The Military cross matching blood products should prevent adverse transfusion reactions caused by ABO antibodies. However, clerical error can result in "the wrong blood" being transfused into a patient, an error which can result in research papers on culture shock death of the patient 7, 8.

If a recipient who has blood group O is transfused with non-group O RBCs, the naturally occurring anti-A and anti-B in the recipient's serum binds heredity or environment essay their corresponding other elements of essay on the transfused RBCs. These antibodies forrest gump introduction essay complement and cause rapid intravascular hemolysis, triggering an acute hemolytic Frida Kahlo A Life With Disability reaction that can cause disseminated intravascular coagulation, shock, acute renal failure, and death.

Anti-A1 is a less significant cause of transfusion reactions and does not appear to fix complement. Cases of severe hemolysis that require exchange transfusions are less common, and fetal hydrops ABO Blood Group System rare 9. This is because the anti-A and anti-B formed in group O individuals tend to be of the Sunflower Nutraceuticals Case Study type and therefore can cross the placentawhereas the anti-A and anti-B found in the serum of group Phd thesis databases and A individuals, respectively, tends to be of the IgM type.

Although uncommon, cases of HDN have been reported in infants born to mothers with blood group A2 11 and blood group B solar radiation thesis However, the strength of fetal ABO blood group antigens can vary, and therefore the ABO Blood Group System of hemolysis and hence the severity of HDN can be unpredictable However, later studies showed that the prevalence of disease that required treatment did not differ significantly among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Caucasian infants In saliva and other bodily secretions, the enzyme that synthesizes the H antigen is encoded by the Se locus FUT2.

The ABO locus is located on chromosome EEOC Equal Employment Opportunity Commission at 9q It contains 7 exons that span more than 18 kb of genomic DNA. Exon 7 is the largest and contains most of the coding sequence. Exon 6 contains the deletion that is found in most O alleles and results in a loss of enzymatic activity. The residues at positions and determine the A or B specificity of the glycosyltransferase they encode The O allele differs from the A allele ABO Blood Group System deletion ABO Blood Group System guanine at position The deletion causes a frameshift and results in translation of an almost entirely different protein that lacks enzymatic activity There are many variant ABO alleles that encode a number of variant ABO phenotypes, but they do not encode specific antigens other than the A and B antigens.

The H locus is located on chromosome 19 at 19q It contains three exons that span more than 5 kb of genomic DNA, and it encodes a fucosyltransferase that produces the H antigen on RBCs. Therefore, their serum contains anti-A and anti-B, in addition to potent anti-H. This rare phenotype of H-deficient RBCs is called the "Bombay phenotype" O h after the city in which it was first discovered. Individuals with the Bombay phenotype are healthy, but if they ever nys global thematic essay rubric a blood transfusion, the antibodies in their serum would place them at a high risk of having an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction.

This can be avoided by using only blood products from a donor who also has the Bombay phenotype usually a relative. The Se locus is located on chromosome 19 at 19q It contains essays on forgiveness and forget exons that span about 25 kb of genomic DNA. The Se locus encodes a specific fucosyltransferase that is expressed in the epithelia of secretory tissues, such as salivary glands, the gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory tract. The enzyme it encodes catalyzes the production of H antigen in ABO Blood Group System secretions. They are unable to produce a soluble form of H antigen and hence do not produce A and B antigens. Turn recording back on. Help Accessibility Careers. Show details Dean L.

Search term. Chapter 5 The ABO blood ABO Blood Group System. Antigen-carrying molecules Glycoproteins and glycolipids of unknown function The ABO blood group antigens are attached to oligosaccharide chains that project above the RBC surface. These chains are attached to proteins and lipids pre production definition lie in the RBC membrane. The A and B alleles each encode a glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the A and B antigen, respectively. The O allele encodes an inactive glycosyltransferase that leaves the ABO antigen thesis defense presentation preparation the H antigen unmodified.

Anti-A is found in the serum of people with blood groups O and B. Anti-B is found in the serum of people with blood groups O and A. Antibody reactivity Capable of hemolysis Anti-A and anti-B bind to RBCs and activate the complement cascade, which lyses the RBCs while they are still in the circulation intravascular hemolysis. Transfusion reaction Yes — typically causes an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction Most deaths caused by blood transfusion are the result of transfusing ABO-incompatible blood.