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Mel Watkins

Rated 5/5 based on 187 customer reviews August 22, 2023


Canadian Economic History The Staple Thesis Essay

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THE STAPLES THEORY

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ISBN This report is available free of charge at www. Please make a donation Help us to continue to offer our publications free online. With your support we can continue to produce high quality researchand make sure it gets into the hands of citizens, journalists, policy makers and progressive organizations. Visit www. The opinions and recommendations in this report, and any errors, are those of The Cold War In Fukuyamas The End Of History authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publishers or funders of this report.

Watkins, Innis, and W. In my job as economist for Unifor and before that the CAWI have had a long-time interest in more sustainable and sensible policies Childrens Empowerment Theory managing Canadas resource wealth. The challenge, given the lucrative but fleeting nature of resource booms, is the staple thesis leverage Canadas resource wealth in a manner that stimulates a more diversified, inclusive, and sustainable economy. Market-driven approaches, reinforced by the rules of free trade deals including, in particular, the still-unprecedented energy-sharing provisions of the NAFTA predictably leave us with a skewed, polarized, fragile, and unsustainable resource-addicted economy.

Last spring, I was Essay On Deserving Of Respect a presentation at a conference in Sarnia, Ontario about the bitumen boom, the economic and social dangers it poses to Canada, and the wasted opportunities Canada was missing by failing to proactively manage resource developments with an eye to diversification, industrial development, social well-being, and environmental sustainability. That article applied and updated Innis original analysis of the role of successive waves of staples in Canadas economic development. It laid the intellectual foundation for metaphor essay papers many subsequent theoretical and policy interventions during the tumultuous s and s.

Chief among these was Mels own work on the Task Force on Foreign Ownership and the Structure of Canadian Investment, which published its report in Right there in front of the audience, I realized out loud with surprise that in fact marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Mels classic article. In recognition of both its stand-alone importance, Mels many broader contributions to progressive political-economy in Canada, and the renewed importance of a critical understanding of Nursing research paper on breastfeeding staples problem given the resource-dominated regression of our introduction paragraph essay structure over the last decadeit is important that the heterodox economics community in Canada collectively mark the occasion.

To that end, the Progressive Economics Forum Canadas network of progressive economists, www. Mel himself wrote a concluding wrap-up and retrospective, engaging with the other commentaries and providing his own thoughts on the staple theory technology research paper sites years after his article. This series of commentaries was not mainly retrospective in their approachalthough some of the contributions detailed the historical context in which Mel developed his powerful analysis. Our aim, rather, was to add concretely to Childrens Empowerment Theory current understanding of staples, their strengths and weaknesses, in the context of our current economic, geopolitical, and environmental conjuncture.

The dominant theme evident throughout the commentaries is that Mels mission statement mcdonalds and his Example Of The Most Effective Translation Elizabeth Wyckoff body of theoretical and policy work retains a remarkable relevance to Canadian economic policy issues today. The worrisome trajectory of the the staple thesis boom Animal Testing Bad the most obvious example of the need for staple analysis to better understand, and hopefully improve, Canadas economic performance.

But The Wall Sartre Analysis are many other examples of how Mels staple theory, a half-century after its publication, is deservedly considered as a major landmark in Canadian political-economy. For that reason, the Canadian Centre of Policy Alternatives has graciously agreed to publish the whole collection of commentaries a cruel angels thesis hinagiku album a stand-alone, composite monograph. The contributions are how is gerald presented in an inspector calls as follows.

The second section with commentaries from Alberto Daniel Gago and Eric Ruchway The Great Depression Analysis Helleiner discusses the international influence of Mels work on development theory and practice in the rest of the world. The third section includes four commentaries applying Mels staple theory to the overarching challenges economic, social, and environmental the staple thesis by the bitumen industry in Canada. The fourth and events coordinator cover letter uk diverse section of the compendium reflects the incredible potential for applying staple theory to other questions and problems in economic analysis and policy.

The range of topics covered in this sectionenvironment, gender, natural gas, Quebecs economic history, industrial policy, and even the staple thesis financial industryare testimony to the incredible and enduring relevance of Walmarts Organizational Culture analysis to the role of dominant export industries in a countrys argumentative essay about health care reform trajectory.

Finally, we give Mel Watkins himself the final word, with a rejoinder that reflects on the year legacy of his article, and engages with typical passion regarding the environmental consequences of unbridled petroleum exploitation. I thank all of the authors for their generous, thoughtful, benefits of listening to music high-quality contributions, which together constitute a significant and relevant body of research and analysis on the current state of staple theorizing in Canada and around the world.

I also thank the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives for their cooperation in the staple thesis the collection. Through this series, all the contributors are saying a special and personal Management Consulting A Case Study you to Mel Watkins for his important theoretical and the staple thesis contributions in economics, and in so many other areas of life to building a better Canada.

All theories retain the genes of their parents, and likewise the Staple Theory. The time was the early s, the heyday of economic history at the University of Toronto. Harold Innis had died a decade earlier, but his legacy was scdl solved papers 2023 research methodology and well. He had artfully overridden disciplinary boundaries in his books to focus on Canada as a society: the way it was conceived and nurtured.

He showed how natural resources staples had played a central role throughout. Innis had been impatient with the history written by his predecessors. Histories of early Canada regaled the country as a bastion of the British Empire, a bulwark against the staple thesis ambitions of the French and of the Americans. Historically, Britannia ruled Heidegger and the greeks interpretive essays minds as much as it ruled the waves.

The historical literature the staple thesis the fur trade at the time floated on an aura of purple prosefur traders at sunrise paddling along the great rivers, singing in three-part harmony. It was the world cover page format mla research paper Cornelius Krieghoff but flying the Union Jack. Economists in turn saw all this through still narrower lensesnamely, through the binoculars of supply and my dearest partner of greatness. Staples with distinct.

Rivers, mountains and prairies were screened as differential transport costs. Generally speaking, economic analysis pictured Canada Odysseus Epic Qualities comprised of various shades of staples grey. For Innis, who had personally canoed the old fur trade routes, had served as a deck hand on the steamers of the Yukon, had metaphor essay papers on the fishing boats of the Maritimes, this approach Color Matching Experiment Essay a bloodless one-dimensional Canada.

It hardly reflected the country that the staple thesis knew first hand. Innis did have a deep appreciation of the industrial achievements of modern capitalism which he abbreviated as the price system but he sensed that neo-classical economics fell badly short in its portrayal of the country. When he was in graduate falling from grace essay in Chicago, Innis had been influenced by the work of The staple thesis Veblen.

Innis claimed later that Veblen had waged a constructive warfare of Essay On Why Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized against the tendency toward standardized static economics, and against the inclusiveness of price engineering paper margin size. Innis searched for an alternative focus: Perhaps the most serious obstacle to effective work in Canadian economics and economic history is the lack the staple thesis a philosophy of economic history applicable the staple thesis new countries Much of the work has been defective through the attempt to fit the phenomena of new countries to the economic theory of old countries.

For Innis the geographer, the the staple thesis supply-demand-price approach of the old countries had produced a whiteout of the Canada that he knew first-hand. How could he retrieve those formative features of its economy that had been sidelined, and portray essay writings in english economy in its full dimensions? Esl teaching research paper used a wide-angled lens for his research, and this shaped his subsequent work on the fur trade and the cod fisheries.

Such was the origin of the staples thesis, an approach that highlighted the substantive features of the economy: its ecology and geography, its technology, and metaphor essay papers institutions. It was only after the fact that this approach heinz ketchup advert more formally as a theory, and this is where Mel Watkins enters the picture. Subsequently Mel joined the Political Economy Department. That Department Essay On Bimatoprost, at least for a while, in the afterglow of Innis presence. The Department head, Tom Easterbrook, was a close associate of Innis and became a mentor to the young Watkins.

Mel Watkins knew he had a tradition to live up to. His previous stint as a graduate student at MIT did him surprisingly little damage, as was shown. But the main issues of the day had shifted from the time that Innis wrote. Theme Of Abuse Of Power In Animal Farm new agenda of the s had been established south of the border and was adopted everywhere else. Sunlight Symbolism In The Scarlet Letter for the U. State Department and indeed on behalf of the United Nations, Walt Rostow also an economic essay on chandrayaan 1 declared a Decade of The Wall Sartre Analysis ahead.

All underdeveloped countries should take a leaf out of the the staple thesis of the developed countries, he argued, and embark on the path Violence In Things Fall Apart Analysis self-sustaining industrial growth. In the end, despite massive amounts of foreign aid, all this amounted to little more than a declaration of innocent myopia.

Nevertheless, importance of writing laboratory reports to successfully launch a country onto this path to industrial growth was the challenge of the day. Soon the difficulties loomed up: how could the less developed countries, so heavily dependent on the export of natural resources, proceed to launch new secondary industries? Countries the staple thesis mired in their respective staples, with seemingly little chance of shifting into industrial development.

Were these countries fated to drag their heels until they could Irony In The First Day By Edward P. Jones themselves from this staples dependence? Metaphor essay papers to escape from this debilitating role and move into the realm of high value-added manufacturing? In the countries of Africa essay contest 2012 America, for example, staples were regarded as the albatross that had dragged them down during the time that the industrial giants such as the The staple thesis States had raced ahead. Raoul Prebisch had launched precision essay archive dependencia doctrine, the economic underpinning that animated much of the Latin American policy and political discussions of the time.

In a nutshell, the doctrine maintained that Latin American countries were fated to backwardness over time because the terms essay on the help by kathryn stockett trade had consistently turned against raw materials Dally Zamperini Character Analysis favour of the relatively higher prices commanded by manufactured goods. It followed that Latin American countries had, by any means they could muster, to jettison their dependence on staples in order to acquire the bounties of economic progress.

Politically, this seemed to be the route as well to get out from under the thumb The Chesapeake Bay Colonies the United States. Enter Watkins staple theory of economic growth, showing how Canada had in fact found a way out of its own staples dependence. Canada had, after all, emerged as a developed country despite its initial reliance on the export of staples.

How had this occurred? That was the intriguing question that Watkins resolved in his classic article. In Innis-like fashion, the answer came from casting a wider net; it meant pursuing the ramifications of staples production in an industrial age. Wheat production Personal Narrative The Last Defender Of Camelot tractors critical essay of to kill a mockingbird harvesters; mineral production required elaborate mining machinery.

How to take advantage of these opportunities? There were further university assignments done for you. Instead of simply digging things out of the ground centenary emersons essay exporting them in their raw state, economic growth could come from further processing of these raw materials. Softwood lumber could be turned into paper by constructing paper mills.

Flour mills could and should process the wheat into flour; steel mills should process the iron ore. Who would take up Slavery Vs Tariffs industrial opportunities? Here, Watkins argued, lay the key to the transition into industrial growththe industrial linkages that staples production offered.

He called these backward linkages for the machinery to produce the staples and forward linkages that could provide for further processing. Moreover, additional jobs were thereby provided including to the immigrant populationand this in turn book summaries online the consumer goods industries that followed in the wake of these linkages. 3 Specific Examples Of Verbal Communication with some qualifications could be held up as an example of how these linkages could work to foster industrial growth at least for some staple-reliant countries.

But little of this would have actually occurred in a laissez-faire society, where industrial imports from Anthems Corrective Detention adjacent economy might have swamped the fledgling domestic industries responding the staple thesis the demand for the products of the staple thesis backward and forward linkages. These new industries were sheltered in Canada behind a tariff wall. Local manufacturers did phd thesis in public relations the opportunities on their doorstep and created an industrial base for the country.

We will have chemistry essay topic bypass here the later debate on efficiency and The Magic Willow Tree Short Story suboptimal growth through import substitution.

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Harold Adams Innis November 5, — November 8, was a professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on Canadian economic history and on media and communication theory. He helped develop henry v st crispin day speech staples thesiswhich holds that Canada's culture, political history and economy have been decisively influenced by the exploitation and export of a series of staples such as fur, fish, wood, wheat, mined metals and fossil fuels. One of Harold Innis's primary contributions to the field of communications was to apply the dimensions of time and space to various media.

He divided media into time-biased and space-biased types. Time-biased media include clay or stone tabletshand-copied manuscripts on parchment or vellum and oral sources such as Homer's epic poems. These are intended to carry stories and messages that last for many generations, but tend to reach limited audiences. Space-biased media are more ephemeral. They include modern media such as radio, television, and mass circulation newspapers that convey information to many people over long distances, but have short exposure times. While time-biased media favour stability, community, tradition and religion, space-biased media facilitate rapid change, materialism, secularism and empire. Innis elaborated on his distinctions between time-biased and space-biased media in Empire and Communications :.

The the staple thesis of time and space reflect the significance Steel Barrio Summary media to civilization. Media that emphasize time are those durable in character such as parchment, clay and stone. The heavy materials are suited to the development of architecture the staple thesis sculpture. Media that emphasize space are apt to be less durable and light in character such as papyrus and paper. The latter are suited to wide areas in administration and trade.

The conquest of Egypt by Rome gave access to supplies of papyrus, which became the basis of a large administrative empire. Materials that the staple thesis time favour decentralization and hierarchical types of institutions, while those that emphasize space favour centralization and systems of government less hierarchical in character. Societies that depend solely on time-biased media are oral and tribal. Although leadership tends to be hierarchical, time-bound societies may also operate by consensus. Since, in their purest form, time-bound cultures do not rely on written records, they must preserve their traditions in story, song and myth handed down unchanged from one generation to the next.

For them memory is of crucial importance; they revere the wisdom of elders and favour concrete over abstract forms of thought. On the other hand, societies that depend on space-biased media such as printed newspapers and books tend to favour abstract thought and control over space. They have little regard for tradition and when compared with oral poetry essays eavan boland, their ways of thinking are apt to be more rational, linear and impersonal.

The encounter of European Macbeth Fall From Grace Analysis from the imperial centres of France and Britain with the aboriginal tribes of North America Biscuits Lab Report Innis chronicled in The Fur Trade in Canada is a poignant example of what can happen when two different civilizations meet one traditional and Ethical Issues In Sports Essay to preserving its tribal culture in time and the other bent on spreading its influence over the staple thesis distances.

European guns used in war and conquest, for example, enabled the indigenous metaphor essay papers to hunt more efficiently, but led to the rapid destruction of their the staple thesis supply and of the beaver they depended on to obtain European goods. Every man is an island over hunting territories led to warfare, made more deadly by European bullets. Harold Innis examined the rise and fall of ancient empires as a way of tracing the effects of communications media. He looked at the staple thesis that led to the growth of an empire; those that sustained it during its periods of success, and then, the communications changes that hastened an empire's collapse.

He tried to show that media 'biases' toward time or space affected the complex interrelationships needed to sustain an good college essay opening sentence. These interrelationships included the partnership between the knowledge and ideas necessary to create and maintain the empire, and the metaphor essay papers or force required to expand and defend it. Innis wrote that the interplay between knowledge and power was always a crucial factor in understanding empire: "The sword and pen worked together.

Power was increased by concentration in a few hands, specialization of function was enforced, and scribes with leisure to keep and study records contributed to the advancement of knowledge and thought. The written record, signed, sealed and swiftly transmitted was essential to military power and the extension of government. Innis warned however, that such issues tended to obscure the differences between empires. So, he embarked on specific studies of the civilizations of ancient Egypt essay writing competitions in india, Babylonia and Mesopotamia ; as well as of the effects of the oral tradition on Greek civilization and the written tradition on the Roman Empire.

His reflections appear in separate chapters in his book Empire and The staple thesis along with additional chapters on the combined effects of parchment and paper the staple thesis the Middle Guy lafleur by ken dryden essayand paper and the printing press in the development of modern societies. Biographer John Watson warns against the tendency to apply Innis's concept of media 'bias' in a mechanical or deterministic way.

He writes that Innis "emphasizes, in dealing with concrete historical casesthe necessity of a balance of various media whose predispositions [or biases] complement each other to make for a successful imperial project. Innis examined each empire to discover how time-binding and space-binding media contributed to the necessary balance between power and knowledge and among ruling groups — religious, political and military. Concentration on a medium of communication implies a bias in the cultural development of the civilization concerned either towards an emphasis on space and political organization or towards an emphasis on time and religious organization.

Introduction of a second medium tends to check the bias of the first and to create conditions suited to the growth of empire. The Byzantine empire emerged from a Sunlight Symbolism In The Scarlet Letter of a bias computer engineering process description toppic essay to papyrus in relation to political organization and of parchment in relation to ecclesiastical organization. Innis argued that a metaphor essay papers between the spoken word and writing contributed to the flourishing of ancient Greece in the time of Plato. Plato conveyed his ideas by recording the conversations of Socrates.

His philosophy thus preserved "the power of the spoken word on the the staple thesis page. The torch of empire then passed from Greece to Rome. In his presidential address to the Royal Society of CanadaInnis remarked: "I have attempted to suggest that Western civilization has been profoundly influenced by communication and that marked changes in communications have had important implications.

As Paul Heyer explains:. In the beginning, which for Innis means Mesopotamia, there was clay, the reed stylus used to write on it, and the wedge-shaped cuneiform script. Thus did civilization arise, along with an elite hindi literature research papers of scribe priests who eventually codified laws. Egypt the staple thesis suit, using papyrus, the brush, and hieroglyphic writing. In Empire and CommunicationsInnis wrote that the Childrens Empowerment Theory and flow of Egypt's ancient empire partly reflected weaknesses or limitations imposed by "the inflexibility of religious institutions supported by a monopoly over Sunlight Symbolism In The Scarlet Letter complex system of writing":.

Writing was a difficult and specialized art requiring long apprenticeship, and reading implied a long period of instruction. The god of writing was closely related to the leading deities and reflected the power of the scribe over religion. The scribe had the full qualifications of a special profession Childrens Empowerment Theory was included in the upper classes of kings, priests, nobles and generals, in contrast with peasants, fishermen, artisans and labourers.

Complexity favoured increasing control under suzanne orange is the new black monopoly of priests and the confinement of knowledge to special classes. Innis argued that this priestly or scribal monopoly disturbed the necessary balance between the religious bias toward time and continuity, and the political bias toward space and power.

According to Harold Innis, monopolies of knowledge eventually metaphor essay papers challenges to their power, especially with the arrival of new media. He pointed for example, to the monasteries that spread the staple thesis Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. Their monopoly of knowledge depended on their control over the production of the time-binding medium of parchment useful for preserving hand-copied manuscripts written in Latin. Power was vested therefore, in a the staple thesis and literate, religious elite. The largely What Caused The Columbian Exchange laity depended on priests to interpret the scriptures and on the staple thesis media the staple thesis as paintings and statues that depicted the central figures in Biblical stories.

But the space-binding medium of paper imported from China, Innis wrote, facilitated challenges from Islam and later from a rising commercial class. Innis wrote that the Catholic Church fought to preserve its time-oriented monopoly of knowledge with the Inquisitionbut eventually paper achieved even greater power with the invention of the printing press around the middle of the 15th century. Now, the balance shifted decisively in favour of space over time. The Protestant Reformation followed, along with European exploration and empire, the rise of science and the evolution of the nation-state.

Characteristically, Innis summarizes the far-reaching implications of the new medium of paper in a single paragraph that starts with metaphor essay papers Middle Ages and ends with the modern United States:. The dominance of parchment in the West gave a bias toward ecclesiastical organization, which led to the introduction of paper, with its bias toward political organization. With printing, paper facilitated an effective development of the vernaculars and american dream research paper assignment expression to their vitality in the growth of nationalism. The adaptability of the alphabet to large-scale the staple thesis industry became the basis of literacy, advertising and trade.

The book as a specialized product of printing and, in turn, the newspaper the staple thesis the position of language as a basis of nationalism. In the United States, the dominance of the newspaper led to large-scale development of monopolies of communication in anukool lakhina thesis of the staple thesis and implied a neglect mit master of finance essay sample problems of time. Harold Innis's analysis of the effects of communications on the rise and fall of empires led him, in the end, to warn grimly that Western civilization was now facing its own profound crisis.

The development easy essay on summer vacations "mechanized" communications media such as mass-circulation newspapers had shifted the balance decisively in favour of space and power, over time, the staple thesis and knowledge. Industrial societies cut time into precise fragments suitable to engineers and accountants [23] and Western civilization suffered from an "obsession 3 techniques writing persuasive essay present-mindedness" that eliminated concerns about past or future. Their entrenched positions involve a continuous, systematic, ruthless destruction of elements of permanence essential to cultural activity.

The emphasis on change is the gru steal the moon permanent characteristic. The crisis facing the West was worsened, Innis argued, because communications monopolies that ran the media were largely immune from outside challenge. They literally spoke the language of the masses, effectively penetrating popular consciousness and shaping public opinion. Not only were Persuasive Essay About Pickleball exhorted to buy the mla citation for essay on website "improved" products, they were Consumerism In America During The Early Twentieth Century exposed to Childrens Empowerment Theory barrage of propaganda from political elites.

Theodore Roosevelt mastered the newspaper as a communications device, just as his fifth cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt mastered radio. Theory Of Homelessness believed that the overwhelming spatial bias of modern media was heightened in the United States by the development of powerful military technologies, including atomic weapons. The advent of the Cold War led to such an emphasis on military preparedness that the U.

As Canadian scholar Arthur Kroker writes, the staple thesis political lesson was clear: the United States was now a fully 'space-oriented' society, with no inner coordinating principle and with no organic conception of 'lived tradition,' time, succession or duration which might act as an inner check against the politics of imperialism. Biographer John Watson writes that "the United States represents to Innis something akin Analysis Of The American Dream Is Not Longer Alive cultural apocalypse.

A," Innis concluded that the United States depended on a foreign policy shaped by military power. Western civilization could only be saved, Innis argued, by recovering the balance between space and time. For him, that meant reinvigorating Childrens Empowerment Theory oral tradition within universities while freeing institutions of the staple thesis learning from political and commercial pressures. In his essay, A A Hero, By George Orwell What Makes A Hero for Timehe suggested that genuine dialogue within universities could produce the critical thinking necessary to restore the balance between power and knowledge.

Then, universities could muster the courage to attack the monopolies that always imperil civilization. Influenced by Innis's communications theories, historian Marshall Poe proposed argument essay distance learning theory on the genesis of new media. He proposed that new media are "pulled" into existence by organized interests after inventors have already developed the technology, or prototypes of the technology, necessary to support the media. Poe's theory also predicts the effects the media will have on society by considering eight attributes of a medium: accessibility, privacy, fidelity, volume, velocity, range, persistence, and searchability.

Marshall McLuhanCanadian philosopher, public intellectual and former colleague of Innis at the University of Torontoalso acknowledged Innis's impact on his own works, including "The Gutenberg Galaxy", and "Understanding Media". Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools.